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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 277-283, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138494

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os níveis plasmáticos e o comportamento farmacocinético da micafungina em pacientes tratados com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea. Métodos: As amostras foram colhidas por meio de pontos de acesso antes e depois da membrana, em dois hospitais espanhóis de nível terciário. Os momentos para o cálculo das curvas farmacocinéticas foram antes da administração do fármaco, e 1, 3, 5, 8, 18 e 24 horas após o início da infusão nos dias 1 e 4 de tratamento. Calcularam-se a área sob a curva, a depuração do fármaco, o volume de distribuição e a meia-vida plasmática por meio de análise farmacocinética não compartimental. Resultados: Os valores farmacocinéticos analisados no primeiro e quarto dias de tratamento não mostram qualquer diferença de concentração entre amostras colhidas antes da membrana e após a membrana, e o comportamento farmacocinético foi similar na vigência de diferentes falências de órgãos. A área sob a curva antes da membrana no dia 1 foi de 62,1 (IC95% 52,8 - 73,4) e a área sob a curva após a membrana nesse mesmo dia foi de 63,4 (IC95% 52,4 - 76,7), com p = 0,625. A área sob a curva antes da membrana no dia 4 foi de 102,4 (IC95% 84,7 - 142,8), enquanto a área sob a curva após a membrana nesse mesmo dia foi de 100,9 (IC95% 78,2 - 138,8), com p = 0,843. Conclusão: Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos da micafungina não foram alterados significantemente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine micafungin plasma levels and pharmacokinetic behavior in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Methods: The samples were taken through an access point before and after the membrane in two tertiary hospitals in Spain. The times for the calculation of pharmacokinetic curves were before the administration of the drug and 1, 3, 5, 8, 18 and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion on days one and four. The area under the curve, drug clearance, volume of distribution and plasma half-life time with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic data analysis were calculated. Results: The pharmacokinetics of the values analyzed on the first and fourth day of treatment did not show any concentration difference between the samples taken before the membrane (Cin) and those taken after the membrane (Cout), and the pharmacokinetic behavior was similar with different organ failures. The area under the curve (AUC) before the membrane on day 1 was 62.1 (95%CI 52.8 - 73.4) and the AUC after the membrane on this day was 63.4 (95%CI 52.4 - 76.7), p = 0.625. The AUC before the membrane on day 4 was 102.4 (95%CI 84.7 - 142.8) and the AUC was 100.9 (95%CI 78.2 - 138.8), p = 0.843. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic parameters of micafungin were not significantly altered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Micafungin/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Tissue Distribution , Prospective Studies , Area Under Curve , Tertiary Care Centers , Micafungin/administration & dosage , Half-Life , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 81 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290784

ABSTRACT

Muitos pacientes acometidos por infecções fúngicas sucumbem devido a não eficácia dos antibióticos ou por toxicidade dos mesmos. Anfotericina B é um dos antifúngicos mais eficientes do mercado apesar de sua alta toxicidade, tem estrutura poliênica e é um composto insolúvel em água, sendo necessário o uso de adjuvantes e novas tecnologias para preparo de formulações eficazes. Cetoconazol é um composto imidazólico, também com ação antifúngica de grande espectro de ação e difícil solubilização em meio aquouso, porém solúvel somente em baixos valores de pH. Estudos têm demonstrado a utilização de bixina na preparação de dispersões aquosas de compostos insolúveis ou pouco solúveis em água. Bixina é o principal composto das cascas de semente de Bixa orellana (urucum), sendo um carotenoide insolúvel em água, porém, permite preparações na forma de nanodispersões aquosas com incorporação de fármacos apolares ou lipofílicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar anfotericina B e cetoconazol na forma de nanodispersões a partir de bixina, utilizando pullulan e trealose como adjuvantes e avaliar estabilidade e eficácia antimicrobiana por ensaios físico-químicos e microbiológicos. Pullulan é um polissacarídeo constituído por unidades de maltotriose, com propriedades adesivas e capacidade de formar biofilmes, enquanto trealose é um composto com duas unidades de glicose, com boa estabilidade em faixas de pH de 3 a 10 e capaz de suportar altas temperaturas, como processos de esterilização por calor úmido. Ensaios físico-químicos demonstraram boa manutenção das características das preparações propostas neste projeto, como, por exemplo, diâmetro hidrodinâmico e potencial zeta das estruturas das nanodispersões de bixina e antifúngicos e também eficácia antimicrobiana frente a Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Os resultados apresentam perspectivas para aprimoramentos de formulações com fármacos pouco solúveis ou insolúveis em água, pesquisa de novos biomateriais e outras aplicações nas áreas farmacêutica e cosmética


Many patients with fungal infections succumb due to ineffectiveness or toxicity of antibiotics. Amphotericin B is one of the most efficient antifungals on the market despite its high toxicity. It presents polyenic structure and is a water-insoluble compound. In this case, it is necessary to use adjuvants and new technologies to prepare effective formulations. Ketoconazole is an imidazolic compound, also with broad spectrum antifungal action and difficult solubilization in aqueous medium but it is soluble at low pH values. Studies have demonstrated the use of bixin in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of insoluble or poorly soluble compounds in water. Bixin is the main compound of Bixa orellana (annatto) seed husks, being a water-insoluble carotenoid, but it allows preparations in the form of aqueous nanodispersions with incorporation of apolar or lipophilic drugs. The objective of this work was to prepare amphotericin B and ketoconazole as nanodispersions from bixin, using pullulan and trehalose as adjuvants and to evaluate them under aspects of stability and efficacy by physicochemical and microbiological assays. Pullulan is a polysaccharide consisting of maltotriose units with adhesive properties and ability to form biofilms, while trehalose is a compound with two glucose units with good stability at pH ranges from 3 to 10 and capable of withstanding high temperatures such as processes of sterilization by moist heat. Physicochemical tests demonstrated good maintenance of the characteristics of the preparations proposed in this project, such as hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of bixin and antifungal nanodispersions and also antimicrobial efficacy against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results present prospects for improvement. of poorly soluble or water-insoluble drug formulations, research on new biomaterials and other applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields


Subject(s)
Trehalose , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 22-28, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899773

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente revisión resume la evidencia sobre la monitorización terapéutica de tres antimicrobianos basada en datos regionales: vancomicina, amikacina y voriconazol en la población pediátrica. Estos datos coinciden con la literatura internacional en relación al requerimiento de dosis mayores que 40 mg/kg/día de vancomicina, la posibilidad de usar monodosis diarias de amikacina y el requerimiento de dosis mayores de voriconazol en relación a las iniciales recomendadas de 8 mg/kg/día. Contar con datos locales sobre el comportamiento farmacocinético/farmacodinámico de diversos antimicrobianos en la pediatría es de gran valor para adecuar la dosificación de los mismos en nuestra población. Se deberían incrementar los estudios de monitorización terapéutica en el uso de antimicrobianos en pediatría que permitan generar pautas de tratamiento adecuadas para este grupo etario.


This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population. More studies in therapeutic monitoring in the use of antimicrobials in pediatrics should be performed in order to allow the generation of adequate treatment guidelines for this age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Amikacin/pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/trends , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Latin America
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 15-21, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899772

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción En pediatría no existe consenso en la dosificación de posaconazol (PSC) para profilaxis y tratamiento de la infección fúngica invasora (IFI), usándose la medición de concentraciones plasmáticas (CPs) del fármaco. Objetivo Describir la experiencia de monitoreo de las CPs de PSC en niños inmunocomprometidos con IFI y determinar si las dosis recomendadas alcanzan CPs efectivas en profilaxis (≥ 0,7 µg/mL) y tratamiento (≥ 1,25 µg/mL). Método Análisis retrospectivo en niños que recibieron PSC suspensión como profilaxis o tratamiento entre enero de 2012 y octubre de 2016, en las unidades de Oncología y Trasplante de Médula Ósea del Hospital Calvo Mackenna. Resultados 78 CPs en seis pacientes (4 indicaciones de profilaxis y 4 tratamientos) fueron revisados. La mediana de dosis de PSC fue de 12,5 y 18,8 mg/kg/d para profilaxis y tratamiento, respectivamente, resultando CP mediana de 0,97 y 1,8 μg/mL, respectivamente. En profilaxis, se registraron 40/67 (60%) con CP ≥ 0,70 μg/mL recibiendo una mediana de dosis de 12,5 mg/kg/d. Mientras que para el tratamiento: 5/11 (46%), presentaron CP ≥ 1,25 μg/mL, recibiendo una mediana de dosis de 18 mg/kg/d. Conclusión Nuestros resultados se ajustan a lo recomendado para la dosificación de PSC, pero evidencian una necesidad de realizar una monitorización individualizada para mantener adecuadas CPs.


Background There is no consensus on the optimal dosage use of posaconazole (PSC) for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in pediatric patients and normally it is adjusted with drug levels (DLs) ≥ 0.7 μg/ml and ≥ 1.25 μg/ml for prophylaxis and treatment, respectively. Objective To describe the experience of monitoring DLs of PSC in immunocompromised pediatric patients with IFI and to determine if the recommended doses reach CP effective in prophylaxis (≥ 0.7 μg/mL) and treatment (≥ 1.25 μg/mL). Method A retrospective analysis in children who received PSC from January 2012 to October 2016, in the Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant units at Hospital Calvo Mackenna was done Six patients with 78 DLs were reviewed (4 prophylaxis and 4 treatment). Median PSC dose was 12.5 and 18.8 mg/kg/d for prophylaxis and treatment, resulting in mean DLs of 0.97 and 1.8 μg/mL respectively. In prophylaxis 40/67 (60%) were recorded with DLs ≥ 0.70 μg/mL receiving a median dose of 12.5 mg/kg/d. While for treatment: 5/11 (46%) presented DLs ≥ 1.25 μg/mL, receiving a median dose of 18 mg/kg/d. Conclusion Our results are in line with the recommended for PSC dosage, but individualized monitoring is required to maintain adequate DLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Invasive Fungal Infections/prevention & control , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Triazoles/blood , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Drug Monitoring , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Hospitals, Pediatric , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/blood
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 79-87, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839188

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Polyenes/therapeutic use , Polyenes/pharmacokinetics , Aspergillosis/metabolism , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Azoles/therapeutic use , Azoles/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Candidiasis/metabolism , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Echinocandins/therapeutic use , Echinocandins/pharmacokinetics , Latin America , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 19(3): 93-93, 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151764

ABSTRACT

El posaconazol es un antifúngico de amplio espectro de la familia de los triazólicos que se utiliza en el tratamiento y profilaxis de infecciones micóticas invasivas en pacientes de 13 años de edad o mayores, en las cuales otros tratamientos no han sido eficaces o tolerados. En junio de 2016 la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos y la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios emitieron un alerta donde advierten que debido a diferencias en la frecuencia de dosificación, interacción con los alimentos y en los niveles plasmáticos alcanzados por el medicamento, los comprimidos y la suspensión de posaconazol no son intercambiables. (AU)


Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole family antifungal used in the treatment and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients 13 years of age or older, in which other treatments have not been effective or tolerated. In June 2016 the European Medicines Agency and the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products issued a warning alerting that because of differences in the frequency of dosing, interactions with food and plasma levels achieved by the drug, tablets and posaconazole suspension are not interchangeable. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Triazoles/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Medication Errors , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 367-372, Apr.-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755050

ABSTRACT

Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is a gold standard drug in dentistry and is widely used as a reference in both in vitro and in vivoexperiments. Due to ease of access, mouth washes containing CHX 0.12% are used as a substitute for aqueous CHX 0.12% solution in laboratory experiments. Additionally, it is well known that for product flavor purposes, volatile compounds are added to mouth washes formulations. Volatiles added to CHX 0.12% may improve wash's antibacterial ability. Volatiles add potency to the mouth wash formulation. Compared with an aqueous CHX 0.12% solution, it is proposed that CHX solutions and Periogard® would have antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was assessed in the present study via disk diffusion assays against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinisand Escherichia coli. Periogard® showed a significantly higher antibacterial activity in relation to CHX 0.12% (p<0.05) and a similar activity in relation to CHX 1% (p>0.05). Periogard(r) volatiles were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the presence of antibacterial menthol, menthone, isomenthol, menthyl acetate, trans-anethol and eugenol was verified. Finally, the use of Periogard® as a synonym of CHX 0.12% must be avoided, because its antibacterial activity is closely related to CHX 1%...


Gluconato de clorexidina (CHX) é um fármaco considerado padrão ouro, em Odontologia, amplamente usado como referência em estudos in vitro e in vivo. Em razão da facilidade de acesso, enxaguatórios bucais que contêm CHX 0,12% são usados em substituição à solução aquosa de clorexidina (CHX 0,12%), em experimentos laboratoriais. É sabido que devido à palatabilidade do produto, os mesmos enxaguatórios bucais contêm compostos voláteis em sua formulação, além da CHX 0.12%. Visto que voláteis adicionados podem acrescentar poder antibacteriano à formulação, a comparação da resposta antibacteriana da solução aquosa de CHX em diferentes concentrações e de Periogard® é proposta no presente artigo. Para tanto, utilizou-se o ensaio do disco de difusão em ágar com inóculos de Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis e Escherichia coli. Periogard® mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa contra as três cepas analisadas, quando comparada à atividade de CHX 0.12% (p<0,05) e atividade similar à CHX diluída a 1% (p>0,05). A presença de compostos voláteis no Periogard® foi analisada por GC-MS e observou-se que mentol, mentona, isomentol, acetato de mentila, trans-anetol e eugenol estão presentes na formulação. Deste modo, o uso de Periogard(r) como sinônimo de CHX 0,12% deve ser evitado, uma vez que sua atividade se assemelha àquela da CHX diluída a 1%...


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mouthwashes/analysis , Mouthwashes/pharmacokinetics , Oral and Dental Hygiene Products
10.
Rev. med. nucl. Alasbimn j ; 14(54)oct. 2011. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-609894

ABSTRACT

El avance del HIV ha favorecido el aumento de infecciones fúngicas como candidiasis y aspergilosis invasivas. Varias clases de antifúngicos son utilizados para el tratamiento de las mismas y éstos pueden ser radiomarcados con un agente emisor gamma que permita la detección mediante centellografia de focos de infección. El Voriconazol es un triazol adecuado para la marcación mediante la formación de un complejo unido al precursor [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+. El objetivo fue marcar y determinar las características fisicoquímicas y biológicas del voriconazol con 99mTc para la detección temprana de infecciones. La pureza radioquímica se determinó por HPLC y permitió establecer que el complejo permanece estable durante al menos 120 min. Los estudios in vivo en modelos de inflamación estéril, infección con C. Albicans y A. Niger mostraron diferenciación de los procesos tanto en biodistribución como en imágenes centellográficas.


The spread of HIV has led to an increase of fungal infections such as candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Several types of antifungals are used to treat them and some of them can be radiolabeled with a gamma emitting agent to allow detection by scintigraphy of foci of infection. Voriconazole is a triazole agent, suitable for the synthesis of a complex linked with the precursor [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+. The aim of his work was to label and determine the physicochemical and biological characteristics of voriconazole with 99mTc for the early detection of fungal infections. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and the complex remained stable during at least 120 min. In vivo studies in rats bearing either sterile inflammation, infection with C. Albicans or A. Niger showed differentiation of the processes not only in biosdistribution but also in scintigraphic images.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Antifungal Agents , Aspergillosis , Candidiasis , Pyrimidines , Technetium , Triazoles , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Drug Stability , Immunocompromised Host , HIV Infections/complications , Models, Biological , Mycoses , Pyrimidines/pharmacokinetics , Radiopharmaceuticals , Time Factors , Tissue Distribution , Technetium/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(4): 452-455, out.-dez. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578986

ABSTRACT

Staphylococus aureus apresenta-se como microrganismo patogênico clássico sendo comumente reconhecido como agente etiológico de infecções hospitalares e comunitárias. Através do conhecimento das propriedades biológicas da Lippia sidoides Cham., conhecida como alecrim-pimenta, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato metanólico desta planta em inibir o crescimento de isolados biológicos de S. aureus de origem humana hospitalar. Utilizou-se o método de difusão em Agar Muller Hinton para se determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima do extrato. A atividade anti-estafilococica do extrato da Lippia sidoides Cham. foi observada pela formação de halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano (9 a 27 mm), todas as amostras ensaiadas mostraram-se sensíveis à ação do extrato da Lippia sidoides Cham. até a diluição de 1:16 (0,053 g mL-1). Nas condições desse estudo, esses resultados mostram promissora atividade antibacteriana do extrato de Lippia sidoides Cham.


Staphylococcus aureus is a classic pathogenic microorganism commonly recognized as etiological agent of community and nosocomial infections. Considering the knowledge of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Alecrim-pimenta) biological properties, this study aimed to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of the extract from this plant in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus from hospitalized humans. The Agar Mueller-Hinton diffusion method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibition Concentration of the extract. The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of Lippia sidoides Cham. extract was noted by the large growth inhibition zones (9 to 27 mm); all tested samples were sensitive to the action of Lippia sidoides Cham. extract until the dilution of 1:16 (0.053 g mL-1). Under the conditions adopted in the present study, these results show the promising anti-staphylococcal property of Lippia sidoides Cham. extract.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Preparations/analysis , Plant Preparations/pharmacokinetics , Rosmarinus , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross Infection , Phytotherapy
12.
Rev. costarric. cienc. méd ; 26(1/2): 53-59, ene.-jun.2005. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-581113

ABSTRACT

Usualmente las onicomicosis se asocian con dermatofitos o Candida; no obstante, otros hongos diferentes a estos se han asociado a esta condición clínica, entre ellos Fusarium, un hongo que muchas veces se considera contaminante de laboratorio; por lo que es importante correlacionar el examen directo con el cultivo. Se describen tres casos de onicomicosis asociados a Fusarium sp., en uno de ellos el hallazgo más relevante y raro fue la intensa coloración verdosa de la uña. En los tres casos se aisló repetidamente el agente en cuestión. Se discute la importancia de identificar otros agentes diferentes de los usuales en onicomicosis, pues esos no responden a los tratamientos convencionales.


Dermatophytes and Candida spp. are the most common agents associated with onychomycosis. However, other fungi that are considered laboratory contaminants, such as Fusarium spp. have been isolated from this clinical condition as etiological agents. In the present communication, three cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium are described. The nail of one of the patients exhibited an intense dark green color, which is a rare finding in this pathology. In all cases the fungus was repeatedly isolated. The importance of identifying the etiological agent is emphasized since conventional treatment for onychomycosis is ineffective against Fusarium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Fusarium , Onychomycosis
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2005. 153 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-425848

ABSTRACT

O cetoconazol (CTZ) é um antifúngico imidazólico de amplo espectro, administrado tipicamente pela via oral (200 ou 400 mg por dia) ou topicamente (creme 2 por cento aplicado duas vezes ao dia). A eficácia da terapia tópica depende das características de liberação do fármaco, do veículo e da biofarmacocinética da substância ativa no tecido cutâneo, ou seja, de como ela se difunde através da pele. No presente trabalho, duas formulações comerciais (A e B), uma manipulada (C) e três desenvolvidas (D2:0; E1:1 e F0:2) contendo CTZ na concentração de 20 mg/g, foram estudadas quanto às características físico-químicas e quanto ao comportamento biofarmacêutico/bioequivalente tópico, através de medidas adequadas do ativo na camada do estrato córneo (EC)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Arthrodermataceae , Dermatology , Mycoses , Skin , Analysis of Variance , Biopharmaceutics , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Therapeutic Equivalency
14.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 116(3): 22-33, oct. 2003. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-364893

ABSTRACT

La criptococcosis meningea es la infección subaguda o crónica del Sistema Nervioso Central ocasionada por el Cryptococcus neoformans. En la forma diseminada, la entidad tiene marcado tropismo por el Sistema Nervioso Central y más del 50 por ciento de los casos informados tienen afección de este sistema. Es una micosis de distribución geográfica universal, aunque la frecuencia de casos clínicos es mayor en Africa y América. Existen cuatro serotipos A, B, C, D. Los serotipos A y D corresponden a la variedad neoformans, los B y C a la variedad gatti. La variedad neoformans vive en excrementos y nidos de palomas, y es la que nos interesa en este trabajo. Desde el advenimiento de la pandemia del SIDA el 90 por ciento de los casos diagnosticados de criptococcosis están asociados con la infección por HIV. Con respecto a criptococcosis (variedad neoformans) ligada al SIDA ocupa el cuarto lugar dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas graves en orden de frecuencia en Estados Unidos y Europa. En los países en desarrollo la incidencia de criptococcosis ligada al SIDA es mayor, así en Africa Central es, junto con la tuberculosis, la infección más común. Se calcula que el 3 al 5 por ciento de los enfermos con SIDA padecen criptococcosis en Europa, esta proporción se eleva al 6 al 10 por ciento en los EE.UU. y Brasil y es alrededor del 20 por ciento en Africa Central. En la Argentina, si bien no existen cifras oficiales, la frecuencia de criptococcosis progresiva en enfermos HIV+ rondaría en un 15 por ciento. Por lo general la penetración del Criptococcus neoformans se produce por vía inhalatoria, llega al alveolo pulmonar y allí comienza a reproducirse e invadir. El desarrollo de la cápsula le permite evadir la primera barrera defensiva, que son los neutrofilos. En las formas diseminadas que es la que nos compete en este trabajo, la presencia de polisacárido capsular origina la formación de complejos inmunes así como la activación del complemento por la vía alternativa, lo que incrementa la depresión de la inmunidad mediada por células. De esta forma se originan dos tipos de criptococcosis, una leve en sujetos con funcionamiento adecuado de la inmunidad celular y otra grave cuando este mecanismo falla. La que nos interesaa es la segunda en la cual se origina en el pulmón e invade los ganglios linfáticos del hilio pulmonar, intertraqueobronquiales y por último por vía hemática a diferentes órganos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cryptococcus neoformans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/etiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/physiopathology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/mortality , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/pathology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/prevention & control , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/therapy , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Prognosis
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 4(2): 55-60, apr. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-278690

ABSTRACT

The establishment of a standardized broth reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeastshas opened the door to a number of interesting and useful developments. The adaptation of the reference macrodilution method to a microdilution method has significantly increased the clinical utility of antifungal susceptibility testing, and both methods are now included in the NCCLS document M27-A. The publication of quality control limits for five antifungal agents, coupled with the estabilisment of interpretive MIC breakpoints for three agents, provides useful parameters to survey clinical isolates of Candida and other yeast species. Adaptations of the M27 microdilution method for testing molds has also proved feasible. These developments have made it possible for a number of recent studies designed to expand the capabilities of laboratories to perform antifungal susceptibility testing and to enhance our understanging of trends in antifungal susceptibility. The availability of reference methods also provides a useful touchstone for the development of commercial products that promise to be more user friendly and to further improve test standartization. Products in varying stages of development include two colorimetric microdilution methods (Sensititre and KPI) and the Etest stable gradient MIC method. Preliminary data indicate that these methods are viable alternatives to the reference method for testing of yeasts. Furthermore, Etest may also prove useful for testing molds. Future expectations for antifungal susceptibility testing includes improved ability to detect amphotericin B resistence, development of an NCCLS document for susceptibility testing of molds, and application of these methods for testing dematophytes. Incorporation of antifungal susceptibility testing methods into the clinical trials of new antifungal agents will facilitate the establishment of clinical correlates and further enhance the clinical utility of antifungal susceptibility testing.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Fluconazole/pharmacokinetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Itraconazole/pharmacokinetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/standards , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Quality Control , Reference Standards
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40044

ABSTRACT

We studied the pharmacokinetics and compared the oral bioavailability of the "generic" (Biozole, Biolab Company, Thailand) and the "innovator" (Diflucan, Pfizer Incorporation, U.S.A.) fluconazole preparations in 12 healthy Thai volunteers. A 200 mg single oral dose of each preparation was given to the subjects in a randomized double-blind 2-period crossover design with 2 weeks washout period. Blood samples were collected just before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 24, 48, 56 and 72 hours after drug administration. Serum fluconazole concentrations were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Individual concentration-time profiles and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by the noncompartmental pharmacokinetic method [TOPFIT, a pharmacokinetic data analysis program]. The pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, Vd, Cl) of fluconazole in Thai healthy volunteers were comparable to those values observed in Caucasian subjects. The relative bioavailability of the generic Biozole was 102.38 +/- 9.79 per cent of Diflucan. The means and 90 per cent confidence intervals (90% CI) of the [Biozole/Diflucan] ratio of AUC0-72, AUC0-inf and Cmax were 1.02 (0.98-1.06), 0.99 (0.95-1.03) and 1.13 (1.03-1.25), respectively. These values were well within the acceptable bioequivalence ranges of 0.8-1.25 proposed by the US FDA. The means and 90 per cent CI of Tmax differences [Biozole-Diflucan] were -0.46 [(-1.03)-(0.12)]. This value was outside the stipulated bioequivalence range of +/- 0.41 h (+/- 20% of the Tmax of the reference formulation). Nevertheless, the Tmax difference was not expected to be related to the differences in safety and efficacy of the drug. Hence, Biozole and Diflucan were bioequivalent with respect to the extent of absorption (AUC), and the Cmax, and could be used interchangeably.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analysis of Variance , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Biological Availability , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Drugs, Generic/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluconazole/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Thailand
17.
In. Farhat, Calil Kairalla; Carvalho, Eduardo da Silva; Carvalho, Luiza Helena Falleiros Rodrigues; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes. Infectologia pediátrica. Säo Paulo, Atheneu, 2 ed; 1998. p.650-6, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-260933
18.
Säo Paulo; s.n; 1996. 91 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-192799

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência de candidose bucal é comum em pacientes com alteraçöes imunológicas. O surgimento da AIDS, bem como o tratamento das neoplasias malignas, entre outros fatores, resultaram em maior frequência destas infecçöes, elevando os índices de morbidade e mortalidade. Assim estudamos, a suscetibilidade de 30 cepas e C. albicans, isoladas da boca de pacientes portadores da AIDS(10) e câncer de cabeça e pescoço (20), por meio do estabelecimento das Concentraçäo Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentraçäo Fungicida Mínima (CFM) de compostos antifúngicos como anfotericina B (AnB-Poliênico), miconazol, cetoconazol (imidazóicos) e fluconazol (triazóico), pela técnica de diluiçäo em ágar. Os resultados obtidos, revelaram baixas CIMs e CFMs da AnB para todas as leveduras avaliadas, a exceçäo de uma única amostra. Frente ao miconazol e cetoconazol, a grande maioria dos isolados de C. albicans, tanto de portadores da AIDS como do câncer, a droga apresentou CIM<8,0µg/ml, sendo alta a CIM do fluconazol para as cepas isoladas de portadores de câncer. Frente aos azóis, mais de 95 por cento das cepas de C. albicans isoladas nos dois grupos de pacientes com câncer, as drogas apresentaram CFM > 16,0µg/ml. Concluiu-se que a AnB continua sendo in vitro o agente antifúngico com melhor indicaçäo para o tratamento das candidoses nestes casos. Os imidazóicos, apresentaram boa atividade inibitória, porém, näo fungicida. O fluconazol, mostrou baixa açäo fungistática contra as cepas isoladas de portadores de câncer em relaçäo aos outros azóis, sugerindo o desenvolvimento de resistência à droga por esses microrganismos, mesmo considerando-se possível falta de correlaçäo entre os testes in vitro e a resposta clínica


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Candida albicans/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Oral Manifestations , Mouth Neoplasms/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications
19.
Dermatología (Santiago de Chile) ; 10(1): 43-7, 1994. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-136164

ABSTRACT

Se presenta la experiencia clínica multicéntrica Chile-Uruguay en el tratamiento de la onicomicosis de los pies con Terbinafina oral administrada por 3 meses y en un período de observación postratamiento de 6 meses. Se incluyen 102 pacientes, 43 hombre y 59 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 50 años, que presentaban un cuadro clínico de onicomicosis de los pies, el que fue confirmado por la presencia de dermatofitos en el cultivo micológico inicial (73,5 por ciento trichophyton rubrum). Se seleccionó la uña más comprometida, en la que se evaluaron onicólisis, engrosamiento ungueal, cambio de coloración e inflamación paroniqueal como parámetros clínicos y la evaluación micológica se hizo por examen directo y cultivo. La uña seleccionada tuvo un crecimiento estadísticamente significativo tanto en la fase de tratamiento como la de postratamiento. Los signos clínicos mejoraron durante todo el seguimiento y el 73 por ciento a 86 por ciento de los pacientes alcanzó mejoría total de estos parámetros a los 9 meses de seguimiento. Los exámenes micológicos se fueron negativizando progresivamente, alcanzando en la evaluación final a los 9 meses un 85,9 por ciento y un 90,5 por ciento para exámenes directos y cultivos negativos, respectivamente. Recaídas con cultivos micológicos positivos fueron observadas en 3 pacientes (5 por ciento ). El medicamento fue bien tolerado y los efectos adversos mas frecuentes fueron los gastrointestinales en 11 pacientes. No hubo alteraciones de los parámetros bioquímicos hepáticos. En conclusión, la terbinafina aparece como un nuevo antimicótico de alta eficacia en un corto período de tratamiento


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Allylamine/pharmacokinetics , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic
20.
Invest. med. int ; 17(3): 125-9, dic. 1990. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-95502

ABSTRACT

Con el objeto de valorar la efiacia del bifonazol se llevó a cabo un estudio abierto, prospectivo, y comparativo que incluyó 40 pacientes del Centro Dermatológico Pascua con diagnósticos clínicos de tiña de los pies y de la ingle, del cuerpo, de la barba o candidiasis cutánea, con comprobación micológica por examen directo y cultivo. En forma aleatoria se administró a 20 pacientes bifonazol crema al 1% y a los 20 restantes ketoconazol crema. En ambos caos los medicamentos se aplicaron una vez al día durante dos semanas, excepto los de tiña de los pies que se prologó por cuatro semanas. Se realizó examen clínico en todos los casos antes de iniciar el tratamiento, a la semana, al final del tratamiento y dos semanas después de suspendido el medicamento, se realizó un cultivo al inicio y al final el estudio a 13 pacientes de cada grupo, siendo éstos positivos en todos los casos antes de la aplicación del medicamento y en un caso de cada grupo al final del tratamiento. Un paciente del grupo ketoconazol abandonó el estudio por causas ajenas al medicamento. Se verificó curación clínica en el 85% (17/20) de los pacientes del grupo bifonazol y en 72.2% (13/18) del grupo ketoconazol. No se observaron recaídas a las dos semanas de finalizado el tratamiento. En cuanto a efectos secundarios, se presentaron en dos pacientes del grupo ketoconazol, que consistieron en ardor, aumento del eritema y aparición de vesículas, que en un paciente de este grupo obligaron la suspensión del tratamiento; en el grupo bifonazol, un paciente presentó efectos adversos, tales como irritación y ardor, que no requirieron la interrupción del medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Female , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Tinea/therapy , Administration, Topical , Allylamine/therapeutic use , Candidiasis, Cutaneous , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Ketoconazole/therapeutic use , Triazoles/therapeutic use
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