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Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 81: e36756, mar.1, 2022. ilus


The Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) was used to identify stage-specific antigenic structures in paraffin sections of female larvae and worms and snails tissues, infected with third stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Sera from eosinophilic meningitis cases were used to assess reactivity. Non-reactive sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and from individuals without other etiologies were used as controls for cross-reactivity. Larvae and worms showed high reactivity to IgG antibodies. IgM antibodies reacted with low intensity only to larvae. Fluorescent reactions were observed in the cuticles and internal structures on worms sections, with a marked reaction in the uterus content. In the snail tissues, the larvae were found exclusively inside the granulomas, with fluorescent markings in the cuticles of the larvae and inside the granulomatous tissues. This fluorescent pattern suggests the presence of excretory/secretory antigens distributed throughout the granulomas. Expressive cross-reactivity occurred in sera from patients with other parasitic diseases, especially strongyloidiasis. The use of IFA applied to paraffin sections to identify structures with antigenic potential and the study of new serological markers, can contribute to the improvement of the laboratory diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis. (AU)

A Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) foi utilizada para localizar antígenos em estruturas estágio-específicas em cortes parafinados de vermes fêmeas e em tecidos de caramujos do Gênero Biomphalaria infectados com larvas de terceiro estágio de Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Soros de casos confirmados de meningite eosinfílica foram usados para avaliação da reatividade. Soros não reagentes de casos suspeitos; de pacientes com outras parasitoses e de indivíduos sem outras etiologias foram utilizados como controle de reatividade cruzada. Anticorpos da classe IgG foram reativos para antígenos presentes nos dois estágios e, anticorpos IgM somente para o estágio larvário. Nos cortes de vermes, as marcações fluorescentes foram assinaladas nas cutículas e estruturas internas, com acentuada marcação para os conteúdos uterinos. Nos tecidos dos caramujos as larvas foram encontradas exclusivamente no interior dos granulomas, com marcações fluorescentes nas cutículas das larvas e no interior dos tecidos granulomatosos. O padrão de fluorescência no granuloma sugere a marcação de antígenos excretores/secretores. Reatividade cruzada mais expressiva ocorreu com anticorpos presentes em soros de pacientes com outras parasitoses, com destaque para estrongiloidíase. A RIFI em cortes parafinados abre novas perspectivas para identificação de antígenos e de marcadores sorológicos, que possam ser aplicados no aprimoramento do diagnóstico laboratorial da meningite eosinofílica. (AU)

Histological Techniques , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Antigens, Helminth
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940949


OBJECTIVE@#To conduct eukaryotic expression of the leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), a differentially expressed protein in excretory secretory antigens of Taenia solium cysticercus, and predict its antigen epitope.@*METHODS@#The molecular weight, stability, amino acid sequence composition, isoelectric point and T lymphocyte epitope of the LRRC15 protein were predicted using the bioinformatics online softwares ExPASy-PortParam and Protean. The full-length splicing primers were designed using PCR-based accurate synthesis, and the LRRC15 gene was synthesized. The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was constructed and transfected into HEK293 cells to express the LRRC15 protein. In addition, the LRRC15 protein was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was successfully constructed, which expressed the target LRRC15 protein with an approximately molecular weight of 70 kDa. Bioinformatics prediction with the ExPASy-PortParam software showed that LRRC15 was a hydrophilic protein, which was consisted of 644 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 69.89 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.6. The molecular formula of the LRRC15 protein was C3073H4942N846O953S28 and had an instability coefficient is 50.3, indicating that LRRC15 was an instable protein. Bioinformatics prediction with the Protean software showed that the dominant T-cell antigen epitopes were located in 292 to 295, 353 to 361, 521 to 526 and 555 to 564 amino acids of the LRRC15 protein, and the T-cell antigen epitopes with a high hydrophilicity, good flexibility, high surface accessibility and high antigenicity index were found in 122 to 131, 216 to 233, 249 to 254, 333 to 343, 358 to 361, 368 to 372, 384 to 386, 407 to 412, 445 to 450, 469 to 481, 553 to 564, 588 to 594, 607 to 617 and 624 to 639 amino acids. Following transfection of the recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid into HEK293 cells, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting identified LRRC15 proteins in cell secretory culture media, cell lysis supernatants and sediments. The LRRC15-His fusion protein was purified from the cell culture medium, and SDS-PAGE identified a remarkable band at approximately 70 kDa, while Western blotting successfully recognized the band of the recombinant LRRC15 protein.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The eukaryotic expression and antigen epitope prediction of the LRRC15 protein in the excretory secretory antigens of T. solium cysticercus have been successfully performed, which provides insights into further understandings of its biological functions.

Amino Acids , Animals , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Cysticercus/genetics , Epitopes/genetics , Eukaryota , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins , Membrane Proteins , Taenia solium/genetics
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 146-151, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362220


Purpose Experimental models might help understand the pathophysiology of neurocysticercosis-associated hydrocephalus. The present study aimed to compare the extent of hydrocephalus and tissue damage in rats with subarachnoid inoculation of different concentrations of Taenia crassiceps cyst proteins. Methods Sixty young rats were divided into two groups: low- and high-concentration groups. The animals in the low concentration group received 0.02ml of 2.4mg/ml T. crassiceps cyst proteins while those in the high concentration group received 0.02 ml of 11.6mg/ml T. crassiceps cyst proteins. The animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, and 6 months postinoculation to assess the ventricle volume. Morphological assessment was performed at the end of the observation period. Results Repeated measures of ventricle volumes at 1, 3, and 6 months showed progressive enlargement of the ventricles. At 1 and 3 months, we observed no differences in ventricle volumes between the 2 groups. However, at 6 months, the ventricles were larger in the high concentration group (median » 3.86mm3, range: 2.37­12.68) compared with the low concentration group (median » 2.00mm3, range: 0.37­11.57), p » 0.003. The morphological assessment revealed a few inflammatory features in both groups. However, the density of oligodendrocytes and neurons within the periventricular region was lower in the high concentration group (5.18 versus 9.72 for oligodendrocytes and 15.69 versus 21.00 for neurons; p < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Our results suggest that, in rats, a higher concentration of T. crassiceps cyst proteins in the subarachnoid space could induce ventricle enlargement and reduce the number of neurons within the periventricular area.

Animals , Rats , Cerebral Ventricles/physiopathology , Neurocysticercosis/pathology , Hydrocephalus/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth , Subarachnoid Space/physiopathology , Taenia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190562, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136886


Abstract INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related disease that affects people in 78 countries worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test performance using sensitive parasitological methods as a reference standard (RS) in individuals before and after treatment. METHODS The RS was established by combining the results of 16 Kato-Katz slides and the Helmintex® method. Positivity rates of the POC-CCA test and Kato-Katz and Helmintex® methods were calculated before treatment and 30 days afterward. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa coefficient before treatment were determined by comparing the methods. The cure rate was defined 30 days after treatment. RESULTS Among the 217 participants, the RS detected a total of 63 (29.0%) positive individuals. The POC-CCA test identified 79 (36.4%) infections. The evaluation of POC-CCA test performance in relation to the RS revealed a sensitivity of 61.9%, specificity of 74.0%, accuracy of 70.5%, and kappa coefficient of 0.33. Out of the 53 remaining participants after treatment, a total of 45 (81.1%) showed egg negative results, and 8 (18.9%) were egg positive according to the RS. A total of 5 (9.4%) egg-positive and 37 (69.8%) egg-negative individuals were positive by the POC-CCA test. CONCLUSIONS Our data show that the POC-CCA test has potential as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, yielding better results than 16 Kato-Katz slides from three different stool samples. However, the immunochromatographic test lacks sufficient specificity and sensitivity for verifying the cure rate after treatment.

Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/urine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antigens, Helminth/blood
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e023419, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138062


Abstract In experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) of Th1 profile, an extract of adult Ascaris suum worms (ASC) was previously found to deviate the immune response to a Th2/IL-10 pattern. Here, the effects of treatment with ASC on production of TGF-β and the anti-Ascaris isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a in EAH were evaluated. EAH was induced in BALB/c mice, intravenously with concanavalin A. Two hours later, these animals received ASC (EAH+ASC group) or PBS vehicle (EAH group). IgG1 and IgG2a were evaluated 8 h, 24 h and 7 d after induction. TGF-β was measured in a splenocyte culture at this last time. The isotype levels in the EAH group were low throughout the kinetics. In the EAH+ASC group, there was significant production of IgG1 at 24 h and 7 d, but of IgG2a only at 7 d. There was statistically greater production of TGF-β in the EAH+ASC group. The higher levels of IgG1 and TGF-β in this group suggest that an additional Th1 response control route exists in EAH, which needs to be investigated.

Resumo Na hepatite autoimune experimental (HAE) de perfil Th1, o extrato de vermes adultos Ascaris suum (ASC) desviou a resposta imune para um padrão Th2/IL-10. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados os efeitos do tratamento com ASC na produção TGF-β e dos isótipos de IgG1 e IgG2a anti-Ascaris na HAE. Esta foi induzida em camundongos BALB/c intravenosamente com Concanavalina A. Após duas horas, os animais receberam ASC (grupo HAE+ASC) ou veículo PBS (grupo HAE). IgG1 e IgG2a foram avaliados em 8 horas, 24 horas e 7 dias após indução. TGF-β foi mensurado em cultura de esplenócitos nesse último tempo. Os níveis dos isótipos no grupo HAE foram baixos durante toda a cinética. No grupo HAE+ASC, houve produção significativa de IgG1 em 24 horas e 7 dias, mas somente em 7 dias para IgG2a. A produção de TGF-β foi estatisticamente maior no grupo HAE+ASC. Níveis mais altos de IgG1 e TGF-β nesse grupo sugerem uma via adicional de controle da resposta Th1 na HAE que precisa ser investigada.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis , Ascaris suum/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/parasitology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antigens, Helminth/immunology
Clinics ; 74: e698, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011925


OBJECTIVES: Hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis has been frequently reported after transplants and is related to high mortality. This study aimed to screen for strongyloidiasis using serological diagnoses in transplant candidates. METHODS: An ELISA test was performed with filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis as a source of antigen. RESULTS: In the serum from transplant candidates, anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies were detected in 35/150 (23.3%) samples by soluble fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 31/150 (20.7%) samples by soluble fractions in Tris-HCl, 27/150 (18.0%) samples by membrane fractions in PBS and 22/150 (14.7%) samples by membrane fractions in Tris-HCl. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest the ELISA test, ideally using soluble fractions of filariform larvae S. venezuelensis in PBS, as an additional strategy for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in transplant candidates.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Organ Transplantation , Strongyloides stercoralis/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunocompromised Host , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170435, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894921


BACKGROUND Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused mainly by the Wuchereria bancrofti worm and that affects up to 120 million people worldwide. LF is the second cause of chronic global deformity, responsible for 15 million people with lymphedema (elephantiasis) and 25 million men with scrotal hydrocele. Its diagnosis is still associated with numerous difficulties, such as the sample collection periods (microfilaria nocturnal periodicity) and limited diagnostic kits. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to evaluate two recombinant antigens (Wb14 and WbT) as part of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based antibody capture tests for LF. METHODS The recombinant antigens rWb14 and rWbT were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and an antibody capture ELISA was performed. For this, sera were used from microfilaremic individuals with W. bancrofti (MF), chronic pathology (CP), individuals infected with Strongyloides (SP) and healthy controls from endemic (EN) and non-endemic (NE) areas. FINDINGS Both tests showed similar results, with 90% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. In comparison with the BM14 ELISA commercial test, the Wb14 and WbT antigens performed with identical sensitivity but greater specificity. Reduced positivity with the CP suggested a potential to monitor cure. This was not confirmed, however, when sera from individuals up to seven years after treatment were assayed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The Wb14 and WbT ELISAs were considered efficient and promising diagnostic tests. Due to the importance of antibody capture analysis to evaluate the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), the tests proposed here appear as great alternatives to the available commercial system.

Humans , Wuchereria bancrofti , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 805-811, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897028


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the advances of disease control programs, severe forms of schistosomiasis are prevalent. The prevalence of the disease in areas frequented by tourists urges for permanent prevention and control. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the district of Antônio Pereira, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The proportion of positives was defined by Kato-Katz coproscopy and urinary POC-CCA rapid test. Hepatosplenic form was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasound. RESULTS: Out of 180 participants,97 were examined by Kato-Katz, with 4 (4.1%) being positive. Thirty-four (22.1%) out of 154 were positive by POC-CCA. Five (2.8%) of 177 examined by ultrasound had hepatosplenic form. One of them had undergone splenectomy. One (0.6%)participant had myeloradiculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Severe forms of schistosomiasis are still prevalent in low endemic areas and should be thoroughly investigated.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Splenic Diseases/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Splenic Diseases/parasitology , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Morbidity , Educational Status , Feces/parasitology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/diagnostic imaging , Antigens, Helminth/urine
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(6): 427-433, nov.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-951282


Resumen: Introducción: Trichinella spiralis es un nemátodo tisular que se aloja en el músculo esquelético de humanos y otros mamíferos y causa una serie de alteraciones fisiológicas. Las proteínas de los productos de excreción-secreción de T. spiralis juegan un papel importante en la aparición y regulación de estas alteraciones. Sin embargo, aún no se conoce el efecto de estos productos en la infección e invasión del parásito al hospedero. Métodos: Mediante un análisis electroforético en una dimensión, Western blot y espectrometría de masas, se evaluaron las diferencias y similitudes entre proteínas antigénicas y de superficie de cuatro aislados de T. spiralis obtenidos de hospederos accidentales (perros) y la cepa de referencia aislada de cerdos (MSUS/MEX/91/CM). Resultados: Utilizando ontología de genes, se encontraron cinco proteínas exclusivas de los hospederos accidentales. Después del análisis, se encontró que estas proteínas forman parte de la matriz extracelular del parásito, cuentan con actividad catalítica y están implicadas en la adhesión a las células del hospedero. La actividad antigénica de las cuatro cepas aisladas de hospederos accidentales es idéntica a la reportada para T. spiralis, visualizándose el triplete antigénico característico de 43, 45 y 47 kDa. Conclusiones: Las proteínas exclusivas de los hospederos accidentales proveen información para entender el mecanismo de acción de este parásito para penetrar el músculo y evadir la respuesta inmune en el hospedero.

Abstract: Background: Trichinella spiralis is an intestinal and tissue nematode specific for mammalian skeletal muscle, causing a series of physiological alterations. T. spiralis excretory-secretion products play an important role in the appearance and regulation of these alterations. However, the effect of these products on the infection and invasion of the parasite to the host is unknown. Methods: Differences and similarities between antigenic proteins and surface proteins of four accidental hosts isolates (dogs) of T. spiralis and the reference strain isolated from pigs (MSUS/MEX/91/CM) were assessed by electrophoresis, western blot and mass spectrometry. Results: Using gene ontology, five proteins exclusive to the accidental hosts were analyzed. The results showed that these proteins are part of the extracellular matrix of the parasite, present catalytic activity, and bind to host cells. The antigenic activity the four strains showed the antigenic triplet characteristic of T. spiralis of 43, 45 and 47 kDa. Conclusions: Five proteins exclusive to dog isolates provided information to understand the mechanism of action of this parasite to penetrate the muscle and evade the immune response in the host.

Animals , Dogs , Rats , Trichinellosis/parasitology , Trichinella spiralis/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Mass Spectrometry , Swine , Trichinellosis/immunology , Blotting, Western , Trichinella spiralis/isolation & purification , Trichinella spiralis/immunology , Rats, Wistar , Electrophoresis , Antigens, Helminth/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 358-364, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896982


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Kato-Katz technique is the standard diagnostic test for Schistosoma mansoni infection in rural areas. However, the utility of this method is severely limited by the day-to-day variability in host egg excretion in the stool. In high-transmission areas, the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine assay has proven to be a reliable test. However, investigations of the reliability of the POC-CCA assay in low-transmission regions are under way. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA assay and the morbidity of schistosomiasis in a low-endemic area in Brazil. METHODS: Pains City is a low-transmission zone for schistosomiasis. A total of 300 subjects aged 7-76 years were randomly selected for the POC-CCA cassette test. For S. mansoni diagnosis, three stool samples on six slides were compared with one urine sample for each subject. The sensitivity and specificity in the absence of a gold standard were calculated using latent class analysis. Clinical examinations and abdominal ultrasounds were performed in 181 volunteers to evaluate morbidity associated with schistosomiasis. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique were 25.6% and 94.6%, respectively. By contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA assay were 68.1% and 72.8%, respectively. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was diagnosed in two patients (1.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the POC-CCA urine assay proved to be a useful test for diagnosing S. mansoni in a low-endemic area in Brazil. Severe clinical forms of schistosomiasis can be present even in such low-endemic areas.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/urine , Rural Population , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Point-of-Care Systems , Middle Aged
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(6): 452-455, June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040569


ABSTRACT Diagnosis of schistosomiasis in migrants coming from endemic areas can be difficult, especially in asymptomatic subjects. Light-intensity disease, in fact, may be missed due to the low sensitivity of the stool microscopy and serologic testing cannot distinguish between a resolved infection and an active infection in patients who have been infected and treated in the past, because specific antibodies can persist despite cure. We describe a cross-sectional study conducted on 82 migrants tested for Schistosoma mansoni on single blood (anti-schistosome antibodies, total IgE) and urine [point-of-care (POC) circulating-cathodic-antigen (CCA) test] samples. A positive POC-CCA test (active infection) resulted in two untreated patients with a positive serology while all patients (n = 66) with a past infection showed a negative POC-CCA test. POC-CCA urine test in combination with serology may be helpful in rapidly differentiate active from past S. mansoni infection in migrants coming from endemic areas.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Italy , Middle Aged
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 364-369, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841794


BACKGROUND Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. METHODS Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans), and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%). Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections.

Humans , Animals , Opisthorchidae/immunology , Trematode Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 256-259, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041403


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon), were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4%) tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Wuchereria bancrofti/immunology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/blood , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chromatography, Affinity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Haiti/ethnology , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 33-44, feb. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844442


Introduction: The screening of neurocysticercosis is complex and immunological methods have varying validity. Objective: To evaluate the validity of ELISA for antigen and antibody, and EITB for antibody in the screening of neurocysticercosis. Methods: Meta-analysis of diagnostic tests with an ex-ante protocol implemented in five databases with 15 search strategies, ensuring reproducibility in the selection and extraction of information. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic odds ratio and ROC curve were estimated in MetaDiSc, and predictive values, and Youden index were estimated in Epidat. Results: EITB presented sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI 83.5-87.7), specificity 93.9% (95% CI = 92.7-95.0), PLR 19.6 (95% CI = 8,6-44.6), NLR 0.16 (95% CI = 0.12-0.21), OR diagnostic 136.2 (95% CI = 54.7-342.6) and area under the curve 0.926. In ELISA for antibody sensitivity was 87.5% (95% CI = 86.1-88.8), specificity 92.2% (95% CI = 91.4-93.0), PLR 11.3 (95% CI = 8.45-15.11), NLR 0.15 (95% CI = 0.13-0.18), diagnostic OR 87.4 (95% CI = 60.1-127.1) and area under the curve 0.950. ELISA for antigen showed low diagnostic validity. No differences were found in these parameters by sample, antigen or antibody type. Conclusion: ELISA for antibodies and EITB have a similar diagnostic value, detection of serum and CSF showed a similar validity.

Introducción: La tamización de neurocisticercosis es compleja y los métodos inmunológicos presentan validez variable y generalmente bajos tamaños de muestra. Objetivo: Evaluar la validez de ELISA para detección de antígeno y anticuerpo, y EITB para detección de anticuerpo en la tamización de neurocisticercosis. Métodos: Meta-análisis de pruebas diagnósticas con un protocolo ex-ante aplicado en cinco bases de datos con 15 estrategias de búsqueda, garantizando reproducibilidad en la selección y extracción de la información. Se estimó sensibilidad, especificidad, cocientes de probabilidad (CP), razón de odds diagnósticas y curva ROC en MetaDiSC, y valores predictores, índice de Youden y exactitud en Epidat. Resultados: EITB presentó sensibilidad de 85,7% (IC 95% = 83,5-87,7), especificidad 93,9% (IC9 5% = 92,7-95,0), CPP 19,6 (IC 95% = 8,6-44,6), CPN 0,16 (IC 95% = 0,12-0,21), OR diagnóstica 136,2 (IC 95% = 54,7-342,6) y área bajo la curva 0,926. En ELISA para anticuerpos la sensibilidad fue 87,5% (IC 95% = 86,1-88,8), especificidad 92,2% (IC 95% = 91,4-93,0), CPP 11,3 (IC 95% = 8,45-15,11), CPN 0,15 (IC 95% = 0,13-0,18), OR diagnóstica 87,4 (IC 95% = 60,1-127,1) y área bajo la curva 0,950. ELISA para antígeno presentó baja validez diagnóstica. No se hallaron diferencias en estos parámetros según tipo de muestra, antígeno o anticuerpo. Conclusión: ELISA para anticuerpos y EITB presentan una utilidad diagnóstica similar, la detección de suero presentó una validez similar al líquido cefalorraquídeo.

Humans , Taenia/immunology , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e6071, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951705


Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an anthropozoonotic disease with worldwide distribution and is caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Anaphylactic shock induced by CE rupture is a serious complication especially in patients with hydatid infections, as the resulting leakage of fluid contains highly toxic endogenous antigen. We aimed to isolate and identify the antigens of specific IgE and IgG1 (sIgE and sIgG1) in E. granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF). Crude antigen for EgCF was prepared from E. granulosus-infected sheep liver. Antigens were separated and identified by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and immunoblotting. Results of 1D SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting showed that 40.5 kDa protein was the major antigen of sIgE, and 35.5 kDa protein was the major antigen of sIgG1 in EgCF. Results of 2-DE and immunoblotting showed that main antigens of sIgE in EgCF were four proteins with pI values ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 and a molecular weight of 40.5 kDa. Main antigens of sIgG1 in EgCF were five proteins with pI values ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 and a molecular weight of 35.5 kDa. The antigens identified for sIgE and sIgG1 can provide critical insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying anaphylactic shock induced by CE.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Echinococcosis/complications , Anaphylaxis/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Case-Control Studies , Echinococcosis/immunology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anaphylaxis/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/blood
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e10, 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845682


RESUMEN Objetivo Demostrar la presencia de Echinoccocus granulosus en el hospedero definitivo en la ciudad de Lima, Perú, mediante la detección de antígenos del parásito en heces de canes pertenecientes a trabajadores y comercializadores de vísceras de centros de beneficio autorizados en Lima metropolitana. Métodos Se recolectaron muestras de heces de 58 canes, que fueron evaluadas utilizando la técnica coproELISA para detectar antígenos secretorio/excretorio de E. granulosus. Mediante una encuesta se obtuvo información sobre las prácticas de alimentación y el manejo de las mascotas. Resultados El 13,8% (8/58) de canes fue positivo a E. granulosus. En 27,8% (5/18) de los hogares se encontró al menos un animal positivo y se estimó que en las familias que tenían más de cuatro canes las posibilidades de encontrar al menos uno positivo eran mayores. En todos los hogares con al menos un can positivo sus mascotas se alimentaban con vísceras. El 94,4% (17) de los participantes no tenía conocimiento de las formas de contagio de la equinococosis. Conclusiones Los resultados muestran la presencia de hospederos definitivos en la zona urbana de Lima y subrayan la necesidad de aumentar la difusión de las prácticas para evitar la transmisión del parasito.

ABSTRACT Objective To demonstrate the presence of Echinoccocus granulosus in the definitive host in the city of Lima, Perú, by detecting parasite antigens in the stool of dogs belonging to offal handlers and merchants in authorized slaughterhouses in Metropolitan Lima. Methods Stool samples were collected from 58 dogs and examined using the coproELISA technique for the detection of secretory/excretory antigens of E. granulosus. A survey was conducted to obtain information on pet feeding and handling practices. Results Positivity to E. granulosus was detected in 13.8% (8/58) of the dogs. In 27.8% (5/18) of the homes, at least one animal showed positivity, and in families that had more than four dogs the chances of finding positivity in at least one dog were higher (P < 0.05). In all homes where at least one dog tested positive the pets were fed on offal. Of study participants, 94.4% (17) knew nothing about the routes of transmission of hydatid disease. Conclusions Results show the presence of definitive hosts in the urban area of Lima and underscore the need to more widely disseminate practices for the prevention of parasite transmission.

Urban Health , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Feces/chemistry , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Peru
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176884


It is clinically important to differentiate tissue-invading helminthiasis. The purpose of this study was to assess the specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive rates for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, and sparganosis 4 helminthiases from 1996 to 2006 using multi-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Korea. Results of 6,017 samples, which were referred to our institute for serodiagnosis, were analyzed. The subjects with positive serum IgG antibodies were 1,502 (25.0%) for any of the 4 helminthiases. The overall positive numbers for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, and sparganosis were 728 (12.1%), 166 (2.8%), 729 (12.1%), and 263 (4.4%), respectively. The positive serologic reaction to multi-antigens was determined in 309 (20.6%) of the 1,502 total seropositive subjects. Those with multi-antigen positivity were regarded as positive for the antigen of strongest reaction but cross-reaction to others with weak positive reaction. Annual seropositive rates for those 4 tissue helminthiases ranged from 12.1% to 35.7%. The highest rate was observed in age from 60 to 69 years old and prevalence of men (27.4%; 1,030/3,763) was significantly higher than of women (19.1%; 332/1,741). Hospital records of 165 ELISA positive patients were reviewed to confirm correlation with their clinical diagnosis. Paragonimiasis was highly correlated as 81.8% (9/11), cysticercosis 29.9% (20/67), clonorchiasis 29.0% (20/69), and sparganosis 11.1% (2/18). In conclusion, the multi-antigen ELISA using 4 helminth antigens is useful to differentiate suspected tissue-invading helminthiases, especially ELISA diagnosis of paragonimiasis is reliable. The seropositivity is still high among suspected patients in Korea.

Antibodies , Antigens, Helminth , Clonorchiasis , Cysticercosis , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Helminthiasis , Hospital Records , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Male , Paragonimiasis , Prevalence , Serologic Tests , Sparganosis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(3): 341-347, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785789


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is a public health concern in Brazil. However, the most popular diagnostic method, the Kato-Katz technique, exhibits low sensitivity in low-endemicity areas. We aimed to compare the performance of an immunological assay, the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA®) test, with that of two parasitological techniques in a low-endemicity population. METHODS: Our study included 141 individuals living in Estreito de Miralta, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fecal samples were obtained from all participants and analyzed for schistosomiasis using two parasitological techniques: the Kato-Katz technique and the saline gradient technique. Additionally, POC-CCA® strips were utilized for testing urine samples. The results obtained by the different techniques were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of two or 24 slides using the Kato-Katz technique resulted in a positivity rate of 10.6% (15/141) or 19.1% (27/141), respectively. The saline gradient technique yielded a positivity rate of 17.0% (24/141). The prevalence according to both parasitological techniques was 24.1% (34/141). The POC-CCA® test yielded a positivity rate of 22.7% (32/141); however, the positivity rate was merely 2.1% if trace results were considered negative. The agreements observed between POC-CCA® and the parasitological techniques were good (Kappa indexes > 0.64). The POC-CCA® test was more sensitive than the two-slide Kato-Katz technique (p < 0.05) in detecting cases of S. mansoni infection when trace results were considered positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the importance of using multiple diagnostic techniques in low-endemicity areas for effective control of disease.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/urine , Parasite Egg Count , Sensitivity and Specificity , Point-of-Care Systems , Middle Aged
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(1): 39-51, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779530


Introducción. Toxocara canis es un nematodo patógeno de cánidos que accidentalmente puede ser transmitido a los humanos. A pesar de la importancia de la serología para el diagnóstico de esta zoonosis, los kits diagnósticos usan antígenos crudos de excreción-secreción, en su mayoría glucoproteínas que no son específicas de especie, por lo cual pueden presentarse reacciones cruzadas con anticuerpos generados contra otros parásitos. Objetivos. Producir el antígeno recombinante TES-30 de T. canis y evaluarlo para el inmunodiagnóstico de la toxocariasis. Materiales y métodos. Se clonó el gen que codifica TES-30 en el vector de expresión pET28a (+), usando oligonucleótidos de cadena sencilla unidos mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La proteína rTES-30 se purificó por cromotografia de afinidad (Ni 2+ ). La reacción serológica de rTES-30 se evaluó mediante immunoblot . Teniendo en cuenta que no existe una prueba de referencia , se observó el comportamiento del antigeno en comparación con la prueba de rutina para el inmunodiagnóstico de la toxocariasis, es decir, la técnica ELISA convencional con antígenos de excreción-secreción. Resultados. El rTES-30 se produjo a partir de un cultivo de Escherichia coli LB, con un rendimiento de 2,25 mg/l y 95 % de pureza. La concordancia de la reacción entre el immunoblot rTES-30 y la ELISA convencional, fue de 73 % (46/63) y de 100 % con los 21 sueros no reactivos. De los 21 sueros con diagnóstico de otras parasitosis, 19 fueron reactivos con ELISA, mientras que tan solo siete fueron positivos con el immunoblot rTES-30. La concordancia entre la ELISA y el immunoblot fue moderada (índice kappa de 0,575; IC 95% 0,41-0,74). Conclusiones. Los datos presentados respaldan la utilidad del immunoblot r TES-3 0 para la confirmación de los posibles positivos por ELISA, no solo en los estudios epidemiológicos, sino también, como candidato para el desarrollo de pruebas diagnósticas de la toxocariasis ocular en Colombia.

Introduction: Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites. Objectives: To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis. Materials and methods: The gene that codes for TES-30 was cloned in the expression vector pET28a (+) using single-stranded oligonucleotides united by PCR. The protein rTES-30 was purified by Ni 2+ affinity chromotography. Seroreactivity of rTES-30 was evaluated by immunoblot. Given that there is no gold standard test, the behaviour of the antigen was compared with the method that is routinely used to immunodiagnose toxocariasis, i.e., the conventional ELISA technique using excretion/secretion antigens. Results: The rTES-30 was produced from an Escherichia coli LB culture which yielded 2.25 mg/L of the antigen with a purity of 95%. The results obtained showed 73% (46/63) concordance of reactivity between the rTES-30 immunoblot and the conventional ELISA, and 100% concordance with the non-reactive sera (21). Nineteen of the 21 sera positive for other parasitoses reacted with ELISA, while only seven of these were positive with the rTES-30 immunoblot. Concordance between the ELISA and the immunoblot was moderate (kappa coefficient: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.41- 0.74). Conclusions: The data presented show the potential of the rTES-30 inmunoblot for confirmation of possible ELISA positives, not only in epidemiological studies, but also as a candidate for the development of diagnostic tests for ocular toxocariasis in Colombia.

Animals , Humans , Immunoblotting , Toxocariasis/diagnosis , Toxocara canis/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/blood , Peptide Fragments/isolation & purification , Peptide Fragments/analysis , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Solubility , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Base Sequence , Toxocariasis/blood , Eye Infections, Parasitic/diagnosis , Chromatography, Affinity , Escherichia coli , Genes, Synthetic , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification , Antigens, Helminth/genetics
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2016; 46 (1): 101-108
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180164


This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1[st] week to the 8[th] week post infection. The study found that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. Thus, PCR diagnosed schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able to diagnose

Animals, Laboratory , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Blotting, Western , Mice , Antigens, Helminth , DNA, Helminth