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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 151-159, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019551

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. Methods: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. Results: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. Conclusions: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunophenotyping , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antigens, Bacterial/drug effects
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 307-314, Oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841598

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años la inmunoterapia ha revolucionado el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer avanzado. El mayor conocimiento de la biología tumoral y de la inmunología ha permitido desarrollar tratamientos racionales manipulando el sistema inmunitario con importante impacto clínico. Entre otras estrategias de inmunoterapia contra el cáncer se ha explorado el uso de vacunas terapéuticas basadas en células dendríticas (CD). Las CD son células de origen hematopoyético, que expresan constitutivamente moléculas presentadoras de antígeno, y son funcionalmente las inductoras más potentes de la activación y proliferación de linfocitos T a los que presentan antígenos. Los linfocitos T CD8+ proliferan y adquieren capacidad citotóxica cuando reconocen su antígeno específico presentado en la superficie de CD, aunque solo algunos tipos de CD pueden presentar antígenos internalizados desde el exterior celular a precursores de linfocitos T citotóxicos (a esta función se la llama presentación cruzada). Explotar la inducción de una respuesta inmunitaria adaptativa eficaz se considera una buena opción por su especificidad y prolongada duración de la respuesta. Las CD, gracias a su particular capacidad de presentación antigénica y de estimulación linfocitaria, son capaces de revertir la respuesta inmunitaria antitumoral deficiente que presentan algunos pacientes con cáncer. Las CD se pueden obtener a partir de distintas fuentes, empleando diversos protocolos para generar diferenciación y maduración, y se administran por diversas vías como son subcutánea, intravenosa o intranodal. La gran variedad de protocolos en los que se aplican las CD explica los resultados clínicos tan heterogéneos que se han comunicado hasta la fecha.


In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. The increased knowledge in the tumor immune-biology has allowed developing rational treatments by manipulation of the immune system with significant clinical impact. This rapid development has significantly changed the prognosis of many tumors without treatment options up to date. Other strategies have explored the use of therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) by inducing antitumor immunity. DC are cells of hematopoietic origin, constitutively expressing molecules capable to present antigens, that are functionally the most potent inducers of the activation and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T cells proliferate and acquire cytotoxic capacity after recognizing their specific antigen presented on the surface of DC, although only some types of DC can present antigens internalized from outside the cell to precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (this function is called cross-presentation) requiring translocation mechanisms of complex antigens. The induction of an effective adaptive immune response is considered a good option given its specificity, and prolonged duration of response. The DC, thanks to its particular ability of antigen presentation and lymphocyte stimulation, are able to reverse the poor antitumor immune response experienced by patients with cancer. The DC can be obtained from various sources, using different protocols to generate differentiation and maturation, and are administered by various routes such as subcutaneous, intravenous or intranodal. The wide variety of protocols resulted in heterogeneous clinical responses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 153-156, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745865

ABSTRACT

The setting for the occurrence of an immune response is that of the need to cope with a vast array of different antigens from both pathogenic and non-pathogenic sources. When the first barriers against infection and innate defense fail, adaptive immune response enters the stage for recognition of the antigens by means of extremely variable molecules, namely immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. The latter recognize the antigen exposed on cell surfaces, in the form of peptides presented by the HLA molecule. The first part of this review details the central role played by these molecules, establishing the close connection existing between their structure and their antigen presenting function.


O cenário no qual ocorre a resposta imune é o da necessidade de fazer frente a uma vasta gama de antígenos diferentes, de fontes patogênicas e não patogênicas. Quando as primeiras barreiras contra infecção e a defesa inata falham, a resposta imune adaptativa entra em campo, para efetuar o reconhecimento dos antígenos, utilizando, para esse fim, moléculas extremamente variáveis, que são as imunoglobulinas e os receptores de células-T. Estes últimos reconhecem o antígeno, exposto na superfície das células como peptídeo apresentado pelas moléculas HLA. A primeira parte desta revisão detalha o papel central dessas moléculas, estabelecendo a conexão que existe entre a estrutura e a função de apresentação de antígenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigen Presentation/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Alleles , Antigen Presentation/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 157-162, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745874

ABSTRACT

The second part of this review deals with the molecules and processes involved in the processing and presentation of the antigenic fragments to the T-cell receptor. Though the nature of the antigens presented varies, the most significant class of antigens is proteins, processed within the cell to be then recognized in the form of peptides, a mechanism that confers an extraordinary degree of precision to this mode of immune response. The efficiency and accuracy of this system is also the result of the myriad of mechanisms involved in the processing of proteins and production of peptides, in addition to the capture and recycling of alternative sources aiming to generate further diversity in the presentation to T-cells.


A segunda parte desta revisão trata das moléculas e processos envolvidos no processamento e apresentação dos fragmentos antigênicos ao receptor de célula-T. Apesar de variar a natureza do antígeno apresentado, a classe mais significativa é a das proteínas, as quais são processadas dentro da célula para enfim serem reconhecidas na forma de peptídeos, o que confere um grau extraordinário de precisão a essa forma de resposta imune. A eficiência e a precisão desse sistema se devem também à miríade de mecanismos envolvidos no processamento de proteínas e produção de peptídeos, além da captura e reciclagem de fontes alternativas de antígenos com o objetivo de gerar ainda maior diversidade na apresentação à célula-T.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Cell-Penetrating Peptides/metabolism , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Cell-Penetrating Peptides/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 691-698, set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685486

ABSTRACT

Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in intense myocarditis, which progresses to a chronic, asymptomatic indeterminate form. The evolution toward this chronic cardiac form occurs in approximately 30% of all cases of T. cruzi infection. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been proposed as a potential explanation of the indeterminate form. We investigated the effect of cyclophosphamide (CYCL) treatment on the regulatory mechanism of DTH and the participation of heart interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) in this process using BALB/c mice chronically infected with T. cruzi. One group was treated with CYCL (20 mg/kg body weight) for one month. A DTH skin test was performed by intradermal injection of T. cruzi antigen (3 mg/mL) in the hind-footpad and measured the skin thickness after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The skin test revealed increased thickness in antigen-injected footpads, which was more evident in the mice treated with CYCL than in those mice that did not receive treatment. The thickened regions were characterised by perivascular infiltrates and areas of necrosis. Intense lesions of the myocardium were present in three/16 cases and included large areas of necrosis. Morphometric evaluation of lymphocytes showed a predominance of TCD8 cells. Heart IDCs were immunolabelled with specific antibodies (CD11b and CD11c) and T. cruzi antigens were detected using a specific anti-T. cruzi antibody. Identification of T. cruzi antigens, sequestered in these cells using specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies was done, showing a significant increase in the number of these cells in treated mice. These results indicate that IDCs participate in the regulatory mechanisms of DTH response to T. cruzi infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Parasitemia/immunology , Skin Tests
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 241-247, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154822

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a specialized cellular pathway involved in maintaining homeostasis by degrading long-lived cellular proteins and organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is utilized by immune systems to protect host cells from invading pathogens and regulate uncontrolled immune responses. During pathogen recognition, induction of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors leads to the promotion or inhibition of consequent signaling pathways. Furthermore, autophagy plays a role in the delivery of pathogen signatures in order to promote the recognition thereof by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to innate recognition, autophagy has been shown to facilitate MHC class II presentation of intracellular antigens to activate CD4 T cells. In this review, we describe the roles of autophagy in innate recognition of pathogens and adaptive immunity, such as antigen presentation, as well as the clinical relevance of autophagy in the treatment of human diseases.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Autophagy/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136324

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells which proceed from immature to a mature stage during their differentiation. There are several methods of obtaining long lasting mature antigen expressing DCs and different methods show different levels of antigen expressions. We investigated bone marrow derived DCs for the degree of maturation and genetically engineered antigen presentation in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a maturity enhancer. Methods: DCs and transfected retrovirus were cultured together in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)-IL4, GMCSF +IL4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). B 7.1, B7.2 and CD11c were measured by the degree of immune fluorescence using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) shuttled retrovirus transfected antigen. Degree of MHC class I molecule with antigen presentation of antigen was also evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The antigen presenting capacity of transfected DCs was investigated. Bone marrow DCs were generated in the presence of GMCSF and IL-4 in vitro. Dividing bone marrow cells were infected with EGFP shuttled retrovirus expressing SSP2 by prolonged centrifugation for three consecutive days from day 5, 6 and 7 and continued to culture in the presence of GMSCF and IL-4 until day 8. Results: IL-4 as a cytokine increased the maturation of retrovirus transfected DCs by high expression of B 7-1 and B 7-2. Also, IL-4 induced DC enhanced by the prolonged centrifugation and it was shown by increased antigen presentation of these dendric cells as antigen presenting cell (APC). Cytolytic effects were significantly higher in cytotoxic T cell response (CTLs) mixed with transfected DCs than CTLs mixed with pulsed DCs. Interpretation & conclusions: There was an enhanced antigen presentation by prolonged expression of antigen loaded MHC class I receptors in DCs in the presence of IL-4 by prolonged centrifugation.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/drug effects , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , B7 Antigens/genetics , B7 Antigens/metabolism , Bone Marrow/immunology , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Centrifugation , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Genes, MHC Class I/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Retroviridae/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Transfection/methods
8.
Biocell ; 32(2): 169-174, Aug. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-541111

ABSTRACT

We had previously found in autologous human leukocyte cultures, in which dead neutrophils phagocytosis by macrophages occur, macrophages and T CD4 lymphocytes perform a selective cell-cell interaction showing many figures of either one, two or several T- lymphocytes adhering to a central macrophage were seen. Considering that antigen presentation would be necessary for the formation of these immune synapses, we attempted to block rosette formation (i.e., the formation of macrophage associations with at least three lymphocytes) by interfering with both antigen processing and presentation. Culture samples of autologous leukocytes from 7 healthy donors were subjected to either brefeldin A, chloroquine or to an anti-HLA DR antibody. Rosette formation was significantly inhibited in the treated samples (either with brefeldin A, chloroquine or the anti- HLA DR; ANOVA, p<0.001, as compared with the untreated controls). It is concluded that interference with antigen processing and presentation precludes the formation of these cell-cell interactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Brefeldin A/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages , Macrophages/immunology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91148

ABSTRACT

In vitro large amplification of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and adoptive transfer of these cells is one of the most promising approaches to treat malignant diseases in which an effective immune response is not achieved by active immunization. However, generating sufficient numbers of tumor-specific CTLs stimulated with autologous antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro is one of the most problematic steps in the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy. To circumvent this problem, we have developed an artificial antigen presenting complex (aAPCs) using MHC class I molecules loaded with a melanoma-specific TRP-2 peptide epitope. Our results show that TRP-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing the mini-gene epitope are efficiently stimulated and amplified in vitro to a greater extent by aAPCs than by natural splenic APCs. These aAPC-induced CTLs recognized endogenously processed antigens present on B16F10 melanoma cells. Efficient stimulation and proliferation of antigen- specific T cells was also confirmed using ovalbumin peptide-loaded aAPCs and OT-I TCR transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that prior in vivo immunization, which increases the precursor frequency, simplifies posterior expansion of tumor- specific CD8+ T cells, and aAPCs is superior to autologous APC for in vitro amplification. This prime and expand regimen can be an alternative method for large amplification of rare tumor-specific CTLs and aAPCs should be a useful tool for ACT immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Substrate Specificity , Molecular Sequence Data , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice , Melanoma/genetics , Lymphocyte Count , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Biomimetics/methods , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Adoptive Transfer/methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191494

ABSTRACT

CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated CD4+ T cells is a family member of membrane bound TNF family ligand and its interaction with CD40 expressed in APC has been shown to contribute in enhancing immune response. Exogenous stimulation through CD40 has been performed using soluble trimeric CD40L, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody and cells expressing CD40L. Schneider 2 (S2) cells, a cell line derived from Drosophila melanogaster, was transfected with a plasmid vector, pAc5.1/V5-HisA, for the constitutive expression of CD40L (S2-CD40L). Upon incubation of S2-CD40L with B-lymphocytes for 6 days, activated B cells were examined by counting B cell numbers and for activation markers including CD86 and HLA Class II molecules. The activated B cells were tested for its efficient APC function by mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and enzyme-linked Immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. S2-CD40L was cultured for a year and maintained CD40L expression (>90%). S2-CD40L induced B cell activation as demonstrated by increment of total B cells and up-regulation of CD86 and MHC Class II molecules. Activated B cells pulsed with peptide from human cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen efficiently induced both proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion of T cells. Our result suggests that S2-CD40L can efficiently and conveniently generate B cells as a functional APC and represents a potential role for B-cell mediated cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , B7-2 Antigen/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD40 Ligand/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Coculture Techniques , Drosophila melanogaster , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Transfection
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76971

ABSTRACT

Immunization with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigen can activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which is responsible for tumor protection and regression. In this study, we examined whether DCs pulsed with necrotic tumor lysates can efficiently prevent malignant melanoma tumor cell metastasis to the lung. DCs derived from mouse bone marrow were found to produce remarkably elevated levels of IL-12 after being pulsed with the tumor lysates. Moreover, immunization with these DCs induced CTL activation and protected mice from metastasis development by intravenously inoculated tumor cells. In addition, these DCs activated NK cells in vitro in a contact-dependent manner, and induced NK activities in vivo. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before DC vaccination significantly reduced the tumor-specific CTL activity, IFN-g production, and IFN-gamma- inducible gene expression, and eventually interfered with the antitumor effect of tumor-pulsed DCs. Finally, similar findings with respect to NK cell dependency were obtained in the C57BL/ 6J-bg/bg mice, which have severe deficiency in cytolytic activity of NK cells. These data suggest that the antitumor effect elicited by DC vaccination, at least in a B16 melanoma model, requires the participation of both cytolytic NK and CD8+ T cells. The findings of this study would provide important data for the effective design of DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-12/biosynthesis , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins/biosynthesis , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
13.
Med. intensiva ; 20(1): 13-18, 2003. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-383754

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes que sobreviven a la injuria inicial por trauma severo presentan con elevada frecuencia complicaciones infecciosas, sépticas y disfunción multiorgánica. El traumatismo de cráneo (TEC) parece ser un factor de riesgo independiente en relación con la aparición de esas complicaciones. Los mecanismos causales estarían relacionados a una parálisis de la inmunidad celular inducida por el TEC. Objetivos: Analizar el grado de alteración de la competencia inmunológica en pacientes con TEC severo, determinado por los niveles plasmáticos de las citokinas IL-10, IL-6 y TNF-Ó y el nivel de expresión de HLA-DR de los monocitos sanguíneos CD14+. Pacientes y métodos: Se incorporaron 15 pacientes ingresados con TEC severo (GCS ¾ 8). Ninguno de los pacientes había recibido corticoides ni catecolaminas. Trece voluntarios normales se utilizaron como controles...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Genes, MHC Class II , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Cross Infection/etiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , HLA-DR Antigens/blood , HLA-DR Antigens , Gene Expression , Immunity, Cellular , Immunocompetence , Cross Infection/complications , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Monocytes , Pneumonia , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/physiopathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Indian J Lepr ; 1999 Jan-Mar; 71(1): 75-86
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-54308

ABSTRACT

Identification of M. leprae antigens recognized by T-cell is important for specific diagnosis, vaccine development and understanding the basic mechanisms involved in protection against and pathogenesis of leprosy. Screening of an M. leprae recombinant DNA library with antibody probes led to the identification of half a dozen M. leprae antigens recognized by B-cells. When tested for T-cell reactivity, all the antigens recognized by antibodies were shown to have T-cell reactivity. However, among these antigens 18 kDa, 65 kDa and 70 kDa heat shock proteins (hsps) were most frequently recognized by T-cell lines and clones established from healthy donors vaccinated with killed M. leprae. A 24 kDa secreted antigen of M. leprae with T-cell epitope specific for M. leprae and M. tuberculosis complex was identified by direct screening of the recombinant DNA library with T-cell clones. The recombinant T-cell antigens of M. leprae were recognized by memory T-cells of Th1 type in association with multiple HLA-DR molecules. Epitope mapping with synthetic peptides identified M. leprae-specific as well as cross-reactive T-cell epitopes on the 18 kDa, 65 kDa and 70 kDa hsp antigens. In conclusion, our studies suggest that the recombinant antigens of M. leprae could be useful as reagents for specific diagnosis as well as in subunit and recombinant vaccine design against leprosy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mycobacterium leprae/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 58(2): 209-18, 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-212797

ABSTRACT

La finalidad de esta revisión es aportar un conocimiento general sobre las células dendríticas (CD), células accesorias de la respuesta inmune. Se las reconoce como las células presentadoras de antígenos por excelencia (APC) y por lo tanto expresan antígenos clase II del complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad (MHC). Los diversos tipos de CD tienen un origen común en la médula ósea diferenciándose luego bajo la influencia de variados estímulos y distribuyéndose en órganos linfoideos y no linfoideos. Desde los tejidos periféricos migran a los ganglios linfáticos donde presentan el antígeno a los linfocitos T. Dependiendo del microambiente expresan diversos marcadores de superfície siendo capaces de la secreción de citoquinas como IL-12, IL-1 y TNFalpha. Como APC cumplen un importante papel en la patogenia de enfermedades autoinmunes y virales destacándose su participación en la infección por HIV. Se las encuentran en el infiltrado de numerosos cánceres humanos donde actuando como APC podrían incluir una respuesta inmune antitumoral. En esta propiedad se basa su utilización para el tratamiento de linfomas y melanomas llevada a cabo actualmente en diversos laboratorios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigen Presentation/physiology , Dendritic Cells/physiology , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/ultrastructure , Langerhans Cells/immunology , Langerhans Cells/physiology , Neoplasms/immunology
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