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Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370201, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374072


Purpose: To evaluate fibrosis formation and number of macrophages in capsules formed around textured implants without and with mesh coverage. Methods: Fibrosis was analyzed through transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) immunomarker expression and the number of macrophages through CD68 percentage of cells in magnified field. Sixty female Wistar rats were distributed into two groups of 30 rats (unmeshed and meshed). Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups for postoperative evaluation after 30 and 90 days. The p value was adjusted by Bonferroni lower than 0.012. Results: No difference was observed in fibrosis between meshed and unmeshed groups (30 days p = 0.436; 90 days p = 0.079) and from 30 to 90 days in the unmeshed group (p = 0.426). The meshed group showed higher fibrosis on the 90th day (p = 0.001). The number of macrophages was similar between groups without and with mesh coverage (30 days p = 0.218; 90 days p = 0.044), and similar between subgroups 30 and 90 days (unmeshed p = 0.085; meshed p = 0.059). Conclusions: In the meshed group, fibrosis formation was higher at 90 days and the mesh-covered implants produced capsules similar to microtextured ones when analyzing macrophages. Due to these characteristics, mesh coating did not seem to significantly affect the local fibrosis formation.

Animals , Female , Rats , Surgical Mesh/veterinary , Fibrosis/veterinary , Antigens, CD/analysis , Breast Implants/veterinary , Breast Implantation/instrumentation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Rats, Wistar/surgery
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1539-1543, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134474


SUMMARY: Meniscus tear is an important injury affecting the quality of life. This work is aimed to investigate the activity of CD68 and ADAMTS-5 in cells in synovial fluid in male and female patients with meniscal tear. In this study ,18 male and 22 female patients with meniscal tears were included. Local pain sensation during patients' physical examination, swelling, performing daily activities and difficulty in running-walking complaints were determined. 5 cc synovial fluids were aspirated from the lateral suprapatellar pouch part of the knees with meniscal pain. After routine histological follow-up of the samples, they were embedded in paraffin and sectioned with microtome and 5 micrometer thickness. CD68 and ADAMTS-5 primary antibodies were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Sections were taken and evaluated with a stylish microscope. The distribution of blood cells after meniscus tear was higher in female patients than in male patients. CD68 distribution in female patients appeared higher than in male patients. CD68 expression was high in macrophage cell cytoplasm. ADAMTS-5 expression was higher in female patients in degenerative cells and apoptotic cells. ADAMTS-5 is an important metallo-protein involved in the development of apoptotic signal and extracellular matrix synthesis in patients with ADAMTS-5 meniscus tear, and it may be an important criterion for the treatment developed after injury. CD68 and ADAMTS-5 activity was thought to be one of the important signal pathways that can be identified in the treatment of meniscus tear.

RESUMEN: La rotura del menisco es una lesión importante que afecta la calidad de vida. El objetivo fue investigar la actividad de CD68 y ADAMTS-5 en células del líquido sinovial en pacientes masculinos y femeninos con desgarro meniscal. Se incluyeron 18 pacientes masculinos y 22 femeninos con desgarros meniscales. Se determinó la sensación de dolor local durante el examen físico de los pacientes, la hinchazón, la realización de actividades diarias y la dificultad al correr y caminar. Se aspiraron 5 cc de líquido sinoviale de la parte de la bolsa suprapatelar lateral de las rodillas de los pacientes con dolor meniscal. Después del seguimiento histológico de rutina, las muestras se incluyeron en parafina y se seccionaron con un micrótomo de grosor de 5 micrómetros. Para el análisis inmunohistoquímico se usaron los anticuerpos primarios CD68 y ADAMTS-5. La distribución de las células sanguíneas después del desgarro del menisco fue mayor en pacientes femeninos que en pacientes masculinos. La distribución de CD68 en pacientes femeninos fue más alta que en pacientes masculinos. Además la expresión de CD68 fue alta en el citoplasma de los macrófagos. La expresión de ADAMTS-5 fue mayor en pacientes femeninos en las células degenerativas y células apoptóticas. ADAMTS-5 es una metaloproteína importante en el desarrollo de la señal apoptótica y la síntesis de matriz extracelular en pacientes con rotura de menisco ADAMTS-5, y puede ser un criterio importante para el tratamiento después de la lesión. La actividad de CD68 y ADAMTS-5 era una de las vías de señal importantes que se pueden identificar en el tratamiento de la rotura del menisco.

Humans , Male , Female , Tibial Meniscus Injuries/metabolism , Tibial Meniscus Injuries/pathology , Knee Joint/metabolism , Knee Joint/pathology , Synovial Fluid/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Synoviocytes/metabolism , ADAMTS5 Protein/analysis , Knee Joint/cytology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510


SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.

RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e033, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089391


Abstract The aim of our study was to isolate populations of keratinocyte stem cells based on the expression of cell surface markers and to investigate whether the culture could affect their phenotype. keratinocytes from human oral mucosa were sorted based on the expression of the epithelial stem cell markers p75NTR and CD71. We also examined the co-expression of other epithelial stem markers such as integrins β1 and α6 and their stem cell-like proprieties in in vitro assays. Three passages after being sorted by MACS, more than 93% of the p75NTR+ve cells lost the expression of p75NTR, while 5.46% of the p75NTR-ve gained it. Within the small population of the p75NTR+ve cells, 88% co-expressed other epithelial stem cell markers such as integrins β1 and α6, while only 28% of p75NTR-ve cells co-expressed these markers. These results were confirmed by sorting cells by FACS. Additionally, when double staining was used for sorting cells, 99% of the p75NTR+veCD71-ve and 33% of the p75NTR-veCD71+ve cells expressed both integrins, but just one week after culture, only 1.74% of the p75NTR+veCD71-ve cells still expressed p75NTR and only 0.32% still expressed CD71. Similar results were obtained when co-culturing p75NTR+ve and p75NTR-ve populations before analysis. Our results suggest that phenotype changes may be part of an intrinsic cellular mechanism to conserve levels of protein expression as they may found in the human body. In addition, in vitro culture may not offer ideal conditions for epithelial stem cell maintenance due to phenotype changes under standard culture conditions.

Humans , Phenotype , Stem Cells/cytology , Keratinocytes/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Receptors, Transferrin/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Antigens, CD/analysis , Cell Separation/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/analysis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 26-31, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038825


Resumen Los pacientes con lepra lepromatosa que han recibido tratamiento durante años, usualmente requieren seguimiento con biopsias de piel para detectar lesiones persistentes o si la baciloscopia es positiva, incluso si los valores son menores que los iniciales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 48 años de edad con lepra lepromatosa de 15 años de evolución, índice bacilar de 4 en el extendido directo y en la biopsia, que recibió tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos durante 32 meses, aunque lo recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) es una duración de 12 meses. Se tomó una biopsia de piel para determinar si la enfermedad estaba activa. Se observó inflamación dérmica difusa con numerosas células gigantes de tipo cuerpo extraño y macrófagos vacuolados (células de Virchow). Estas células, CD68 positivas, contenían material granular ácido-alcohol resistente positivo con inmunohistoquímica para BCG. Se encontraron bacilos fragmentados y el índice bacilar fue de 2. Se interpretó como una forma residual de lepra lepromatosa y se concluyó que la paciente no requería prolongar el tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos. Este perfil histológico se ha observado en casos similares, pero sin datos clínicos estas biopsias representan un reto diagnóstico. La acumulación de lípidos en estas células gigantes se debe a la destrucción bacilar y a la fusión de macrófagos vacuolados. Se revisó el papel de los lípidos del bacilo y del huésped en la patogenia de la lepra lepromatosa. En estos casos, no es necesario extender los 12 meses de tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos recomendados por la OMS. En el seguimiento de los pacientes, se recomienda contar con los hallazgos clínicos, la baciloscopia, la biopsia anual de piel y los títulos IgM antiglucolípido fenólico.

Abstract Patients with lepromatous leprosy that have received treatment for many years usually get follow up biopsies for persistent skin lesions or positive bacilloscopy even if the values are lower than in the initial bacilloscopy. We report the case of a 48-year old woman with long-standing lepromatous leprosy of 15 years of evolution, with a bacterial index of 4 in the direct smear and the initial skin biopsy. The patient was treated with multidrug therapy for 32 months although the treatment recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is only for 12 months. A skin biopsy was taken to determine if there was an active disease. We observed a diffuse dermal inflammation with numerous foreign body giant cells and vacuolated macrophages (Virchow´s cells). These cells contained granular acid-fast material that was also positive with immunohistochemistry for BCG. There were fragmented bacilli and the BI was 2. These cells were also strongly positive for CD68. The biopsy was interpreted as a residual form of lepromatous leprosy that did not require further multidrug therapy. We have observed similar histological profiles in several cases. The lack of clinical data makes it a histological challenge. The accumulation of lipids in these giant cells is due to bacillary destruction and fusion of vacuolated macrophages. We discuss here the role of bacillary and host lipids in the pathogenesis of lepromatous leprosy. We concluded that there was no need to extend the 12-month multidrug therapy recommended by WHO. Clinical findings, bacilloscopy, annual skin biopsy, and anti-phenolic glycolipid-I IgM titers are recommended procedures for the follow-up of these patients.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/pathology , Foam Cells/pathology , Skin/microbiology , Vacuoles , Biopsy , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Antigens, CD/analysis , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/microbiology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/chemistry , Cell Wall/chemistry , Drug Therapy, Combination , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Foam Cells/microbiology , Foam Cells/chemistry , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipids/analysis , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium leprae/chemistry
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 66-70, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019442


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In Brazil, particularly in the underdeveloped localities, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections can range up to 90%. These rates are higher in older individuals and vary by country region. H. pylori infections are linked to the development of gastric pathologies, namely mild to moderate gastritis, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. In 1994, this organism was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as pertaining to the Group 1 carcinogen for gastric adenocarcinoma etiology. Gastric cancer represents a significant public health problem, being the fourth most common malignant tumor and the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients and determine the link between clinical risk factors and gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosis. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed for molecular diagnosis of gastric tissue biopsies collected from 113 dyspeptic patients at the University Hospital of Federal University of Goiás. Molecular analyses allowed the identification of H. pylori infections. Furthermore, histopathological examinations were performed to determine the clinical risks of developing gastric malignancies. RESULTS: The test results identified 69 individuals older than 44 years, from 75 (66.4%) positive H. pylori infection samples. The prevalence of gastric adenocarcinoma in this study was 1.3%. Among the infected patients, six (8.2%) had high risk, and 67 (91.8%) had a low risk of developing gastric cancer (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and identifies its contribution to gastric inflammations, which in the long term are manifested in high-risk clinical factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: No Brasil, particularmente nas áreas mais pobres, a prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori pode variar até 90%. Esses índices aumentam com o envelhecimento da população e são distintos entre as diferentes regiões do país. Podendo manifestar diferentes sintomatologias, essa infecção está diretamente relacionada com o desenvolvimento de patologias gástricas como gastrite leve a moderada, gastroenterites, úlcera péptica, metaplasia intestinal e principalmente, o câncer gástrico. Em 1994 a bactéria foi categorizada pela International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) como carcinógeno do Grupo 1 para adenocarcinoma gástrico, tipo de câncer que representa um importante problema de saúde pública, sendo o quarto tumor maligno mais comum e a segunda maior causa de mortes por câncer no mundo. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da bactéria em pacientes dispépticos e avaliar a associação de fatores de risco clínicos para desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma gástrico. MÉTODOS: Biópsias de tecido gástrico coletadas de 113 pacientes dispépticos, atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás, foram submetidas a diagnóstico molecular por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase, para identificação da infecção por Helicobacter pylori, e exame histopatológico, para avaliar o risco clínico de desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma gástrico. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticadas 75 (66,4%) amostras positivas para infecção por Helicobacter pylori, sendo 69 indivíduos maiores de 44 anos de idade. A prevalência do adenocarcinoma gástrico nesse estudo foi de 1,3% e dentre os pacientes positivos para a infecção bacteriana seis (8,2%) possuem alto risco e 67 (91,8%) baixo risco de desenvolver esse tipo de câncer (P<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Esse estudo mostra uma alta prevalência da infecção por H. pylori na população estudada e identifica sua intrínseca contribuição para inflamações gástricas, que a longo prazo se manifestam em fatores clínicos de alto risco para o desenvolvimento de adenocarcinoma gástrico.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Periapical Granuloma/pathology , Radicular Cyst/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Antigens, CD/analysis , Chronic Disease , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Receptors, Cell Surface/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 30, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088600


Abstract Background: Adaptive immune cells, including CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, are important for maintaining immunological tolerance. In human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells are reduced, whereas CD69 expression is increased, resulting in a homeostatic immune imbalance that may intensify autoreactive T cell activity. To analyze the mechanisms implicated in autotolerance failure, we evaluated CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells and interleukin profiles in a pristane-induced SLE experimental model. Methods: For lupus induction, 26 female Balb/c mice received a single intraperitoneal 0.5 ml dose of pristane, and 16 mice received the same dose of saline. Blood and spleen samples were collected from euthanized mice 90 and 120 days after pristane or saline inoculation. Mononuclear cells from peripheral blood (PBMC), peritoneal lavage (PL) and splenocytes were obtained by erythrocyte lysis and cryopreserved for further evaluation by flow cytometry using the GuavaEasyCyte TM HT. After thawing, cells were washed and stained with monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD28, CD69, FoxP3, CD14 and Ly6C (BD Pharmingen TM). Interleukins were quantified using Multiplex® MAP. The Mann-Whitney test and the Pearson coefficient were used for statistical analysis, and p < 0.05 considered significant. Results: Compared with the controls, SLE-induced animals presented increased numbers of CD4+CD69+ T cells in the blood on T90 and T120 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008) and in the spleen on T120 (p = 0.049), but there were decreased numbers in the PL (p = 0.049) on T120. The percentage of Treg was lower in blood (p < 0.005 and p < 0.012) on T90 and T120, in spleen (p = 0.043) on T120 and in PL (p = 0.001) on T90. Increased numbers of CD4+ CD69+ T cells in the PL were positively associated with high IL-2 (p = 0.486) and IFN-γ (p = 0.017) levels, whereas reduced Treg cells in the blood were negatively correlated with TNFα levels (p = 0.043) and positively correlated with TGFβ1 (p = 0.038). Conclusion: Increased numbers of CD4+CD69+ T cells and reduced numbers of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells with an altered interleukin profile suggests loss of autotolerance in pristane-induced lupus mice, which is similar to human lupus. Therefore, this model is useful in evaluating mechanisms of cellular activation, peripheral tolerance and homeostatic immune imbalance involved in human SLE.

Animals , Female , Mice , Spleen/cytology , Peritoneal Lavage , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Spleen/immunology , Terpenes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antigens, Ly/analysis , Antigens, Ly/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, CD/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , CD28 Antigens/analysis , CD28 Antigens/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/analysis , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Forkhead Transcription Factors/analysis , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/analysis , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/chemically induced , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e047, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001602


Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate macrophage M1 and M2 subpopulations in radicular cysts (RCs) and periapical granulomas (PGs) and relate them to clinical and morphological aspects. M1 macrophages were evaluated by the percentage of CD68 immunostaining associated with the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and M2 macrophages, by its specific CD163 antibody. The CD68+/CD163+ ratio was adopted to distinguish between the two macrophage subpopulations. Clinical, radiographic, symptomatology, treatment, and morphological parameters of lesions were collected and a significance level of p = 0.05 was adopted for statistical analysis. The results showed that the CD68+/CD163+ ratio was higher in the RCs (median = 1.22, p = 0.002), and the highest TNF-α immunostaining scores were found in RCs (p = 0.018); in PGs, the CD68+/CD163+ ratio was lower and associated with a greater CD163+ immunostaining (median = 1.02, p <0.001). The TNF-α in cyst epithelium had a score of 3 in 10 cases and predominance of M1 macrophages by CD68+/CD163+ (median = 2.23). In addition, CD68+ cells had higher percentage of immunostaining in smaller RCs (p = 0.034). Our findings suggest that increased CD68 immunostaining associated with TNF-α cytokine in RCs results in a greater differentiation of the M1 phenotype. The higher CD163 immunostaining in PGs results in greater differentiation of the M2 phenotype. Therefore, the inflammatory state promoted by M1 macrophages is related to growth and progression of RCs; on the other hand, the immunomodulatory state of M2 macrophages is related to maintenance of PGs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periapical Granuloma/pathology , Radicular Cyst/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Antigens, CD/analysis , Chronic Disease , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Receptors, Cell Surface/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Middle Aged
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 663-673, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010405


Asthma is a chronic disease of airway inflammation due to excessive T helper cell type 2 (Th2) response. Present treatment based on inhalation of synthetic glucocorticoids can only control Th2-driven chronic eosinophilic inflammation, but cannot change the immune tolerance of the body to external allergens. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the main negative regulatory cells of the immune response. Tregs play a great role in regulating allergic, autoimmune, graft-versus-host responses, and other immune responses. In this review, we will discuss the classification and biological characteristics, the established immunomodulatory mechanisms, and the characteristics of induced differentiation of Tregs. We will also discuss the progress of Tregs in the field of asthma. We believe that further studies on the regulatory mechanisms of Tregs will provide better treatments and control strategies for asthma.

Humans , Antigens, CD/analysis , Apyrase/analysis , Asthma/immunology , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines/metabolism , Lymphocyte Transfusion , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4118, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766982


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1) passive stretching over 3 days, 2) immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3) immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (P<0.05). In addition, the semi-quantitative analysis showed that collagen type I was increased and type IV was decreased in the immobilized animals, regardless of whether the stretching protocol was applied. In conclusion, the largest changes in response to stretching were observed in muscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development.

Animals , Female , Immobilization/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscle Strength/physiology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/analysis , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Collagen Type IV/analysis , Collagen Type IV/metabolism , Desmin/analysis , Desmin/metabolism , Dystrophin/analysis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Inclusion Bodies/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Vimentin/analysis , Vimentin/metabolism
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 153-169, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741514


Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor.

Os paradigmas da política externa brasileira e as mudanças no cenário global desde a Guerra Fria criaram as condições para aproximação do Brasil com os países africanos de língua portuguesa. Recentemente, o Brasil tomou a liderança nos processos de integração regional e nas iniciativas de cooperação Sul-Sul. Essas estratégias e a reconhecida expertise técnica da Fiocruz abriram espaço para o envolvimento direto da instituição na política externa do Brasil com a Comunidade de Países de Língua Portuguesa na área da saúde. A Fiocruz desenvolveu projetos de cooperação em áreas diversas, compartilhando seu know-how e melhores práticas em áreas prioritárias dos países parceiros, consolidando a "cooperação estruturante em saúde" e contribuindo para a diversificação de parceiros do país e promovendo o Brasil como ator global.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adenocarcinoma/chemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Cadherins/analysis , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/chemistry , Gallbladder Neoplasms/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Cell Differentiation , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/secondary , Gallbladder Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tumor Burden
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(3): 218-227, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-711715


Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical issues. Pre-clinical studies in a large-animal model, especially in swine or miniature pigs, are highly relevant to human applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and expanded from different sources. Objective: This study aimed at isolating and characterizing, for the first time, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from a Brazilian minipig (BR1). Also, this aimed to validate a new large-animal model for stem cell-based tissue engineering. Material and Methods: Bone marrow (BM) was aspirated from the posterior iliac crest of twelve adult male BR1 under general anesthesia. MSCs were selected by plastic-adherence as originally described by Friedenstein. Cell morphology, surface marker expression, and cellular differentiation were examined. The immunophenotypic profile was determined by flow cytometry. The differentiation potential was assessed by cytological staining and by RT-PCR. Results: MSCs were present in all minipig BM samples. These cells showed fibroblastic morphology and were positive for the surface markers CD90 (88.6%), CD29 (89.8%), CD44 (86.9%) and negative for CD34 (1.61%), CD45 (1.83%), CD14 (1.77%) and MHC-II (2.69%). MSCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as demonstrated by the presence of lipidic-rich vacuoles, the mineralized extracellular matrix, and the great presence of glycosaminoglycans, respectively. The higher gene expression of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type 2 (COLII) also confirmed the trilineage differentiation (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.031; respectively). Conclusions: The isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of BM-MSCs from BR1 makes this animal eligible as a useful large-animal model for stem cell-based studies in Brazil. .

Animals , Male , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Models, Animal , Swine, Miniature , Tissue Engineering/methods , Antigens, CD/analysis , Brazil , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 478-482, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709446


Accumulating evidence has indicated the importance of cancer stem cells in carcinogenesis. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of low-dose cisplatin on enriched liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with concentrations of cisplatin ranging from 1 to 5 μg/mL. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated using a tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. LCSCs were identified using specific markers, namely aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and CD133. The percentage of ALDH1+ or CD133+ cells was examined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of ALDH1 and/or CD133 in HepG2 cells was determined by immunocytochemical analysis. Low-dose cisplatin treatment significantly decreased cell survival in HepG2 cells after 24 or 72 h. However, the percentage of LCSCs in the surviving cells was greatly increased. The percentage of ALDH1+ or CD133+ cells was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner after treatment with 1-4 μg/mL cisplatin, whereas 5 μg/mL cisplatin exposure slightly reduced the number of positive cells. These findings indicate that low-dose cisplatin treatment may efficiently enrich the LCSC population in HepG2 cells.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Hepatoblastoma/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects , Antigens, CD/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry , Glycoproteins/analysis , Hepatoblastoma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Isoenzymes/analysis , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplastic Stem Cells/cytology , Peptides/analysis , Retinal Dehydrogenase/analysis , Tetrazolium Salts , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(2): 131-137, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-704194


Central giant cell lesion (CGCL) and peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL) are non-neoplastic proliferative processes of the jaws. PGCL is a reactive process induced by irritant local factors and CGCL is an intra-osseous lesion of unknown etiology. Both lesions exhibit similar histologic features showing abundant mononuclear cells, admixed with a large number of multinucleated giant cells and a rich vascularized stroma with extravasated erythrocytes, hemosiderin deposition, and blood-filled pools. Recent studies have linked fatty acid synthase (FASN) with angiogenesis. Objective: To evaluate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and their relationship with FASN expression in CGCL and PGCL. Material and Methods: Thirteen CGCL and 14 PGCL of the jaws were selected for immunoexpression of FASN; CD34 and CD105 (to assess blood microvessel density [MVD] and microvessel area [MVA]); and D2-40 (to assess lymphatic MVD and MVA). Results: Within PGCL and CGCL, MVD-CD34 was signifcantly higher than MVD-CD10S, followed by MVD-D2-40. Moreover, a signifcantly higher number of FASN-positive multinucleated giant cells than mononuclear cells were observed. Between PGCL and CGCL, only MVD-CD34 and all MVA were signifcantly higher in PGCL. Positive correlation between MVA-CD10S with FASNpositive mononuclear cells in both lesions was observed. Conclusions: Our results show both lesions exhibiting similar levels of FASN expression and neoangiogenesis, suggesting constitutive processes that regulate tissue maintenance. .

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I/analysis , Giant Cells/pathology , Jaw Diseases/pathology , Lymphangiogenesis/physiology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , /analysis , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Microvessels/pathology , Receptors, Cell Surface/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 114 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881905


A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é a micose sistêmica mais frequente no Brasil. Na última década, foi demonstrado que é possível enviar antígenos diretamente para as células dendríticas utilizando o anticorpo αDEC205 e na presença de um estímulo de maturação, o resultado é a indução de uma resposta imunológica. Verificamos que o anticorpo αDEC fusionado ao peptídeo P10 induziu uma resposta por células produtoras de IFN-γ após uma única dose em relação à administração de P10, mesmo tendo sido administrado em uma concentração menor. Entretanto, essa resposta não se manteve após segunda dose do anticorpo. Após desafio dos animais com P. brasiliensis, imunizados com duas doses do anticorpo quimérico, detectamos níveis de IFN-γ e IL-4 no tecido pulmonar estatisticamente maiores no grupo αDEC/P10 e ISO/P10 em relação à administração de P10, todos em presença de Poly I:C. Em ensaios de terapia, verificamos no pulmão de camundongos tratados com o anticorpo quimérico, principal órgão envolvido em modelo animal de PCM, baixa concentração de IFN-γ e IL-10 em relação aos controles. Em adição, ficou evidente que nos animais tratados com o anticorpo αDEC/P10 o tecido pulmonar está compatível com o tecido de animais não infectados, enquanto que na ausência de tratamento adequado encontramos aglomerados de leveduras e um tecido com aumento no infiltrado celular. Esses achados indicam uma boa evolução clínica em animais tratados e indicam que o direcionamento do P10 através do anticorpo quimérico αDEC/P10, na presença de Poly I:C, é uma estratégia promissora para terapia contra P. brasiliensis

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most common systemic mycosis in Brazil. In the last decade, it was demonstrated that antigens can be directly target to the dendritic cells using the antibody αDEC205 in the presence of a maturation stimulus, resulting in the induction of a strong immune response. We found that αDEC205 antibody fused to peptide P10 induced great response by IFN-γ producing cells after a single dose in relation to the administration of P10, although it has been administered in a lower concentration. However, this response was not maintained after second dose of antibody. Animals challenge with P. brasiliensis, after immunization with two doses of the chimeric antibody, produced high levels IFN-γ and IL-4 in lung tissue significantly higher in αDEC/P10 group in relation to the administration of P10, all in the presence of Poly I:C. In therapy assays, we found in the lungs of mice treated with the chimeric antibody, the main organ involved in an animal model of PCM, low concentration of IFN-γ and IL-10 compared to controls. In addition, it became evident that animals treated with αDEC/P10 antibody have a lung tissue much closer to that of non-infected tissue, while in the absence of suitable treatment we find clusters of yeasts and tissue filled with cellular infiltrates. Altogether, these findings show a clinical improvement in treated animals and indicate that targeting of P10 through the chimeric antibody αDEC/P10 in the presence of Poly I:C, is a promising strategy for therapy against P. brasiliensis

Animals , Male , Mice , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Antigens, CD/analysis , Therapeutics , Vaccination , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6): 997-999, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699008


The chondroid syringoma is a rare benign tumor, also called mixed cutaneous tumor by the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal components, consisting of sweat elements in cartilaginous, collagenous, myxoid or osseous stroma, among others. It mainly affects middle-aged men and is characterized by asymptomatic and slowgrowing, dermal or subcutaneous nodules. The most common locations are the head and neck. It is rare on the extremities. There are reports of malignant variants predominantly in women, located on the extremities. We report a case of a female patient with a lesion on the toe, with excellent outcome after surgical treatment.

O siringoma condroide é um tumor benigno, raro, também chamado de tumor misto cutâneo pela presença de componentes epiteliais e mesenquimais, que consistem em elementos sudoríparos em estroma cartilaginoso, colagênico, mixoide ou ósseo, entre outros. Acomete, principalmente, homens de meia-idade e caracteriza-se por nódulos subcutâneos ou dérmicos, assintomáticos e com crescimento lento. As localizações preferenciais são a cabeça e o pescoço, sendo raro nas extremidades. Existem relatos de variantes malignas, com predomínio em mulheres, localizadas nas extremidades. Relatamos um caso em paciente do sexo feminino, com lesão em extremidade e excelente resultado após o tratamento cirúrgico.

Aged , Humans , Male , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Fatal Outcome
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 194-199, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681863


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are the main cellular component in stroma of many tumors and participate in tumor angiogenesis. The aim of present study was to compare the microvascular density (MVD) and infiltrating macrophage density (IMD) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) with different histological grades. A histomorphometric analysis was performed after immunohistochemistry using antibodies such as von-Willebrand factor and CD68. A significant difference in MVD was found between well and moderately differentiated OSCCs (p<0.05). TAM were largely present in all studied tumors and the IMD was not different among OSCCs with different histological grades (p=0.381). Significant correlation between MVD and IMD was not observed (p=0.870). In conclusion, these results suggest that TAM and angiogenesis have an influence at different histological grades of OSCC. However, the lack of correlation between MVD and IMD could suggest that angiogenesis does not depend on the number of macrophages present in OSCC, but their predominant phenotype. Further studies involving distinct phenotypes of macrophages should be done to better understand the influence of TAM on the tumor angiogenesis.

Macrófagos associados a tumores (MAT) representam o componente principal do estroma de muitos tumores, além de participar da angiogênese tumoral. Este estudo comparou a microdensidade vascular (MDV) e densidade de macrófagos infiltrando o tumor (DMIT) em carcinoma escamocelular da boca (CEC) com diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade. Análise histomorfométrica foi empregada após técnica imuno-histoquímica para os anticorpos fator von-Willebrand e CD68. Uma diferença significante entre MDV e carcinomas bem e moderadamente diferenciados foi observada (p<0,05). MAT estavam fortemente presentes em todos os tumores estudados e a DMIT não foi diferente entre os diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC (p=0,381). Correlação significante entre MDV e DMIT não foi observada (p=0,870). Em conclusão, os resultados desse estudo sugerem a influência de MAT e angiogênese nos diferentes graus histológicos de malignidade do CEC. Entretanto, a ausência de correlação entre MDV e DMIT sugere que a angiogênese não depende do número de macrófagos presentes neste tipo de câncer, mas do fenótipo predominante. Outros estudos devem ser realizados a fim de contribuir para melhor compreensão da participação de MAT na angiogênese tumoral.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Microvessels/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Cell Count , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Gingival Neoplasms/blood supply , Gingival Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Mouth Floor/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasm Grading , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Phenotype , Tongue Neoplasms/blood supply , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(1): 9-16, feb. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-672020


La citometría de flujo multiparamétrica es el método de elección para la caracterización inmunofenotípica de las células hematopoyéticas clonales presentes en los distintos procesos leucémicos agudos. El objetivo fue analizar la expresión de antígenos de membrana y evaluar la presencia de fenotipos aberrantes en los blastos de pacientes con diagnóstico de leucemia aguda, que permiten el monitoreo de la respuesta al tratamiento. Se revisaron los inmunofenotipos de 364 muestras de pacientes adultos derivadas a nuestro laboratorio en un período de 7 años. El inmunofenotipo se realizó por citometría de flujo con un amplio panel de anticuerpos monoclonales con el que se evaluó la expresión de antígenos de linaje linfoide, mieloide y también antígenos de maduración. De las 364 muestras estudiadas, 60.2% presentaron un fenotipo compatible con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), 28.8% con leucemia linfoblástica B (LLA-B), 6.6% con leucemia linfoblástica T (LLA-T) y 4.4% con leucemias agudas poco frecuentes. La presencia de fenotipos aberrantes se observó en 89% de los casos, los fenotipos aberrantes identificados fueron: 1) infidelidad de linaje: LMA (54%), LLA-B (40%), LLA-T (29%); 2) ausencia de expresión antigénica: LMA (21%), LLA-B (35%), LLA-T (70%); 3) alteración de la expresión antigénica: LMA (67%), LLA-B (66%), LLA-T (84%); 4) asincronismo madurativo: LMA (26%), LLA-B (37%) y 5) fenotipo ectópico: LLA-T 96%). El análisis por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica de las leucemias agudas permitió la identificación de fenotipos aberrantes en la mayoría de nuestros pacientes, que son de utilidad para el monitoreo de la respuesta al tratamiento.

Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) has become the preferred method for the lineage assignment and maturational analysis of malignant cells in acute leukemias. Multiparametric immunophenotyping analysis allows the detection of aberrant antigen expression and the analysis of heterogeneity and clonality of malignant cells in leukemias. Our objectives were to analyze the membrane antigen expression and to evaluate if the aberrant phenotypes occurrence in blasts cells of patients with acute leukemia is useful in monitoring the response to the treatment. We have retrospectively analyzed the MFC data of 364 samples sent to our laboratory in a 7 years period. For this purpose we have used a large panel of monoclonal antibodies against lymphoid, myeloid and precursors antigens. From the 364 analyzed samples, 60.2% showe d a phenotype compatible with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 28.8% with B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-LLA), 6.6% with T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-LLA) and 4.4% with rare leukemias. Aberrant phenotypes were found in 86% of the samples. The aberrant phenotypes identified were:1) lineage infidelity AML (54%), B-ALL (40%), T-ALL (29%); 2) absence of antigen expression: AML (21%), B-ALL (35%), T-ALL (70%); 3) altered antigen expression: AML (67%), B-ALL (66%),T-ALL (84%); 4) asynchronous expression: AML (26%), B-ALL (37%) and 5) ectopic phenotype: T-ALL (96%). Multiparameter flow cytometry of acute leukemias allowed identification of aberrant phenotypes in the majority of our patients, that are helpful for monitoring treatment response.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, CD/analysis , Immunophenotyping/methods , Leukemia/immunology , Acute Disease , Argentina , Cell Lineage/immunology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Leukemia/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(10): 1321-1324, oct. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-668707


Background: We report a 74 years old male consulting for multiple painless non pruriginous pink plaques and nodules of truncal distribution that appeared 15 days earlier. A skin biopsy disclosed a blastic plasmocytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. A staging CAT scan showed lymphadenopathies located around the trachea and its bifurcation. A bone marrow biopsy did not show tumor infiltration. The patient has been treated with four cycles of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone, obtaining a partial remission of the lesions.

Aged , Humans , Male , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Antigens, CD/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed