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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787280


Cancer remains a leading cause of death, despite multimodal treatment approaches. Even in patients with a healthy immune response, cancer cells can escape the immune system during tumorigenesis. Cancer cells incapacitate the normal cell-mediated immune system by expressing immune modulation ligands such as programmed death (PD) ligand 1, the B7 molecule, or secreting activators of immune modulators. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells were originally designed to target cancer cells. Engineered approaches allow CAR T cells, which possess a simplified yet specific receptor, to be easily activated in limited situations. CAR T cell treatment is a derivative of the antigen-antibody reaction and can be applied to various diseases. In this review, the current successes of CAR T cells in cancer treatment and the therapeutic potential of CAR T cells are discussed.

Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Carcinogenesis , Cause of Death , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immune System , Ligands , Receptors, Antigen , T-Lymphocytes , United Nations
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1615-1621, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976498


Despite common occurrence and importance of canine distemper disease the majority of tests currently available for diagnosis are hampered by either low sensitivity or specificity. In this study it was evaluated antigenic and immunogenic characteristics of a conserved region of nucleocapsid protein of canine distemper virus (rCDV NP) expressed in Escherichia coli employing a codon optimized synthetic gene. The expression of rCDVNP in Star strain (mean 300μg/mL, purified) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis by using His-Tag monoclonal antibodies. Western blot and ELISA, employing positive and negative control dog sera, demonstrated the rCDVNP antigenicity. The rCDVNP was inoculated in hens and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified from the egg yolk. The mean yield of IgY was 28.55mg/mL. IgY reacted with the recombinant protein as demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA assays. In summary, our findings demonstrated that rCDVNP is antigenic since CDV positive dog sera recognized the protein in vitro. Additionally, the rCDVNP proved to be immunogenic in hens being possible to isolate a high concentration of specific IgY antibodies from the egg yolk. Taken together, these results indicate that the rCDVNP along with the specific IgY could be useful tools for development of the canine distemper immunodiagnostic assays.(AU)

Apesar da ocorrência comum e importância da cinomose canina, a maioria dos testes atualmente disponíveis para diagnóstico são prejudicados pela baixa sensibilidade ou especificidade. Neste estudo foram avaliadas características antigênicas e imunogênicas de uma região conservada da proteína do nucleocapsídeo do virus da cinomose canina (rCDV NP) expressa em Escherichia coli empregando um gene sintético e codons otimizados. A expressão na cepa Star (média de 300μg/mL, purificada) foi confirmada por SDS-PAGE e Western blot utilizando anticorpos monoclonais anti-His-Tag. A antigenicidade da rCDVNP foi demonstrada por western blot e ELISA empregando soros de cães positivos e negativos. A rCDVNP foi inoculada em galinhas e imunoglobulina Y (gY) foi obtida e purificada a partir da gema. A produção média de IgY foi 28.55mg/mL. Anticorpos IgY reagiram com a proteína recombinante, quando analisados por Western blot e ELISA. Em resumo, nossos achados demonstram que a rCDVNP produzida é antigênica, uma vez que os anticorpos de soro de cães positivos para CDV reconheceram a proteína in vitro. Além disso, a rCDVNP foi imunogênica em galinhas, sendo possível isolar anticorpos IgY específicos a partir da gema do ovo em altas concentrações. Tomados em conjunto, estes resultados indicam que a rCDVNP juntamente com a IgY específica podem ser ferramentas úteis para elaborar ensaios de imunodiagnóstico de cinomose canina.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics , Distemper Virus, Canine/immunology , Dogs/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Immune Network ; : e34-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717669


In addition to T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses, T cells can also regulate T cell-independent (TI) B cell responses in the absence of a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and antigenic peptide-based interaction between T and B cells. The elucidation of T cells capable of supporting TI Ab responses is important for understanding the cellular mechanism of different types of TI Ab responses. Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent 1 type of helper T cells involved in TI Ab responses and more candidate helper T cells responsible for TI Ab responses may also include γδ T cells and recently reported B-1 helper CD4⁺ T cells. Marginal zone (MZ) B and B-1 cells, 2 major innate-like B cell subsets considered to function independently of T cells, interact with innate-like T cells. Whereas MZ B and NKT cells interact mutually for a rapid response to blood-borne infection, peritoneal memory phenotype CD49d(high)CD4⁺ T cells support natural Ab secretion by B-1 cells. Here the role of innate-like T cells in the so-called TI Ab response is discussed. To accommodate the involvement of T cells in the TI Ab responses, we suggest an expanded classification of TD Ab responses that incorporate cognate and non-cognate B cell help by innate-like T cells.

Antibody Formation , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocyte Subsets , B-Lymphocytes , Classification , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Memory , Natural Killer T-Cells , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194642


Hematoxylin and eosin staining is simple and one of the most important techniques in pathological diagnosis. However, it cannot provide complete information about the disease of a patient. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) is an important method for demonstrating the distribution of a certain molecule or antigen in tissues using specific antigen-antibody reactions. It is used in routine diagnostic work and research to explore biomarkers. In this review, I aim to provide an adequate interpretation of the results of IHC and pathological diagnosis for clinicians.

Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Methods
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 3(3): 909-918, sept. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087458


Inmunohistoquímica es toda técnica que permite detectar in situ componentes celulares y extracelulares por medio de anticuerpos específicos, empleando sistemas de detección enzimáticos. Dentro de los métodos inmunohistoquímicos, la técnica del complejo avidina­biotina(ABC) es ampliamente utilizada debido a su alta sensibilidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fueevaluar la reactividad inmunohistoquímica del anticuerpo 4C4.9 para la detección de la proteínaS-100, utilizando el método ABC. Para la evaluación de la reactividad inmunohistoquímica se utilizaron 2 biopsias de piel humana con diagnóstico histopatológico de melanoma maligno nodular ulcerado y nevus melanocítico intradérmico, provenientes del Laboratorio de Investigación en Biotecnología Animal de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. Se utilizó el Kit VECTASTAIN®como método de detección, la dilución del anticuerpo 4C4.9 fue 1/250 y la temperatura de incubación fue a 4 ºC ó 37 ºC por 18 horas. Para validar la técnica, se realizó un control positivo y otro negativo para 4C4.9. Los resultados de la tinción inmunohistoquímica por el método del complejo ABC mostraron tinción positiva para la proteína S-100, tanto en melanoma maligno nodular ulcerado, como en nevus melanocítico intradérmico, incubados durante 18 horas a 4 ºC ó 37 ºC. Sin embargo, la inmunotinción fue más intensa cuando el anticuerpo primario se incubó a 37 ºC. Para una correcta interpretación de los resultados, es necesario tener en consideración que la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo se ve influenciada por diversos factores, como la concentración del anticuerpo, el tiempo y la temperatura de incubación. En conclusión, nuestros resultados sugieren incubarlas muestras con el primer anticuerpo (4C4.9) en una dilución de 1/250 en agua destilada, incu-bando durante 18 h a 37 ºC. Se recomienda la utilización del anticuerpo 4C4.9 como apoyo al diagnóstico y diagnóstico diferencial.

Immunohistochemistry is anytechnique that can detect cellular and extracellular components in situ by means of specific antibodies,using enzymatic detection systems. Among immunohistochemical methods, the technique ofavidin - biotin complex (ABC) is widely used because of its high sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity of the4C4.9 antibody for detection of S-100 protein using the ABC method. For the evaluation ofimmunohistochemical reactivity 2 biopsies of humanskin were used with histopathological diagnosis ofulcerated malignant melanoma and melanocyticintradermal nevi from the Research Laboratory onAnimal Biotechnology of the Universidad de La Fron-tera, Chile. The Kit VECTASTAIN® was used asdetection method, the dilution the 4C4.9 antibodywas 1/250 and incubation temperature was at 4 °Cor 37 °C for 18 hours. To validate the technique, apositive control and a negative for 4C4.9 was performed. The results of immunohistochemicalstaining by the method of ABC complex showed positive staining for protein S-100 both in ulcerated malignant melanoma and melanocytic intradermalnevi, incubated for 18 hours at 4 °C or 37 °C.However, immunostaining was more intense when the primary antibody was incubated at 37° C. For acorrect interpretation of the results, it is necessary to take into consideration that the antigen-antibody reaction is influenced by various factors such as the concentration of antibody, time and temperature ofincubation. In conclusion, our results suggest incubating the samples with the first antibody (4C4.9)at 1/250 dilution in distilled water, incubating for 18h at 37 ºC. However, immunostaining was moreintense when the primary antibody was incubated at37° C. For a correct interpretation of the results, it isnecessary to take into consideration that antigen-antibody reaction is influenced by various factors suchas the concentration of antibody, time and temperature of incubation. In conclusion, our results suggest incubating the samples with the first antibody(4C4.9) at 1/250 dilution in distilled water, incubating for 18 h at 37 ºC. The use of the antibody 4C4.9 is recommended to support the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

Immunohistochemistry/methods , S100 Proteins/metabolism , Melanoma/metabolism , Antibodies/metabolism , Staining and Labeling , Biotin/chemistry , Avidin/metabolism , Melanoma/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Nevus, Pigmented/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53512


Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important auxiliary method for pathologists in routine diagnostic work as well as in basic and clinical research including exploration of biomarkers, as IHC allows confirmation of target molecule expressions in the context of microenvironment. Although there has been a considerable progress in automation and standardization of IHC, there are still many things to be considered in proper optimization and appropriate interpretation. In this review, we aim to provide possible pitfalls and useful tips for practicing pathologists and residents in pathology training. First, general procedure of IHC is summarized, followed by pitfalls and tips in each step and a summary of troubleshooting. Second, ways to an accurate interpretation of IHC are discussed, with introduction to general quantification and analysis methods. This review is not intended to provide complete information on IHC, but to be used as a basic reference for practice and publication.

Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Automation , Biomarkers , Immunohistochemistry , Methods , Pathology , Publications
Recife; s.n; 2016. 196 p. ilus, tab, c30 cm.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871413


O diagnóstico da doença de Chagas crônica (DCC) baseia-se em metodologias que usam em sua fase sólida antígenos brutos, semipurificados ou recombinantes, podendo resultar em baixa sensibilidade ou reação cruzada. Uma forma para resolver este problema é o uso de quimeras formadas por epítopos conservados e repetitivos de diferentes estruturas parasitárias em uma única molécula. O nosso objetivo foi caracterizar e avaliar o uso de quimeras em imunoensaios para o diagnóstico da DCC. As quimeras, IBMP-8.1, IBMP-8.2, IBMP-8.3 e IBMP-8.4 foram purificadas por meio de cromatografia e sua pureza avaliada por SDS-PAGE. Ensaios de dicroísmo circular (DC) e espalhamento dinâmico da luz (EDL) foram usados para avaliação do raio hidrodinâmico das quimeras, avaliação de sua estabilidade e escolha do sistema tampão que oferecesse o menor estado de agregação molecular. Ensaios sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi através de ELISA foram realizados utilizando um painel de 857 amostras positivas para a DCC e 689 negativas. Para avaliação de reação cruzada foram usadas 1079 amostras de diversas doenças endêmicas no país. A purificação foi eficiente uma vez que o SDS-PAGE indicou ausência de degradação das quimeras. As análises de DC e EDL mostraram que as quatro quimeras apresentaram menor tendência de agregação em tampão carbonato pH 9,6, sendo, assim, este o sistema para a sensibilização das placas. Os ensaios sorológicos revelaram valores elevados de sensibilidade (Sen) e especificidade (Esp) para a molécula IBMP-8.4 (Sen-99,3 por cento; Esp-100 por cento). O desempenho para as demais moléculas foi satisfatório, ficando os valores de Sen e Esp acima de 94 por cento. As moléculas IBMP-8.1, IBMP-8.2, IBMP-8.3 e IBMP-8.4 apresentaram respectivamente 0,46 por cento, 0,85 por cento, 0,46 por cento e 0,37 por cento de reação cruzada. Os resultados apontam que as quimeras atingiram os critérios de proficiência do Ministério da Saúde podendo, dessa forma, ser utilizados em ensaios diagnósticos para a DCC.

Animals , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis , Chimera , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(4): 344-348, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-752475


O estudo de conidiobolomicose ovina tem sido realizado nos seus aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos, patológicos e moleculares. Informações, entretanto, sobre a resposta imune do hospedeiro na infecção por Conidiobolus lamprauges são inexistentes. Este estudo teve por objetivo a identificação de proteínas imunorreativas que possam desempenhar papel importante na resposta imune de ovinos naturalmente infectados por C. lamprauges. Para a caracterização protéica e imunológica foi utilizada a cepa de C. lamprauges (FIOCRUZ-INCQS 40316) isolada de ovino com sinais clínicos de conidiobolomicose no Estado do MT e cinco amostras de soro de ovinos infectados naturalmente pelo fungo. A presença de anticorpos IgG foi observada em todos os animais doentes com títulos reagentes em diluições de até 1:1.600. Na técnica do immunoblot, o perfil antigênico frente aos soros ovinos com a doença apresentou doze bandas reativas, com massas moleculares variando de 35 a 198 kDa. Dentre estas, a proteína de 198 kDa foi reativa em 3 soros de ovinos e a de 53 kDa apresentou a maior intensidade comparativamente com outras bandas, sendo provavelmente imunodominante. Amostras de soro de animais sadios não apresentaram reatividade demostrando a especificidade da técnica. A presença de proteínas antigênicas de C. lamprauges e IgG específicos em soros de ovinos observados no presente trabalho poderá auxiliar no desenvolvimento de métodos de diagnóstico precoces e na utilização de proteínas candidatas a vacinas para o controle e prevenção da infecção em animais e humanos.(AU)

The study of sheep conidiobolomycosis has been carried out in its clinical, epidemiological, pathological and molecular aspects. Information, however, about the host immune response in infection Conidiobolus lamprauges is absent. This study aimed to identify immunoreactive proteins that may play an important role in the immune response of sheep naturally infected by C. lamprauges. For protein and immunological characterization, C. lamprauges (strain FIOCRUZ-INCQS 40316) isolated from a sheep with clinical signs of conidiobolomycosis in the MT state and five sera samples of naturally infected sheep were used. The presence of IgG antibody was observed in all patients with reagent titers in dilutions up to 1:1600. In immunoblot technique, the antigenic profile against infected sheep sera showed twelve reactive bands with molecular weights ranging from 35 to 198 kDa. Among them, the 198 kDa protein was reactive against sera from three sheep and the 53 kDa showed increased intensity compared to other bands probably being immunodominant. Healthy animal serum samples showed no reactivity demonstrating the specificity of the technique. The presence of antigenic proteins of C. lamprauges and specific IgG in sheep sera observed in this study may assist in the development of early diagnostic methods and the use of protein as candidate vaccines for the control and prevention of infection in animals and human.(AU)

Animals , Sheep , Conidiobolus , Zygomycosis/veterinary , Immunoblotting/veterinary , Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Teresina; s.n; 2015. xv, 61 f p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971491


INTRODUÇÃO: Meningite criptocócica causa aproximadamente 15 por cento da mortalidade relacionada com a AIDS anualmente. A Criptococose é uma enfermidade negligenciada. Contudo, pode ser prevenida pela realização do screening através da pesquisa do Antígeno Criptocócico(CrAg) e de tratamento precoce durante um longo período de detecção ou infecção subclínica. Nosso estudo determinou a prevalência da antigenemia criptocócica levando em consideração níveis de linfócitos CD4 e sintomas clínicos. MÉTODOS: Ao todo, 109 pacientes com HIV/AIDS, consentiram em participar deste estudo. Inicialmente, fez-se um levantamento de dados sócio- demográficos dos mesmos, além dos dados clínicos contidos no prontuário. A pesquisa de antígeno criptocócico utilizando Lateral Flow Assay( CrAg/LFA) no sangue e urina foi realizado em todos os pacientes inclusos no estudo, independente dos níveis de linfócitos CD4. Para os que apresentaram CrAg positivo em sangue e urina, foram submetidos a punção lombar para avaliação de CrAg no líquor...

INTRODUCTION: Annually, cryptococcal meningitis causes approximately 15% of deathsrelated to AIDS. The cryptococcosis is a neglected disease. Nevertheless, it can be preventedby performing the screening by means of investigating the cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) andearly treatment for a long period of detection or subclinical infection. Our study determinedthe prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia taking into account the levels of CD4lymphocytes and clinical symptoms.METHODS: All together, 109 patients with HIV / AIDS, agreed to participate in this study.Initially, there was a survey of patients’ socio-demographic data, in addition to clinical datafrom the medical record. The cryptococcal antigen test using Lateral Flow Assay (CrAg /LFA) in blood and urine was carried out in all patients included in the study, regardless ofCD4 lymphocyte levels. Those who were CrAg positive for blood and urine underwent alumbar puncture for CrAg assessment in the fluid...

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Cryptococcosis , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , HIV , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [129] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870758


INTRODUÇÃO: Toxocaríase é uma infecção parasitária de distribuição global, causada pela fase larval de Toxocara spp. Os hospedeiros naturais são cães e gatos, nos quais o parasita completa o ciclo chegando a fase adulta. Outros hospedeiros podem ser infectados pela fase larval do parasita, após ingestão de ovos embrionados do solo, mãos contaminadas, fomites, ou ingestão de carne ou vísceras de animais infectados. Em hospedeiros paratênicos o parasita não completa o ciclo, invadindo em estágio larval vísceras ou outros tecidos, onde podem sobreviver e induzir a patologia. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), como modelo experimental de toxocaríase, inicialmente através do estudo das lesões histopatológicas em fígado, pulmão e rim. A caracterização da resposta imunológica do modelo, foi feita através do estudo de citocinas envolvidas nas respostas Th1 e Th2, e foi sugerida uma correlação entre alterações glomerulares e depósitos de complexos antígenos-anticorpo pré-formados na circulação. MÉTODOS: Hamsters foram inoculados com ovos embrionados de Toxocara canis, e mantidos no biotério do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. O estudo histopatológico foi desenvolvido utilizando-se cortes parafinados corados por hematoxilina e eosina. Para detecção de antígenos nos tecidos foram realizadas reações imunohistoquímicas, utilizando-se anticorpo monoclonal e policlonal anti- Toxocara canis. Utilizando-se o soro dos animais infectados e animais controle, foi realizada pesquisa de antígeno e anticorpo por ELISA. Para pesquisa de imunoglobulinas IgG e IgM e complemento, foram utilizados cortes congelados de rins para realização de reação de Imunofluorescência. Fragmentos de rins foram incluídos para utilização em microscopia eletrônica, para detecção de antígenos de toxocara e de imune complexos. Para caracterização de resposta imunológica foram estudadas citocinas envolvidas na resposta Th1 e Th2 por técnica de...

INTRODUCTION: Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection of global distribution, caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The natural hosts are dogs and cats, in which the parasite completes the cycle reaching adulthood. Other hosts can be infected with the larval stage of the parasite, after ingestion of embryonated eggs from the soil, contaminated hands, fomites, or ingestion of meat or viscera of infected animals. In paratenics hosts the parasite not complete the cycle, encroaching on larval stage in viscera or other tissues where they can survive and induce pathology. The present study aimed to characterize the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, as experimental model of toxocariasis, initially through the study of histopathological lesions in the liver, lung and kidney. The characterization of immune response model, was made through the study of cytokines Th1 and Th2 responses involved, and a correlation was suggested between glomerular changes and antibody-antigen complexes deposits preformed in the circulation. METHODS: Hamsters were inoculated with embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis, and kept in the bioterium of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of the São Paulo. The histopathologic study was developed using paraffin slides stained by hematoxylin and eosin. For detection of antigens in tissues immunohistochemistry reactions were performed using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-Toxocara canis sera. Using the serum of infected and control animals, search has been carried out of antigen and antibody by ELISA. For the search of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and complement, were used slides prepared from frozen fragments of kidneys and a immunofluorescence reaction. Fragments of kidneys were included for electron microscopy to detect antigens of Toxocara and immune complexes. For characterization of Th1 and Th2 response cytokines involved were detected by RT-PCR technique. RESULTS: Histopathological findings demonstrated since the beginning of the...

Animals , Cats , Dogs , Rats , Glomerulonephritis , Infections/parasitology , Kidney Diseases , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Antigen-Antibody Reactions/immunology , Toxocara canis/pathogenicity , Toxocariasis/parasitology , Models, Animal , Mesocricetus/methods
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 322-328, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245082


In order to obtain the lead compound for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in this study, therapeutic efficacy of three bispecific antibodies (BsAB-1, BsAB-2 and BsAB-3) against both hIL-1beta and hIL-17 were compared on CIA model mice. First, by ELISA method we compared the binding capacity of the three bispecific antibodies to the two antigens. The results showed that all three antibodies could simultaneously bind both antigens, among these antibodies, BsAB-1 was superior over BsAB-2 and BsAB-3. CIA model was established with chicken type II collagen (CII) and developed RA-like symptoms such as ankle swelling, skin tight, hind foot skin hyperemia. The CIA mice were treated with three antibodies once every two days for total of 29 days. Compared with the CIA model mice, the RA-like symptoms of the antibody treated-mice significantly relieved, while the BsAB-1 treated-mice were almost recovered. CII antibody level in the serum and cytokines (IL-2, IL-1beta, IL-17A and TNF-alpha) expression in the spleen were examined. Compared with the CIA model mice, all three antibodies could significantly reduce CII antibody and cytokine expression levels. BsAB-1 antibody was more potent than BsAB-2 and BsAB-3. In summary, BsAB-1 is superior over BsAB-2 and BsAB-3 in amelioration of RA symptoms and regulation of CII antibody production and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, therefore, BsAB-1 can be chosen as a lead compound for further development of drug candidate for treatment of RA.

Animals , Antibodies , Metabolism , Antibodies, Bispecific , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutic Uses , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Arthritis, Experimental , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Collagen Type II , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-17 , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Spleen , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50917


The N-terminal fragment of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a commonly used biomarker for the diagnosis of congestive heart failure, although its biological function is not well known. NT-proBNP exhibits heavy O-linked glycosylation, and it is quite difficult to develop an antibody that exhibits glycosylation-independent binding. We developed an antibody that binds to the recombinant NT-proBNP protein and its deglycosylated form with similar affinities in an enzyme immunoassay. The epitope was defined as Gly63-Lys68 based on mimetic peptide screening, site-directed mutagenesis and a competition assay with a peptide mimotope. The nearest O-glycosylation residues are Thr58 and Thr71; therefore, four amino acid residues intervene between the epitope and those residues in both directions. In conclusion, we report that an antibody reactive to Gly63-Lys68 of NT-proBNP exhibits O-glycosylation-independent binding.

Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Heart Failure/immunology , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Rabbits , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 3(2): 746-751, maio.-ago.2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-734102


A transfusão de sangue é vital para a gestão de pacientes que necessitam de transplante hepático, poismuitos deles sãohemotransfundidos durante o curso da doença, ou para alcançar o sucesso do procedimento cirúrgico. A amostra desangue do paciente que necessita de politransfusõesdeve ser fenotipada para antígenos altamente imunogênicos, alémdos ABO e RhD, na tentativa de prevenir a aloimunização. No entanto, a relação custo/benefício deve ser considerada eprotocolos para identificação de hemocomponentes compatíveis com esses pacientes devem ser estimulados. Nesteestudo, unidades de sangue foram testadas para o paciente com aloanticorpos anti-e, anti-Fyae uma aglutinina fria nãoidentificada, utilizando o soro do paciente e plasma de doador com aloanticorpo anti-e e anti-E. Nas unidadesselecionadas foi realizada a prova cruzada com o soro do paciente e as compatíveis foram fenotipadas para os antígenos“e” e “Fya”. Como resultado, 2039 unidades de sangue foram testadas e 382 selecionadas. Através das provas cruzadasdestas com o soro do paciente, foram encontradas 109 unidades compatíveis e 11 unidades encontradas foramfenotipicamente compatíveis com o paciente (0,54% das unidades totais). Este caso ilustra como é difícil a localização desangue compatível para pacientes com múltiplos aloanticorpos de alta frequência.

Humans , Male , Female , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Blood Transfusion , Liver Transplantation
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 35-44, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614906


INTRODUCTION: The goal was to develop an in-house serological method with high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis and monitoring of Chagas disease morbidity. METHODS: With this purpose, the reactivities of anti-T. cruzi IgG and subclasses were tested in successive serum dilutions of patients from Berilo municipality, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The performance of the in-house ELISA was also evaluated in samples from other relevant infectious diseases, including HIV, hepatitis C (HCV), syphilis (SYP), visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), and noninfected controls (NI). Further analysis was performed to evaluate the applicability of this in-house methodology for monitoring Chagas disease morbidity into three groups of patients: indeterminate (IND), cardiac (CARD), and digestive/mixed (DIG/Mix), based on their clinical status. RESULTS: The analysis of total IgG reactivity at serum dilution 1:40 was an excellent approach to Chagas disease diagnosis (100 percent sensitivity and specificity). The analysis of IgG subclasses showed cross-reactivity, mainly with NI, VL, and ATL, at all selected serum dilutions. Based on the data analysis, the IND group displayed higher IgG3 levels and the DIG/Mix group presented higher levels of total IgG as compared with the IND and CARD groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that methodology presents promising applicability in the analysis of anti-T. cruzi IgG reactivity for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of Chagas disease morbidity.

INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo foi desenvolver um método sorológico in-house de alta especificidade e sensibilidade para diagnosticar e monitorar a morbidade da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Para tal, a reatividade sorológica de IgG e subclasses foi testada em soros de pacientes chagásicos de Berilo, Vale do Jequitinhonha/MG/Brasil. A reatividade sorológica foi também avaliada em amostras de pacientes com outras doenças infecto-contagiosas relevantes, incluindo o HIV, vírus da hepatite C (VHC), sífilis (SYP), leishmaniose visceral (LV), leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) e controles não infectados (NI) para verificar o desempenho do método. Outras análises foram feitas para avaliar a aplicabilidade desta metodologia no monitoramento da morbidade da doença de Chagas. Com este propósito os pacientes com doença de Chagas foram anteriormente classificados em três grupos: indeterminados (IND), cardíacos (CARD) e digestivos/mistos (DIG/Mis) conforme seu estado clínico. RESULTADOS: A análise da reatividade sorológica de IgG total na diluição 1:40 mostrou ser uma abordagem importante no diagnóstico da doença de Chagas (100 por cento de sensibilidade e especificidade e ausência de reação cruzada com as demais infecções). A análise das subclasses de IgG mostrou reação cruzada principalmente com NI, LV e LTA em todas as diluições. O grupo IND apresentou a maior reatividade para IgG3 e o grupo DIG/Mis apresentou nível mais elevado de IgG se comparados aos grupos IND e CARD. CONCLUSÕES: Estes achados demonstram que o método de ELISA in-house apresenta uma promissora aplicabilidade no diagnóstico diferencial e na avaliação da morbidade da doença de Chagas.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
Sahara J (Online) ; 9(1): 30-40, 2012.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271529


The unprecedented roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa is a complex process where no previous endeavour exists that can measure; predict; or direct an intervention of this scale. In the Free State province; unique characteristics and problems distinguish its ART programme; although countrywide problems also occur within the province. The Free State province faces high vacancy rates among its health-care workers; the programme has lower patient enrolment rates because of an obsession with quality to the detriment of quantity; and various incidents of ART shortages have also shook the province. The ART rollout intervention thus far has been largely nurse-driven (however not nurse initiated); and they form what many refer to as the 'backbone' of the programme. In order to respond to the challenges faced by these front-line ART providers; continuous transformations inevitably take place to respond to new needs associated with the roll-out programme; but also to strengthen the primary health-care system in general. The objective of this article is to present a typology of contradictory contextual factors in the antiretroviral programme as identified through group interviews that were conducted with PNs at public healthcare clinics in the five districts of the Free State province during 2005 and 2006. We intend to show that transformations often have contradictory and problematic outcomes as expressed and perceived by the nurses themselves. This unprecedented endeavour of ART roll-out inevitably has to treasure and support its most valued implementers; i.e. the front-line providers who are not only professionals in the health-care setting; but also social agents in a wider contextual framework

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections , Nurse's Role , Perception , Primary Health Care
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 393-398, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323030


The amino group PEGylation of rhIFNomega with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (mPEG-SS, 20 000) was investigated, and the modified mixture was separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Under the optimized purification conditions, the average content ofmono PEG-rhIFNomega in the collect liquid reached 182 microg x mL(-1). The average purified yield of mono PEG-rhIFNomega exceed to 22%, and the purity of mono PEG-rhIFNomega was greater than 98% by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Relative molecular mass of mono PEG-rhIFNomega was 43 790 detected by MALDI-TOF MS. The apparent molecular mass measured by SDS-PAGE was about 60 810. The purified PEG-rhIFNomega has the characteristics of typical PEGylated protein. Activity reservation rate of mono PEG-rhIFNomega was 15.0%, while the antigenicity decreased by at least 64 folds. In addition, the acid stability, thermal stability and stability in serum and trypsin solution of mono PEG-rhIFNomega were markedly better than those of the rhIFNomega. The pharmacological properties of mono PEG-rhIFNomega were significantly improved. The prepared PEG-rhIFNomega might be developed to a novel safe and long-acting interferon.

Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Drug Stability , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Interferon Type I , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Molecular Weight , Polyethylene Glycols , Chemistry , Rabbits , Recombinant Proteins , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 131-136, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351525


The lower expression of CD20 antigen molecules on the B cell membrane is the primary characteristic of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). In this paper, we combined laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and quantum dots labeling to detect the expression and distribution of CD20 molecules on CD20+B lymphocyte surface. Simultaneously, we investigated the morphology and ultrastructure of the B lymphocytes that belonged to the normal persons and B-CLL patients through utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, we measured the force spectroscopy of CD20 antigen-antibody binding using the AFM tips modified with CD20 antibody. The fluorescent images indicated that the density of CD20 of normal CD20+B lymphocytes was much higher than that of B-CLL CD20+B cells. The AFM data show that ultrastructure of B-CLL CD20+B lymphocytes became more complicated. Moreover, the single molecular force spectroscopy data show that the special force of CD20 antigen-antibody was four times bigger than the nonspecific force between the naked AFM tip and cell surface. The force map showed that CD20 molecules distributed homogeneously on the normal CD20+B lymphocytes, whereas, the CD20 molecules distributed heterogenous on B-CLL CD20+B lymphocytes. Our data provide visualized evidence for the phenomenon of low-response to rituximab therapy on clinical. Meanwhile, AFM is possible to be a powerful tool for development and screening of drugs for pharmacology use.

Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens, CD20 , Allergy and Immunology , B-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , Cell Membrane , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Allergy and Immunology , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Confocal , Quantum Dots
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 33(4): 259-262, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601002


BACKGROUND: Plasma components of group O blood donations are rarely submitted to ABO antibody titrations even though it is well known that passively acquired antibodies may destroy the recipient's own red cells and tissue grafts. OBJECTIVE: Thus, group O donations stratified by gender and age were randomly titrated to identify the best source of products for apheresis and exsanguinous transfusion. METHODS: Samples from 603 blood donors were tested by ABO antibody titration using the conventional tube technique at room temperature. ABO antibody levels higher than 64 were considered high. After correction for gender, statistical analyses were performed using the Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Most donors in the blood bank were male (65.7 percent). ABO antibody titers ranged from 1 to 2048. The estimations of prevalence for the titers were: anti-A,B < 128 = 86.9 percent and > 128 = 2.16 percent; Anti-A > 128 = 9.29 percent and anti-B > 128 = 4.81 percent. Low mean titers for both anti-A and anti-B antibodies were found in over 50-year-old men (p-value = 0.040). High anti-B antibody levels were found in young women (p-value = 0.002). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that over 50-year-old O group men should be selected as blood donors in non-identical ABO transfusion situations. Also, titration of ABO antibodies in blood banks will increase safety in non-identical ABO transfusions.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Donors , Blood Group Antigens , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Transfusion , ABO Blood-Group System , Agglutination Tests/methods , Titrimetry/methods , Viral Load , Agglutinins , Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(2): 358-364, Apr.-June 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545342


The goal of this study was to perform a seroepidemiological investigation and to identify risk factors associated with infection of Chlamydophila abortus of sheep herds in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The study was conducted with samples of 274 ewes with ages equal to or higher than 24 months in 25 herds and in 23 towns located in three regions of the state (Sertão, Agreste and Eastern Alagoas). Anti-C. abortus antibodies were detected using the microcomplement fixation test. The risk factors, were determined based on questionnaires consisting of objective questions, about the farmer and general characteristics of the herd like size, sanitary situation and reproductive management. Among 274 sera samples analyzed for C. abortus, 59 (21.5 percent) were positive with titers >32, 187 (68.3 percent) negative and 28 (10.2 percent) suspect with titers >16. In the 23 towns studied, 20 had positive animals. Among herds 21 (77.7 percent) of had positive animals. The only variable which appeared to be significant in the multivariate analysis was the region, and Sertão was the most significant (p<0.001; OR=3.48; T.I. 1.79 - 6.76). Results indicate that infection by Chlamydophila abortus is widespread on sheep farms in the State of Alagoas. Others studies, however, have to be conducted to isolate the agent in order to confirm the role of the bacteria is reproductive disturbances in sheeps. In addition to that, control and prophylactic measures along with health promoting programs have to be encouraged on the studied farms so that infection reates are reduced.

Animals , Cattle , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antibodies/isolation & purification , Chlamydophila/isolation & purification , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiology and Biostatistics , Methods , Risk Factors , Serologic Tests