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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090769

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and antifungal activities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resins after the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate salt (CDA). Methodology: First, acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with Vipi Cor® and DuraLay® resins with and without the incorporation of 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% CDA. The residual monomer and CDA release were measured at intervals ranging from 2 hours to 28 days using ultraviolet spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity against C. albicans was evaluated with the agar diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the degree of resin conversion. Finally, the water sorption values of the resins were also measured. Results: The incorporated CDA concentration significantly changed the rate of CDA release (p<0.0001); however, the brand of the material appeared to have no significant influence on drug release. Subsequently, the inhibition zones were compared between the tested groups and within the same brand, and only the comparisons between the CDA 2% and CDA 1% groups and between the CDA 1% and CDA 0.5% groups failed to yield significant differences. Regarding the degrees of conversion, the differences were not significant and were lower only in the CDA 2% groups. Water sorption was significantly increased at the 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations. Conclusions: We concluded that the incorporation of CDA into PMMA-based resins enabled the inhibition of C. albicans growth rate, did not alter the degrees of conversion of the tested resins and did not change the release of residual monomers.


Subject(s)
Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polymethyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132206

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Vernonia/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Artemia , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Linoleic Acid/pharmacology , beta Karyopherins/pharmacology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 414-421, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chitinases/pharmacology , Hordeum/enzymology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , Chitinases/chemistry , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Affinity , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Hordeum/genetics , Molecular Weight , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 140-146, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888840

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of chemical defensives to control fungal diseases has by consequence to impact negatively over the environment and human health, this way, the use of plant extracts with antifungal properties along with proper cultural management makes viable an alternative plant production control, specially for familiar and organic cultures. The objective of this study was to perform phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia (canjiqueira) barks and evaluate its antifungal potential over Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycelial growth. The ethanol extract from plants collected in Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil was submitted to phytochemical prospection, total phenol and flavonoids quantification and antioxidant activiy determination (DPPH). To evaluate antifungal activity concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 µg 100 mL-1 of ethanol extract were used. Which concentration was separately incorporated in agar (PDA) and shed in Petri dishes, followed by the fungi mycelial disc where the colonies diameter was measured daily. Negatives control with agar without extract and agar with an ethanol solution were used. The B. crassifolia ethanol extract presented inhibitory activity over the fungi studied where concentrations of 800 and 1600 µg 100 mL-1, inhibited 38% of the mycelial growth of F. solani; to S. sclerotiorum the best concentration was 2400 µg 100 mL1, reducing 37.5%. The antifungal bark extract potential of this specie is attributed to phenolic compounds and to triterpenes derivatives.


Resumo A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana, dessa forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se neste trabalho realizar a análise fitoquímica e antioxidante das cascas de Byrsonima crassifolia (canjiqueira) e avaliar seu potencial antifúngico sobre o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. O extrato etanólico das cascas da planta, coletadas no Pantanal do Rio Negro, em Mato Grosso do Sul, foi submetido à prospecção fitoquímica, quantificação de fenóis totais e flavonoides e determinação da atividade antioxidante (DPPH). Para a avaliação da atividade antifúngica foram utilizadas as concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1 do extrato etanólico. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, e vertida em placas de petri, seguido do disco de micélio do fungo, onde o diâmetro das colônias foi medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. O extrato etanólico de B. crassifolia apresentou atividade inibitória sobre os fungos estudados, onde as concentrações de 800 e 1600 µg 100 mL-1, inibiram 38% do crescimento micelial de F. solani; para S. sclerotiorum, a melhor concentração foi de 2400 µg 100 mL1, com 37,5% de redução de crescimento. Atribui-se o potencial antifúngico do extrato da casca da espécie aos compostos fenólicos e derivados de triterpenos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Malpighiaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Fungi/drug effects
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 30-35, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914997

ABSTRACT

Chemical characterization of the essential oils of two Lippia species by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy revealed that limonene (84.3%) and ß-caryophyllene (6.1%) were the most abundant components in Lippia turbinata while (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanone (99.1%) predominated in Lippia integrifolia. Antifungal activity of the essential oils was determined by headspace volatile exposure assay against the fungal phytopathogenic Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. The essential oil of L. turbinata showed potent antifungal activity against the panel of fungi tested while that the oil of L. integrifolia significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and R. solani.


La caracterización química de los aceites esenciales de dos especies de Lippia por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM) y espectroscopia de RMN reveló que limoneno (84,3%) y ß-cariofileno (6,1%) fueron los componentes más abundantes de Lippia turbinata mientras que (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanona (99,1%) predominó en Lippia integrifolia. La actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales se determinó por el ensayo de exposición a los vapores frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani. El aceite esencial de L. turbinata mostró una potente actividad antifúngica frente al panel de hongos ensayados, mientras que el aceite de L. integrifolia inhibió significativamente el crecimiento micelial de S. rolfsii y R. solani.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 410-418, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chaetoglobosin A is an antibacterial compound produced by Chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin A by C. globosum W7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. The output of chaetoglobosin A from the cornstalks was 0.34 mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. Purification conditions were optimized to increase the content of chaetoglobosin A in the crude extract, including the extract solvent, temperature, and pH value. The optimum process conditions were found to be acetone as the extractant, under room temperature, and at a pH value of 13. Under these conditions, a production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A was established, and the content reached 19.17%. Through further verification, cornstalks could replace crops for the production of chaetoglobosin A using this new production process. Moreover, the purified products showed great inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani, with chaetoglobosin A confirmed as the main effective constituent (IC50 = 3.88 µg/mL). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using cornstalks to synthesize chaetoglobosin A and that the production process established in this study was effective.


Subject(s)
Industrial Microbiology/methods , Callosities/microbiology , Chaetomium/metabolism , Indole Alkaloids/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Industrial Microbiology/instrumentation , Callosities/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1020-1029, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Ascomycota , Capsicum/microbiology , Ascomycota/drug effects , Capsicum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Seedlings/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 896-901, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828210

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 µg/mL and >16 µg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 µg/mL and MFC of 8 µg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sporothrix/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zoonoses/microbiology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1014-1019, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828192

ABSTRACT

Abstract Apple is one of the most important temperate fruit to Brazil economy, and the use of synthetic chemicals has been the main method for reducing postharvest diseases, such as the blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum. This work intends to evaluate the practical utilization of chitosan for blue mold control. For this purpose, fruits were treated in a preventive and curative way, immersing the fruits in chitosan solution (5 or 10 mg mL-1), or adding a single drop of this solution (10 mg mL-1) directly into the injuries. The eradicative effect of the polysaccharide was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan did not show a curative effect against the blue mold, and its eradicative effect was only evidenced on the higher concentration (10 mg mL-1). On the other hand, preventively, without the addition of adjuvants, chitosan reduced blue mold incidence in fruits by 24% and 93%, through the immersion or the single drop methods, respectively. Thus, it was found that, for long scale utilization, some improvements in the physico-chemical properties of the chitosan are needed, since it was only capable to prevent the infection by P. expansum when directly added on the fruit injury.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/drug effects , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/therapy , Malus/microbiology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Time Factors , Chitosan/chemistry , Fruit/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(5): 453-461, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797976

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Incorporation of antifungals in temporary denture soft liners has been recommended for denture stomatitis treatment; however, it may affect their properties. Objective: To evaluate the porosity of a tissue conditioner (Softone) and a temporary resilient liner (Trusoft) modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm. Material and Methods: The porosity was measured by water absorption, based on exclusion of the plasticizer effect. Initially, it was determined by sorption isotherms that the adequate storage solution for specimens (65×10×3.3 mm) of both materials was 50% anhydrous calcium chloride (S50). Then, the porosity factor (PF) was calculated for the study groups (n=10) formed by specimens without (control) or with drug incorporation at MICs (nystatin: Ny-0.032 g, chlorhexidine diacetate: Chx-0.064 g, or ketoconazole: Ke-0.128 g each per gram of soft liner powder) after storage in distilled water or S50 for 24 h, seven and 14 d. Data were statistically analyzed by 4-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=.05). Results: Ke resulted in no significant changes in PF for both liners in water over 14 days (p>0.05). Compared with the controls, Softone and Trusoft PFs were increased at 14-day water immersion only after addition of Ny and Chx, and Chx, respectively (p<0.05). Both materials showed no significant changes in PF in up to 14 days of S50 immersion, compared with the controls (p>0.05). In all experimental conditions, Softone and Trusoft PFs were significantly lower when immersed in S50 compared with distilled water (p<0.05). Conclusions: The addition of antifungals at MICs resulted in no harmful effects for the porosity of both temporary soft liners in different periods of water immersion, except for Chx and Ny in Softone and Chx in Trusoft at 14 days. No deleterious effect was observed for the porosity of both soft liners modified by the drugs at MICs over 14 days of S50 immersion.


Subject(s)
Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Denture Liners , Denture, Partial, Temporary , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Nystatin/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Porosity , Biofilms/drug effects , Immersion , Ketoconazole/chemistry
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 523-527, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788997

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adamantane/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Sporothrix/drug effects , Adamantane/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Drug Substitution , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phosphorylcholine/chemistry , Phosphorylcholine/pharmacology , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/ultrastructure
12.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 157 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-880939

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investigou a resistência à tração (ou limite de resistência à tração- LRT) e a porosidade de reembasadores resilientes temporários modificados por concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs) de agentes antifúngicos para o biofilme Candida albicans (SC5314). Para os testes de LRT, corpos de prova em forma de halteres (n=7) com uma área transversal de 33 mm x 6 mm x 3 mm foram produzidos para os materiais resilientes (Trusoft e Softone) sem (controle) ou com incorporação de cinco fármacos em suas CIMs: nistatina- 0,032 g; diacetato de clorexidina- 0,064; cetoconazol- 0,128 g; miconazol- 0,256 g; itraconazol-0,256 g (grama de fármaco por grama de pó de material resiliente). Após a plastificação, as amostras foram imersas em água destilada a 37°C durante 24 h, 7 e 14 dias e, então, testadas em tensão em uma máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC DL-500 MF) a 40 mm/min. A porosidade foi mensurada por absorção de água, com base na exclusão do efeito plastificante. Inicialmente, determinou-se por isotermas de sorção, que a solução de armazenagem adequada para os corpos de prova (65 mm x 10 mm x 3,3 mm) de ambos os materiais foi o cloreto de cálcio anidro a 50% (S50). Assim, o fator de porosidade (FP) foi calculado para os grupos de estudo (n=10) formados por espécimes sem (controle) ou com incorporação de fármaco em suas CIMs (nistatina, clorexidina ou cetoconazol) após a armazenagem em água destilada ou S50 por 24 h, 7 e 14 dias. Os dados de resistência à tração (MPa) e percentagem de alongamento (%) foram submetidos à ANOVA de 3 fatores seguida pelo teste de Tukey (=0,05). Os dados de porosidade foram analisados estatisticamente por ANOVA de medidas repetidas para 4 fatores e teste de Tukey (=0,05). Ao final de 14 dias, a resistência à tração para ambos os materiais foi significativamente menor nos grupos modificados pelo miconazol e itraconazol em relação aos outros grupos (P<0,0001), que não mostraram diferenças significativas entre si (P>0,05). Após 7 e 14 dias em água, o miconazol e itraconazol adicionados a ambos os materiais resultaram em percentagens significativamente menores de alongamento em comparação com os outros fármacos e ao controle (P<0,0001), que foram semelhantes entre si (P>0,05). O cetoconazol não resultou em alterações significativas no FP para ambos os materiais resilientes em água ao longo de 14 dias (P>0,05). Em comparação aos controles, houve aumento dos FPs do Softone e Trusoft aos 14 dias de imersão em água somente após a adição de nistatina e clorexidina e de clorexidina, respectivamente (P<0,05). Ambos os materiais não apresentaram alterações significativas no FP em até 14 dias de imersão na S50, em comparação aos controles (P>0,05). Em todas as condições experimentais, os FPs do Softone e Trusoft foram significativamente menores quando imersos em S50 em comparação com a água destilada (P<0,05). Concluiu-se que a adição de nistatina, clorexidina e cetoconazol nas CIMs para o biofilme de C. albicans não resultou em efeitos deletérios na resistência à tração e na percentagem de alongamento dos materiais resilientes temporários para base de prótese até o período de 14 dias. A adição de antifúngicos nas CIMs não resultou em efeitos adversos à porosidade de ambos os materiais resilientes temporários em diferentes períodos de imersão em água, com exceção da clorexidina e nistatina no Softone e clorexidina no Trusoft aos 14 dias. Não foram observados efeitos deletérios para a porosidade de ambos os materiais resilientes modificados com as CIMs dos fármacos durante os 14 dias de imersão na S50.(AU)


This study investigated the tensile strength (ultimate tensile strength- UTS) and porosity of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314). For UTS tests, dumbbell-shaped specimens (n=7) with a central cross-sectional area of 33 mm x 6 mm x 3 mm were produced by resilient materials (Trusoft and Softone) without (control) or with incorporation of five drugs at MICs: nystatin- 0.032 g; chlorhexidine diacetate-0.064 g; ketoconazole- 0.128 g; miconazole- 0.256 g; itraconazole- 0.256 g (each per gram of soft liner powder). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, 7 and 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL-500 MF) at 40 mm/min. The porosity was measured by water absorption, based on exclusion of the plasticizer effect. Initially, it was determined by sorption isotherms that the adequate storage solution for specimens (65 mm x 10 mm x 3.3 mm) of both materials was 50% anhydrous calcium chloride (S50). Then, the porosity factor (PF) was calculated for the study groups (n=10) formed by specimens without (control) or with drug incorporation at MICs (nystatin, chlorhexidine or ketoconazole) after storage in distilled water or S50 for 24 h, 7 and 14 days. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (=0.05). Data of porosity were statistically analyzed by 4-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukeys test (=0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (P<0.0001), which showed no significant difference between them (P>0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials result in significant lower elongation percentages compared to the other drugs and control (P<.0001), which were similar to each other (P>0.05). Ketoconazole resulted in no significant changes in PF for both liners in water over 14 days (P>0.05). Compared to the controls, Softone and Trusoft PFs were increased at 14-day water immersion only after addition of nystatin and chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine, respectively (P<0.05). Both materials showed no significant changes in PF in up to 14 days of S50 immersion, compared to the controls (P>0.05). In all experimental conditions, Softone and Trusoft PFs were significantly lower when immersed in S50 compared to distilled water (P<0.05). It was concluded that the addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the ultimate tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liners up to 14-day period. The addition of antifungals at MICs resulted in no detrimental effects for the porosity of both temporary soft liners in different periods of water immersion, except for chlorhexidine and nystatin in Softone and chlorhexidine in Trusoft at 14 days. No deleterious effect was observed for the porosity of both soft liners modified by the drugs at MICs over 14 days of S50 immersion.(AU)


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Denture Liners , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Itraconazole/chemistry , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Miconazole/chemistry , Miconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nystatin/chemistry , Nystatin/pharmacology , Porosity , Reproducibility of Results , Tensile Strength
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 746-752, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2%) of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Microsporum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microsporum/classification , Microsporum/ultrastructure , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Trichophyton/classification , Trichophyton/ultrastructure
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1103-1110, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769653

ABSTRACT

Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 500 μg/mL. This fraction was submitted to bioautographic assays to characterize the activity of the compounds. Two bands from the leaves (L-A and L-B) and three bands from the roots (R-C, R-D and R-E) were bioactive. Within the root-derived bands, the terpene derivatives stigmasterol, kaurenoic acid and kaura-9(11), 16-dien-18-oic acid were identified. Antibiotic activity of A. latissima is reported for the first time.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Asteraceae/drug effects , Asteraceae/pharmacology , Bacteria/chemistry , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/pharmacology , Brazil/chemistry , Brazil/drug effects , Brazil/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/pharmacology
15.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 3-11, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar por meio de parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais como a fibrose cística (FC) afeta o crescimento e estado nutricional de crianças submetidas ao tratamento de FC que não foram submetidas à triagem neonatal. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte histórica com 52 pacientes com FC menores de 10 anos foi acompanhada em um centro de referência em Campinas, Sudeste do Brasil. Peso e altura foram coletados de prontuários médicos até março de 2010, quando a triagem neonatal foi implementada. Entre setembro de 2009 a março de 2010 a altura dos pais foi medida. RESULTADOS: Quatro pacientes tiveram escores Z ≤ -2 para altura/idade (A/I) e índice de massa corporal/idade (IMC/A). As seguintes variáveis foram associadas com melhor razão A/I: menor número de hospitalizações, maior tempo entre a primeira consulta e o diagnóstico, maior tempo entre o nascimento e o diagnóstico e início tardio da doença respiratória. Capacidade vital forçada [CVF(%)], fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25-75% da CVF [FEF25-75(%)], volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo [VEF1(%)], idade gestacional, peso ao nascer e início dos sintomas respiratórios foram associados com melhor IMC/I. CONCLUSÕES: Maior número de hospitalizações, retardo no diagnóstico e início precoce da doença respiratória tiveram impacto negativo no crescimento. Menores valores espirométricos, menor idade gestacional, menor peso ao nascer e o início precoce dos sintomas respiratórios tiveram impacto negativo no estado nutricional. A desnutrição foi observada em 7,7% dos casos, mas 23% das crianças apresentaram risco nutricional. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Bacteria/growth & development , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Fungi/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Peptides/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Structure-Activity Relationship , Selenium/chemistry , Sulfur/chemistry , Tellurium/chemistry
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777211

ABSTRACT

This in vitro study aimed to determine the susceptibility of oral specimens and ATCC lineages of Candida albicans for five endodontic sealers, which were pure and associated with two antifungal drugs, and to analyze their effect on the physical properties. For this purpose, 30 lineages of C. albicans, collected from the oral cavity of patients assisted at the endodontics clinic of the Universidade Sagrado Coração, were analyzed. Yeasts susceptibility to the sealers was tested by diffusion on agar plates. Physical properties were evaluated according to the ADA specification no. 57. The pure versions of the Sealer 26, AH Plus, Endofill, Fillapex, and Sealapex demonstrated antifungal activity, with Endofill presenting the greatest inhibition zones. All cements, except for Endofill, had their antifungal actions enhanced by addition of ketoconazole and fluconazole (p < 0.05), and the AH Plus presented the best antifungal activity. The addition of antifungal drugs did not interfere with the setting time and flowability of the sealers. It was concluded that the addition of antifungals to endodontic sealers enhanced the antimicrobial action of most cements tested without altering their physical properties.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Bismuth/chemistry , Bismuth/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/pharmacology , Fluconazole/chemistry , Ketoconazole/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Salicylates/chemistry , Salicylates/pharmacology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1062-1070
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153788

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial screening of several novel 4-thiazolidinones with benzothiazole moiety has been performed. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacterial and fungal strains. The strains were treated with these benzothiazole derivatives at varying concentrations, and MIC’s were calculated. Structures of these compounds have been determined by spectroscopic studies viz., FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed for some members of the series, and compounds viz. 3-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) phenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidin-4-one and 3-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy phenyl)thiazolidin-4-one were found to be the most active against E.coli and C.albicans with MIC values in the range of 15.6–125 μg/ml. Preliminary study of the structure–activity relationship revealed that electron donating groups associated with thiazolidine bearing benzothiazole rings had a great effect on the antimicrobial activity of these compounds and contributes positively for the action. DNA cleavage experiments gave valuable hints with supporting evidence for describing the mechanism of action and hence showed a good correlation between their calculated MIC’s and its lethality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles/chemical synthesis , Benzothiazoles/chemistry , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , DNA, Bacterial/drug effects , DNA, Circular/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Thiazolidines/chemical synthesis , Thiazolidines/chemistry , Thiazolidines/pharmacology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Sept; 52(9): 917-920
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153777

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Crops, Agricultural , Fungi/drug effects , Hydrogen Cyanide , Musa , Pest Control, Biological , Pseudomonas/chemistry , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Rhizosphere , Siderophores , Soil Microbiology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163306

ABSTRACT

Aims: Study the release of fluconazole from different O/W creams and PEG ointments. Study Design: In this study, different formulations were prepared with changing one of the added excipients and study the effect of this change on the drug release and then the selected formulations were subjected to antifungal activity study. Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, between December 2011 and March 2012. Methodology: O/W creams were prepared with changing either fatty alcohol type or the concentration of the added emulsifying agent. Also, the PEG ointments were prepared with changing the type of the liquid PEG (low molecular weight). Then, the viscosity and the fluconazole release from the prepared formulations were studied. Results: Changing the fatty alcohol type from stearyl to cetostearyl and cetyl alcohol in the O/W creams caused an increase in the viscosity and a decrease in the drug release. Also, changing the liquid PEG from PEG 400 to PEG 600 resulted in an increase in the formulation viscosity and subsequent decrease in the drug release. Both F1 and F6 showed a good inhibition to the fungal growth against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophyte using cup plate method, also PEG base showed a slight fungal growth inhibition. Conclusion: Results obtained showed that the PEG ointment formulations exhibited higher fluconazole release after three hours over the O/W cream formulations. Also, the nature of the PEG base may be adjunctive to the efficacy of the antifungal agent.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Emulsions , Fatty Alcohols , Fluconazole/chemistry , Fluconazole/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Ointment Bases/analysis , Ointment Bases/chemistry , Ointments/analysis , Ointments/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/analysis , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Solubility
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(1): 18-23, ene. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722504

ABSTRACT

Compound, 10H-9-oxofuranoeremophilane was isolated from Senecio filaginoides var. filaginoides, and its structure established on the basis of spectral analysis and and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated against Candida spp but not against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomona aeruginosa). Besides, the compound showed antifungal activity and effect on mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. and comparison with literature data.


Un compuesto, 10H-9-oxofuranoeremofilano fue aislado de Senecio filaginoides var. filaginoides, esta estructura fue establecida sobre la base del análisis espectral y comparación con datos bibliográficos. La actividad antimicrobiana fue demostrada contra Candida spp pero no contra las bacterias (S.aureus, E.coli y P. aeruginosa). Además el compuesto mostró actividad antifúngica y efectos sobre el crecimiento micelial del hongo fitopatógeno Botrytis cinerea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Senecio/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Botrytis , Candida , Spectrum Analysis
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