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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21210127, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285571

ABSTRACT

Abstract The rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), especially considering limited resources, is still a challenge. Development of new methodologies and tests are needed to overcome several disadvantages of the available standard tests. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of two antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the CFP10 and ESAT6 recombinant proteins, and developed stable formulations thereof. Sensitivity and specificity of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing and the induction of gamma interferon production (IFN-γ) by lymphocytes, as a non-invasive test, were evaluated using the CFP10 and ESAT6 protein formulations. The recombinant proteins produced by our group presented a high DTH response and the ability to differentiate between tuberculosis infection, BCG vaccination, and the contact with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The production of IFN-γ by stimulation with individual and combined proteins was detected in a panel of 40 individuals and showed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90% when the two proteins were used together. Lyophilized formulations were stable under all conditions, while soluble formulations were stable under freezing at -20 ºC and -80 ºC. The proposed formulations containing the ESAT6 and CFP10 recombinant antigens constitute satisfactory tools for TB testing, suitable to be developed and implemented in a large-scale trial.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Interferon-gamma , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antigens/chemistry
2.
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(2): 80-87, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251838

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Several studies have evaluated the effect of infectious diseases and vaccine protocols during pregnancy on maternal milk immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, to understand the protection conferred by lactation on newborns. Colostrum is the primary source of maternal IgA for the newborn. IgA participates in protection mechanisms in the neonate's mucosa. In humans, IgA has two subclasses with differential anatomical distribution among mucosal compartments. Total IgA levels in maternal milk vary after antigen stimulation and have differential affinities in function of the chemical composition of the antigens. We studied the effect of antigenic stimulation during pregnancy on the concentrations of specific IgA1 and IgA2 subclasses in human colostrum. Methods: We analyzed data from 113 women in Mexico City and compared the amount of IgA subclasses in colostrum against three antigens: two from vaccine protocols (tetanus toxoid and pneumococcal polysaccharides) and lipopolysaccharide, a ubiquitous antigen in the gastrointestinal tract. Results: In agreement with the previous reports, we showed that IgA1 from colostrum mainly recognized protein antigens; in sharp contrast, IgA2 was mostly directed against polysaccharide antigens. These levels increased in women who had previous contacts through vaccination or infections during pregnancy. Conclusions: Antigen interaction during pregnancy increased the amount of specific IgA subclasses, depending on the chemical composition of the antigen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Colostrum/immunology , Antigens/immunology , Antigens/chemistry , Colostrum/chemistry , Antigen-Antibody Reactions
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91220

ABSTRACT

In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Female , Ixodidae/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Rabbits , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14502

ABSTRACT

Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Chromatography, Affinity , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Conserved Sequence , Dermacentor/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37032

ABSTRACT

It has been well established that bacterial superantigens lead to the induction and aggravation of chronic inflammatory skin diseases. We investigated the clinical significance of serum specific immunoglobulin E (lgE) to the staphylococcal superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 in patients with chronic urticaria (CU), focusing on the differences in these prevalences between aspirin-intolerant CU (AICU) and aspirin-tolerant CU (ATCU) patients. Aspirin sensitivity was confirmed by oral aspirin provocation test. There were 66 patients AICU and 117 patients ATCU in the study. Serum IgE antibodies specific for SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were measured by the ImmunoCAP test and the patients were compared with 93 normal controls (NC). The prevalences of serum specific IgE to staphylococcal superantigens were significantly higher in CU than in NC patients (IgE to SEA, 13.7% vs. 5.4%; IgE to SEB, 12.0% vs. 4.3%; IgE to TSST-1, 18.0% vs. 6.5%; p<0.05, respectively). The patients with specific IgE to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 had higher serum total IgE levels and higher rates of atopy. Significant associations were noted between the prevalence of specific IgE to SEA and SEB and the HLA DQB1*0609 and DRB1*1302 alleles in the AICU group. We confirmed that a sub-population of patients with CU possesses serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, and TSST- 1. Particularly, the IgE immune response to TSST-1 is associated with aspirin sensitivity in CU patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antigens/chemistry , Aspirin/pharmacology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Enterotoxins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Staphylococcus/genetics , Superantigens/metabolism , Urticaria/immunology
6.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Jun; 44(3): 140-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26545

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine whether certain retro-inverso peptides have the potential to act as synthetic vaccines in mice, when immunized by injection or orally. Immunization of mice parenterally with conjugates of three such retro-inverso peptides and orally with the unconjugated peptides elicited generally high titres of anti-peptide antibodies. Antibodies against the same three peptides cross-reacted by binding strongly in ELISA to the native peptides and vice versa, regardless of the mode of immunization. Antibodies against a retro-inverso diphtheria peptide also reacted strongly with diphtheria toxin. Seven of 8 mice, immunized by injection of the conjugate of a retro-inverso derivative of robustoxin [a lethal spider (Atrax robustus) venom toxin] were protected from challenge involving injection with twice the minimum lethal dose of A. robustus venom containing the toxin.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antigens/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunization/methods , Infusions, Parenteral , Mice , Models, Chemical , Peptides/chemistry , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Serine/chemistry , Spider Venoms , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Jun; 43(6): 536-41
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61577

ABSTRACT

A glycoprotein (27 kDa) was isolated from crude somatic antigen of Fasciola gigantica by two steps affinity chromatography and was used in early detection of experimental fasciolosis in cattle by indirect ELISA and in dot-ELISA formats. Although, anti-27 kDa antibodies could be detected after 3 weeks post infection (WPI) by dot - ELISA which was one week later than indirect ELISA. The test, dot-ELISA, was more convenient in field application. By the test (dot-ELISA) the infection could be equally detected in animals infected with 100, 200 and 300 metacercariae of F. gigantica with high sensitivity. Further, the antigen (27 kDa) was not found to react with goat sera infected with Paramphistomum epiclitum, which are giving strong reaction to homologous immature and mature fluke antigens of P. epiclitum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/chemistry , Antigens/chemistry , Antigens, Helminth/chemistry , Cattle , Cyanogen Bromide/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fasciola/metabolism , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Goats , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Lymnaea , Rabbits , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepharose/chemistry , Time Factors , Trematode Infections/diagnosis
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Mar; 39(3): 209-17
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60858

ABSTRACT

A polyclonal antibody was raised against a 16 kDa human sperm protein identified by a monoclonal antibody to human sperm. The antibody showed significant reactivity with mouse spermatozoa as seen by ELISA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the antibody reacted with antigens from mouse testis, prostate as well as seminal vesicle. In both mouse and human testis the antibody localized antigens in round as well as elongated spermatids and mature spermatozoa. By SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis the antibody reacted with a 16 kDa protein in the testis and seminal vesicle, whereas in the prostate it identified two proteins, one at 20 kDa and another at 25 kDa. Immunofluorescent localization by the antibody showed reactivity with acrosomal and/equatorial and midpiece region of human spermatozoa. The antibody showed extensive agglutination both in mouse and human spermatozoa. The results indicate that the antigen may be a conserved antigen. Cross reactivity of the antibody with mouse spermatozoa enabled us to carry out antifertility trials. Passive immunization of female mice with this antibody caused 67% reduction in fertility. It is likely that the antifertility effect could be partly due to agglutinating nature of the antibody which may have caused inhibition of all processes that depend on forward motility such as cervical mucus penetration and possibly preventing sperm egg interaction. Such well characterized and functionally relevant antibodies will enable to identify sperm antigens relevant for fertility. Identification of such antigens may also help in diagnosis of immuno infertility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antigens/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunochemistry , Male , Mice , Molecular Weight , Proteins/chemistry , Species Specificity , Sperm-Ovum Interactions/immunology , Spermatozoa/immunology
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Apr; 38(4): 301-12
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56056

ABSTRACT

This review discusses the immunology of gangliosides from the perspective of tumor, neuronal and general immunology. Antiganglioside antibodies in human sera are invariably IgM and are found in healthy individuals. Their titers decline with age. Persistent high titer of IgM is associated with several diseases, particularly neuropathies. Membrane-bound gangliosides are important tumor-associated antigens and targets for immune attack. Cells enriched with gangliosides can be used as cancer vaccines. Efficacy of these vaccines depends on the viability of whole cells, integrity of the cell membranes, adjuvants and topography of the tumor-associated antigens. The role of antiganglioside IgM is to eliminate the immunosuppressive gangliosides shed from tissues during ageing, degeneration of neural and extraneural tissues, and tumor growth and necrosis. In addition, in vitro observations with human and murine monoclonal antibodies suggest that they are capable of complement dependent cytotoxicity and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens/chemistry , Autoantibodies/blood , Biomarkers , Carbohydrate Sequence , Gangliosides/chemistry , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Mice , Molecular Sequence Data
10.
In. Palomo González, Iván; Ferreira Vigoroux, Arturo; Sepúlveda Carvajal, Cecilia; Rosemblatt Silber, Mario; Vergara Castillo, Ulises. Fundamentos de inmunología. Talca, Universidad de Talca, 1998. p.97-114, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-284803

ABSTRACT

Los antígenos son compuestos de diversa naturaleza química provenientes del medio o generados por el propio organismo que son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmunológica en los vertebrados, propiedad denominada inmunogenicidad. La interacción del antígeno con los productos de la respuesta inmune, y especialmente con los anticuerpos, propiedad denominada antigenicidad, ha permitido conocer la estructura y función de numerosos antígenos, demostrándose que los productos de la respuesta inmune interactúan con regiones específicas del antígeno, denominadas epítopos, los cuales pueden corresponder a una secuencia aminoacídica determinada (epítopos lineales) o a un arreglo espacial de la cadena polipeptídica (epítopos conformacionales). Aunque la capacidad inmunogénica de un antígeno depende de su naturaleza química intrínseca (tamaño, forma, movilidad atómica, presencia de grupos químicos activos y residuos aromáticos) también está relacionada con la capacidad de respuesta del organismo y, en este sentido, son determinantes sus características genéticas y su historial inmunológico


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , Antigens/classification , Antigens/chemistry , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Haptens/immunology , Superantigens/immunology
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