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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200023, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135136

ABSTRACT

Endemic systemic mycoses remain a health challenge, since these opportunistic diseases are increasingly infecting immunosuppressed patients. The simultaneous use of antifungal compounds and other drugs to treat infectious or non-infectious diseases has led to several interactions and undesirable effects. Thus, new antifungal compounds should be investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of liriodenine extracted from Annona macroprophyllata on agents of systemic mycoses, with emphasis on the genus Paracoccidioides. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined by the microdilution method. The cellular alterations caused by liriodenine on a standard P. brasiliensis (Pb18) strain were evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Liriodenine was effective only in 3 of the 8 strains of the genus Paracoccidioides and in the Histoplasma capsulatum strain, in a very low concentration (MIC of 1.95 µg.mL-1); on yeasts of Candida spp. (MIC of 125 to 250 µg.mL-1), including C. krusei (250 µg.mL-1), which has intrinsic resistance to fluconazole; and in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii (MIC of 62.5 µg.mL-1). However, liriodenine was not effective against Aspergillus fumigatus at the studied concentrations. Liriodenine exhibited fungicidal activity against all standard strains and clinical isolates that showed to be susceptible by in vitro tests. Electron microscopy revealed cytoplasmic alterations and damage to the cell wall of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). Conclusion: Our results indicate that liriodenine is a promising fungicidal compound that should undergo further investigation with some chemical modifications.(AU)


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides , Microscopy, Electron , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus gattii , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 127-132, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983990

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A). The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B), which had an inhibitory effect (10.2%) at the end of testing.


Resumo A busca de produtos naturais com atividades antifúngica e antioxidante tem crescido nos últimos anos como alternativa mais sustentável para os produtos químicos atualmente usados para estas funções. O fungo fitopatogênico Alternaria alternata é agente causador de doenças nos citros, levando a grandes perdas econômicas. Substâncias antioxidantes são importantes tanto para a produção de medicamentos para diversas doenças que podem estar relacionadas à presença de radicais livres, como o câncer, bem como para a indústria cosmética, como agentes anti-envelhecimento e para a indústria alimentícia, como conservantes. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial antifúngico dos extratos de folhas maduras de Myrcia splendens , uma espécie arbórea que ocorre no cerrado brasileiro. O potencial antioxidante foi analisado por meio de ensaio da capacidade sequestrante do radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl e o antifúngico, por meio da avaliação do crescimento micelial. A maioria dos extratos apresentou atividade antioxidante muito forte, especialmente o extrato acetônico (4A). A atividade antioxidante pode ser relacionada a presença de compostos fenólicos. Por outro lado, os extratos não apresentaram atividade inibitória do crescimento micelial do fungo testado, com exceção do extrato diclorometânico (2B), que foi o único que teve efeito inibitório (10,2%) ao final do teste.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 414-421, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chitinases/pharmacology , Hordeum/enzymology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , Chitinases/chemistry , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Affinity , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Hordeum/genetics , Molecular Weight , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 407-413, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889247

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp. fungal conidia. We investigated its possible action on cell walls, on the cell membrane, and also the capacity of this coumarin derivative to enhance the activity of antifungal drugs. Our results suggest that Cou-UMB16 inhibits Aspergillus spp. virulence factors (mycelia growth and germination of conidia) and affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. When applying Cou-UMB16 in combination with azoles, both synergistic and additive effects were observed. This study concludes that Cou-UMB16 inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination, and that the activity is due to its action on the fungal cell wall, and that Cou-UMB16 could act as an antifungal modifier.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Coumarins/isolation & purification , Coumarins/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Azoles/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Wall/drug effects , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e41, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889473

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antifungal, antibiofilm and antiproliferative activities of the extract from the leaves of Guapira graciliflora Mart. The phytochemical characterization of the extract was performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the extract and its fractions was evaluated using the broth microdilution method against species of Candida. The inhibition of C. albicans biofilm was evaluated based on the number of colony-forming units (CFU) and metabolic activity (MTT). The antiproliferative activity of the extract and its fraction was evaluated in the presence of human tumor and non-tumor cells, and the cytotoxicity of the extract was determined on the RAW 264.7 macrophage line - both using the sulforhodamine B method. The phytochemical characterization indicated the presence of the flavonoids rutin and kaempferol. The extract and the methanol fraction exhibited moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata, and strong activity against C. dubliniensis. In the biofilms at 24 and 48 hours, the concentration of 12500 µg/mL of the extract was the most effective at reducing the number of CFU s/mL (44.4% and 42.9%, respectively) and the metabolic activity of C. albicans cells (34.6% and 52%, respectively). The extract and its fractions had no antiproliferative effect on the tumor lines tested, with mean activity (log GI50) equal to or greater than 1.71 µg/mL. Macrophage cell viability remained higher than 80% for concentrations of the extract of up to 62.5 µg/mL. G. graciliflora has flavonoids in its chemical composition and demonstrates potential antifungal and antibiofilm activity, with no evidence of a significant change in the viability of human tumor and non-tumor cell lines.


Subject(s)
Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Nyctaginaceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Survival/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Lethal Dose 50 , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 692-697, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. METHODS The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. FINDINGS Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. MAIN CONCLUSION Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Magnoliopsida/classification , Magnoliopsida/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Tropical Climate , Biological Assay , Candida/drug effects , Endophytes/chemistry
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1671-1681, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Picrates/pharmacology , Soybeans/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Zea mays/chemistry , Helianthus/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Picrates/isolation & purification , Biphenyl Compounds/isolation & purification , Plant Oils/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 410-418, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chaetoglobosin A is an antibacterial compound produced by Chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin A by C. globosum W7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. The output of chaetoglobosin A from the cornstalks was 0.34 mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. Purification conditions were optimized to increase the content of chaetoglobosin A in the crude extract, including the extract solvent, temperature, and pH value. The optimum process conditions were found to be acetone as the extractant, under room temperature, and at a pH value of 13. Under these conditions, a production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A was established, and the content reached 19.17%. Through further verification, cornstalks could replace crops for the production of chaetoglobosin A using this new production process. Moreover, the purified products showed great inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani, with chaetoglobosin A confirmed as the main effective constituent (IC50 = 3.88 µg/mL). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using cornstalks to synthesize chaetoglobosin A and that the production process established in this study was effective.


Subject(s)
Industrial Microbiology/methods , Callosities/microbiology , Chaetomium/metabolism , Indole Alkaloids/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Waste Products/analysis , Industrial Microbiology/instrumentation , Callosities/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2423-2432, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL). Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Bark/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 172-176, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782106

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether an herbal extract containing monoterpene exhibited activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical infection samples. METHODS: The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill (Apiaceae) fruit was extracted by hydrodistillation. Fruit residues were treated with hydrochloric acid and re-hydrodistilled to obtain volatile compounds. Compounds in the distilled oil were identified using gas-chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The antibiotic susceptibility of all bacterial isolates was analyzed using both the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant isolates to essential oil was also determined by using the disc diffusion method and MIC determination. RESULTS: Of 26 clinical isolates, 92% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Aromatic monoterpenes (thymol, paracymene, and gamma-terpinene) were the major (90%) components of the oil. Growth of S. aureus strains was successfully inhibited by the oil, with an inhibitory zone diameter (IZD) between 30-60mm and MIC <0.02μL/mL. The oil had no antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa; rather, it prevented pigment production in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi, which contains monoterpene, has good antibacterial potency. Monoterpenes could thus be incorporated into antimicrobial ointment formulas in order to treat highly drug-resistant S. aureus infections. Our findings also underscore the utility of research on natural products in order to combat bacterial multidrug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Apiaceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apiaceae/classification , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 746-752, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2%) of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Microsporum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microsporum/classification , Microsporum/ultrastructure , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Trichophyton/classification , Trichophyton/ultrastructure
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1349-1355, Oct.-Dec. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741286

ABSTRACT

In the last times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a plant known popularly as Aveloz, and originally used in Africa, has been drawing attention for its use in the United States and Latin America, both for use as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. E. tirucalli L. is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and contains many diterpenoids and triterpenoids, in particular phorbol esters, apparently the main constituent of this plant, which are assumed to be responsible for their activities in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro antifungal activities of Euphorbia tirucalli (L.) against opportunistic yeasts were studied using microbroth dilution assay. The results showed that aqueous extract and latex preparation were effective against ten clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Latex and extract MIC range of 3.2 - > 411 µg/mL). Aiming the safe use in humans, the genotoxic effects of E. tirucalli were evaluated in human leukocytes cells. Our data show that both aqueous extract and latex preparation have no genotoxic effect in human leukocytes cells in vitro. Although the results cannot be extrapolated by itself for use in vivo, they suggest a good perspective for a therapeutic application in future. In conclusion, our results show that the aqueous extract and latex preparation from E. tirucalli L. are antifungal agents effectives against several strains of C. neoformans and do not provoke DNA damage in human leukocyte cells, considering the concentrations tested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Leukocytes/drug effects , Mutagens/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutagens/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/toxicity
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1138-1146
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153804

ABSTRACT

Realization of hazardious effects of chemical fungicides has led to an interest in the usage of biocontrol agents. The present study, therefore, evaluates the biocontrol efficacy of Western Ghats (India) soil bacterial isolates. A potential strain NII 1006 was evaluated for its antagonistic property against a diverse range of moulds and yeasts. The strain was characterized morphologically, biochemically and molecularly, which revealed the isolate belonged to Streptomyces genus. Organic solvent extracts of NII 1006 culture filtrates inhibited the growth of the test pathogens indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular anti-fungal metabolites present in the culture filtrates. The strain produced extracellular chitinase enzyme in addition to some stable partially purified anti-fungal compounds. Morphological changes such as hyphae degradation into debris and abnormal shapes were observed in test fungi and yeast grown on potato dextrose broth that contained the NII 1006 culture filtrate. The cell free supernatant has a tolerance to wide range of pH, temperature and enzymes such as lipase and protease. The biocontrol potential of NII 1006 strain may be correlated significantly with their ability to produce antibiotics as well as extracellular hydrolytic enzymes particularly chitinolytic enzyme.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Carbon/metabolism , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Chitinases/pharmacology , Chloroform , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fungi/drug effects , Glucans/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/pharmacology , Hexanes , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyphae/drug effects , India , Nitrogen/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Soil Microbiology , Solvents , Streptomyces/chemistry , Streptomyces/enzymology , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Yeasts/drug effects
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 618-623, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728892

ABSTRACT

Introduction This is the first study to examine the in vitro susceptibility and the expression of virulence factors in Candida species in the presence of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian plant known as paucravo. Additionally, the mechanisms of action of the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of this plant were investigated. Methods The in vitro susceptibility of Candida was tested using the broth microdilution method, whereas an XTT reduction assay was used for biofilms. Adherence was determined by counting the number of yeast cells that adhered to 100 oral epithelial cells, and hyphal formation was verified in the hyphal induction medium M199. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide and FUN-1 was performed to assess the mechanism of action. Results The results revealed that the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of P. pseudocaryophyllus inhibited the growth of Candida isolates at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 64 to 256µg/mL, whereas the 50% sessile minimal inhibitory concentration (SMIC50) ranged from 512 to >1,024µg/mL. Adherence and hyphal formation were significantly reduced in the presence of the crude ethanol extract and both fractions. Although cell membrane injury was detected, the predominant mechanism of action appeared to be the alteration of yeast metabolism, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Conclusions Our results indicated that antifungal activity reduced the expression of virulence factors in yeast via the alteration of yeast metabolism, suggesting that the crude extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus and its fractions may contain novel antifungal agents. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Genus Pimenta/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Virulence Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Flow Cytometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Sept; 52(9): 917-920
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153777

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Crops, Agricultural , Fungi/drug effects , Hydrogen Cyanide , Musa , Pest Control, Biological , Pseudomonas/chemistry , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Rhizosphere , Siderophores , Soil Microbiology
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 523-531, Apr.-June 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723118

ABSTRACT

Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 µg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Carum/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Aspergillus fumigatus/growth & development , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , Drug Synergism , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pancreatic Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Plant Oils/toxicity , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development , Thymol/analysis , Trichophyton/physiology , Virulence/drug effects
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(1): 13-20, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702058

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.


Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroetanólicos de plantas sobre bactérias Gram positiva, Gram negativa, leveduras, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 e Mycobacterium bovis pela técnica de difusão em Agar e microdiluição em caldo. Dentre os extratos avaliados pelo método de difusão em Agar, o extrato da folha de Bidens pilosa apresentou a mais expressiva média de halos de inibição de crescimento frente aos microrganismos, seguido pelo extrato da flor de B. pilosa, da folha e semente de Eugenia pyriformis, da folha de Plinia cauliflora que apresentaram estatisticamente a mesma média de formação de halos inibitórios sobre bactérias Gram positivas, Gram negativas e leveduras. Os extratos de Heliconia rostrata não apresentaram atividade. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 e Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) mostraram-se resistentes a todos os extratos. O perfil de sensibilidade dos fungos Candida albicans e Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram comparáveis entre si e entre as bactérias Gram positivas Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis e Gram negativa Salmonella typhimurium (p > 0.05). A avaliação da citotoxicidade foi realizada sobre células C6-36 de larvas de mosquito Aedes albopictus. Os extratos de caule e flor de H. rostrata, folha e caule de P. cauliflora, semente de Anonna crassiflora e caule, flor e raiz de B. pilosa não apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações avaliadas. Os maiores índices de seletividade foram apresentados pelos extratos de caule de A. crassiflora e flor de B. pilosa para Staphylococcus aureus, apresentando potencial para estudos como futuros candidatos a fármacos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Mycobacterium/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/classification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 248-254, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709468

ABSTRACT

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Endophytes/chemistry , Garlic/microbiology , Trichoderma/chemistry , Trichodermin/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Botrytis/drug effects , Cluster Analysis , Colletotrichum/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , /genetics , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichodermin/isolation & purification
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1035-1041, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705291

ABSTRACT

Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Tinea/drug therapy , Tinea/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use
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