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2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(5): 681-691, set.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-985616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Hipertensión Arterial es el factor de riesgo más frecuente de infarto agudo de miocardio, enfermedad cerebrovascular, insuficiencia cardíaca y otras afecciones. Objetivo: Caracterizar el consumo intrahospitalario de medicamentos antihipertensivos en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Manuel Fajardo en el período comprendido entre 2013 y 2017. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal sobre el consumo intrahospitalario de antihipertensivos. El universo estuvo determinado por todos los antihipertensivos que tuvieron indicación facultativa intrahospitalaria en los años comprendidos. Resultados: Se consumió un total de 301 616 unidades de drogas antihipertensivas. El Enalapril fue el antihipertensivo más consumido con 126 306 unidades, representando 41.89 por ciento del consumo total de antihipertensivos en el período, siendo además el más empleado en todos los años del estudio. El mayor costo lo representó el Enalapril para un total de 31 576.50 CUP. Conclusiones: Los antihipertensivos más empleados fueron el Enalapril, la Clortalidona y el Amlodipino. El Enalapril fue el más consumido en todos los años estudiados, mientras que la Clortalidona estuvo entre los tres más empleados en todos esos años. En cuanto a la repercusión económica del consumo de los antihipertensivos más empleados, el Enalapril fue el más costoso, seguido por el Amlodipino(AU)


Introduction: Arterial hypertension is the most frequent risk factor associated with acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and other conditions. Objective: To characterize the intra-hospital consumption of antihypertensive drugs at Manuel Fajardo Hospital throughout the period between 2013 and 2017. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study of the intra-hospital consumption of antihypertensive drugs was carried out. The universe was determined by all the antihypertensive drugs that had intra-hospital medical prescription during the period studied. Results: A total of 301.616 units of antihypertensive drugs were used. Enalapril was the most consumed drug with 126.306 units, representing 41.89 percent of the total consumption of antihypertensive drugs during the period; also being the most used drug for the entire years of the study. The increased cost was represented by Enalapril for a total of 31.576.50 Cuban pesos (CUP). Conclusions: The most used antihypertensive drugs were Enalapril, Chlorthalidone and Amlodipine. Enalapril was the most consumed drug in all the years studied, whereas Chlorthalidone was one of the three most commonly used. Regarding economical repercussion of the most consumed antihypertensive drugs, Enalapril was the most expensive one, followed by Amlodipine(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Self Medication/adverse effects , Hospital Care/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
3.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 74 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-912824

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: Sabe-se que o risco cardiovascular (CV) aumenta com a falta de controle pressórico, além de outros fatores como diabetes mellitus, lesão em órgãos-alvo, obesidade, altas taxas de ingestão de sódio, sexo feminino e raça negra. Além disso, as doenças CV são causa de morte de 17,5 milhões de pessoas no mundo todos os anos, sendo a hipertensão arterial responsável por 14% das mortes no Brasil. Objetivos: O presente estudo avaliou (1) a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares ¿ acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), infarto do miocárdio (IM) e morte ¿ assim como, (2) os fatores associados à ocorrência de tais eventos, na população de hipertensos resistentes em ambulatórios especializados entre os anos de 1998 e 2017. Desenho de estudo e Métodos: Este estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu 156 pacientes com hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR) regularmente atendidos e acompanhados em ambulatórios especializados a partir de 1998 - Hospitais de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) e Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). Foram avaliadas características gerais (idade, raça, gênero), exames bioquímicos, parâmetros antropométricos (índice de massa corporal), clínicos (pressão arterial ambulatorial e de consultório, hipertrofia cardíaca, microalbuminúria) e medicações em uso em dois períodos distintos, sendo a primeira e última consultas dos pacientes em seguimento. Resultados: Observou-se que, após a média de cinco anos de seguimento em ambulatórios especializados, 9% dos pacientes HAR apresentaram evento CV: AVC (6%); IM (3%) e morte (0,6%). Os pacientes HAR, ao final do seguimento, apresentaram um perfil clínico mais favorável em comparação ao momento inicial, quando foram observadas: (1) melhora do perfil pressórico de consultório (PAS: -18mmHg; PAD: -12mmHg) e 24h ( PAS 24h: -9mmHg; PAD 24h: -7mmHg) e (2) dos níveis de LDL-colesterol (-9,03mg/dL). A redução dos parâmetros pressóricos foi decorrente de alterações na conduta terapêutica, com aumento da prescrição de diferentes classes de anti-hipertensivos. De maneira interessante, o diabetes e uso de betabloqueadores no início do seguimento, foram associados, de maneira independente, à redução da pressão arterial sistólica no final do seguimento, assim como as estatinas. Por outro lado, a presença de obesidade foi associada inversamente à redução desses níveis. Os pacientes HAR que apresentaram algum evento CV tinham, tanto o nível pressórico de 24h quanto o de triglicérides, mais elevados em relação aos pacientes HAR que não apresentaram nenhum evento. Conclusão: Através do tratamento farmacológico otimizado, a redução dos parâmetros pressóricos e do perfil lipídico, pode ter sido favorável à baixa ocorrência de eventos CV na população estudada. Esses dados sugerem a importância de se prestar atendimento individualizado aos pacientes de alto risco CV. Além disso, o conhecimento dos fatores de risco CV pode contribuir para melhor se guiar a terapia farmacológica e, consequentemente, proporcionar maior sobrevida a grupos de alto risco CV, como o de pacientes HAR(AU)


Abstract: Background: It is known that cardiovascular (CV) risk increases with lack of blood pressure (BP) control, in addition to other factors such as diabetes mellitus, target organ damage, obesity, high sodium intake, female sex and black race. In addition, CV diseases are responsible for the deaths of 17.5 million people worldwide, it being known that hypertension accounts for 14% of deaths in Brazil. Objectives: This study evaluated (1) the occurrence of CV events - stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and death - as well as (2) factors associated with the occurrence of such events in the population of hypertensive specialized outpatient clinics between 1998 and 2017. Design and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 156 patients with resistant hypertension (RH) regularly attended and followed up in specialized outpatient clinics from 1998 ¿ in Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and Medical School of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). General characteristics (age, race, gender), biochemical tests, anthropometric parameters (body mass index), clinical parameters (ambulatory and office BP, cardiac hypertrophy, microalbuminuria) and medications in use were evaluated in two distinct periods: at the beginning and at the end of this follow-up. Results: It was observed that, after a follow-up in specialized outpatient clinics that lasted, in average, five years, 9% of RH patients presented CV event: stroke (6%); MI (3%) and death (0.6%). At the end of the follow-up, the RH patients presented a more favorable clinical profile compared to the initial moment, when: (1) improvement of the office BP profile (SBP: -18mmHg; DBP: -12mmHg) and 24h: -9mmHg, DBP 24h: -7mmHg) and (2) LDL-cholesterol levels (-9.03mg/dL). The reduction in BP parameters was due to changes in therapeutic management, with an increase in the prescription of different classes of antihypertensives. Interestingly, diabetes and the use of beta-blockers at the beginning of follow-up were associated with a reduction in systolic BP in an independent way at the end of follow-up, as well as statins. On the other hand, the presence of obesity was inversely associated with the reduction of these levels. The RH patients who had a CV event had the 24h BP and the triglyceride levels higher than the RH patients who did not present any events. Conclusion: Through optimized pharmacological treatment the reduction of pressure parameters and lipid profile could have been favorable to the low occurrence of CV events in the study population. These data suggest the importance of providing individualized care to patients at high risk CV. In addition, knowledge of CV risk factors may contribute to better guiding pharmacological therapy and, consequently, providing greater survival rates to high-risk CV groups, such as in RH patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Abnormalities , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Antihypertensive Agents , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular System , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Stroke , Stroke/epidemiology , Therapeutics
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 105-113, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-65056

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Urapidil is putatively effective for patients with hypertension and acute heart failure, although randomized controlled trials thereon are lacking. We investigated the efficacy and safety of intravenous urapidil relative to that of nitroglycerin in older patients with hypertension and heart failure in a randomized controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (>60 y) with hypertension and heart failure were randomly assigned to receive intravenous urapidil (n=89) or nitroglycerin (n=91) for 7 days. Hemodynamic parameters, cardiac function, and safety outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Patients in the urapidil group had significantly lower mean systolic blood pressure (110.1±6.5 mm Hg) than those given nitroglycerin (126.4±8.1 mm Hg, p=0.022), without changes in heart rate. Urapidil was associated with improved cardiac function as reflected by lower N terminal-pro B type natriuretic peptide after 7 days (3311.4±546.1 ng/mL vs. 4879.1±325.7 ng/mL, p=0.027) and improved left ventricular ejection fraction (62.2±3.4% vs. 51.0±2.4%, p=0.032). Patients given urapidil had fewer associated adverse events, specifically headache (p=0.025) and tachycardia (p=0.004). The one-month rehospitalization and all-cause mortality rates were similar. CONCLUSION: Intravenous administration of urapidil, compared with nitroglycerin, was associated with better control of blood pressure and preserved cardiac function, as well as fewer adverse events, for elderly patients with hypertension and acute heart failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cause of Death , Female , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Nitroglycerin/administration & dosage , Peptide Fragments/blood , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
9.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 84(3/4): 101-106, jul.-dic. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-881926

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El Hospital Santa Teresa (HRST) es un hospital regional de segundo nivel con capacidad de brindar un mayor nivel de resolución a procesos mórbidos, pese a que está limitado por sus características de infraestructura, equipamiento, personal y en la capacidad para el manejo de complicaciones en las gestantes. Es necesario determinar las características de las paci - entes con trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo para fortalecer su capacidad de atención. Objetivo: Describir las características clíni - cas y epidemiológicas de los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo de la sala de labor y partos del Hospital Regional Santa Teresa, Comayagua, durante el año 2015. Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En este período ingresaron 6,090 gestantes, de las cuales 361 (5.9%) presentaron enfermedad hipertensiva del embarazo. Se estimó un tamaño de muestra de 186 (51.5%, IC95%). Las variables incluyeron datos sociodemográicos, antecedentes gineco-obstétricos, manifestaciones clínico-laboratoriales, diagnóstico, manejo terapéutico y complicaciones. La información recolectada fue ingresada en base de datos Epiinfo versión 7.1.5 (CDC, Atlanta). Los resultados se presentan como frecuencias, porcentajes, rangos y promedios. La información personal de los casos se manejó conidencialmente. Resultados: El 58.6%(109) tenían entre 19 a 35 años, 65.1% (121) con ≥ 5 controles prenatales. El signo clínico más frecuente edema 37.1%(69), laboratorialmente lactato deshidrogenasa 69.9%(130). La vía de parto más frecuente fue vaginal 63.4%(118), 45.1%(84) ameritó uso de antihipertensivos, 25.8%(48) anticonvulsivantes. El trastorno hipertensivo más frecuente fue la preeclampsia-eclampsia con un 65.1%(121) y la complicación más frecuente síndrome HELLP 3.7%(7). Discusión: La prevalencia de los trastornos hipertensivos fue de 5.9% respectivamente...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Pregnancy Complications/mortality
10.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 15(3): 413-420, Jul.-Set. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-974856

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivou-se identificar a prevalência referida de hipertensão arterial e os fatores de risco; e levantar as práticas de controle entre idosos adscritos a uma Estratégia Saúde da Família de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Estudo descritivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado de maio a julho de 2014, com 126 idosos, mediante entrevista domiciliar. Utilizaram-se estatística descritiva e o teste Qui-Quadrado para verificar as associações, com nível de significância de p<0,05. A idade média foi de 70 anos (±8,0), maioria mulheres (69,8%), com ensino fundamental (58,8%) e baixa renda familiar (51,6%). A prevalência referida de hipertensão arterial foi de 63,5%. Encontrou-se associação estatística entre a prevalência de hipertensão arterial e as variáveis idade (p=0,021) e ter trabalho remunerado (p=0,004). A principal prática de controle referida foi o uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos, mas 16,2% com uso irregular. A prevalência encontrada foi elevada e os resultados evidenciaram as dificuldades de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e às outras práticas de tratamento, o que requer atenção especial por parte dos profissionais, em especial do enfermeiro.


RESUMEN El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar la prevalencia referida de hipertensión arterial y los factores de riesgo; y recopilar las prácticas de control entre ancianos adscritos a una Estrategia Salud de la Familia de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado de mayo a julio de 2014, con 126 ancianos, mediante entrevista domiciliaria. Se utilizaron estadística descriptiva y la prueba Cui-cuadrado para verificar las asociaciones, con nivel de significancia de p<0,05. La edad promedio fue de 70 años (±8,0), mayoría mujeres (69,8%), con enseñanza primaria (58,8%) y baja renta familiar (51,6%). La prevalencia referida de hipertensión arterial fue del 63,5%. Se encontró asociación estadística entre la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y las variables edad (p=0,021) y tener trabajo remunerado (p=0,004). La principal práctica de control referida fue el uso de medicamentos antihipertensivos, pero el 16,2% con el uso irregular. La prevalencia encontrada fue elevada y los resultados evidenciaron las dificultades de adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso y a las otras prácticas de tratamiento, lo que requiere una atención especial por parte de los profesionales, en especial del enfermero.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the self-reported prevalence of arterial hypertension and the risk factors, as well as to survey the control practices targeted at elderly patients registered in a Family Health Strategy in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted from May to July 2014, with 126 elderly people, through home interview. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were applied to verify associations with significance level of p<0.05. The mean age of participants was 70 years (±8.0), most were female (69.8%), with elementary education (58.8%), and low family income (51.6%). Self-reported prevalence of arterial hypertension was 63.5%. There was statistical association between arterial hypertension and the variables age (p=0.021) and performing a paid work (p=0.004). The main control practice mentioned was the use of antihypertensive medication; however, 16.2% referred irregular use. It was found high prevalence and results revealed difficulties in adherenceto drug treatment and other treatment measures, which requires special attention from professionals, particularly nurses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Nursing , Family Health Strategy , Drug Therapy/nursing , Hypertension/nursing , Aging , Chronic Disease/nursing , Drug Utilization , Medication Adherence , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Nurses
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(3): f:181-l:188, mai.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-831780

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Diabéticos hipertensos apresentam maior probabilidade de desenvolverem hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e fibrilação atrial. Evidências sugerem que bloqueadores do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona devem ser usado neste grupo de pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar se há diferença entre os efeitos do inibidor da enzima conversora de angiotensina benazepril e do bloqueador de receptor de angiotensina losartana sobre o tamanho atrial esquerdo, a massa ventricular, quando associados ao tratamento de pacientes hipertensos diabéticos em uso de anlodipino. Métodos: Foram randomizados em dois grupos para associação de losartana ou benazepril 34 pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos tipo 2 do serviço de clínica médica da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, após período de 6 semanas apenas com anlodipino. Ao início e ao término do tratamento combinado, os pacientes foram submetidos a ecocardiograma para medidas de cavidades, espessuras parietais e fluxos. Resultados: Houve redução da massa ventricular esquerda indexada no grupo losartana de 81,1 ± 23,5 para 76,9 ± 23,8 g/m² (p = 0,044), sem diferença no grupo benazepril (de 81,8 ± 10,8 para 79,7 ± 12,1; p = 0,520). O diâmetro atrial esquerdo foi menor ao final de 12 semanas (p = 0,034) no grupo losartana, no qual variou de 2,12 ± 0,23 para 2,03 ± 0,22 cm/m² (p = 0,103), quando comparado ao grupo benazepril, no qual variou de 2,12 ± 0,30 para 2,23 ± 0,29 cm/m² (p = 0,064). Conclusão: A combinação losartana e anlodipino foi melhor que a combinação benazepril e anlodipino para redução de massa ventricular esquerda e tamanho do átrio esquerdo nesta amostra de hipertensos diabéticos tipo 2


Background: Hypertensive diabetic patients are more likely to develop left ventricular hypertrophy and atrial fibrillation. Evidence suggests that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers should be used in this group of patients. Objective: To evaluate if there are differences between the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme benazepril and the angiotensin-receptor blocker losartan on left atrial size and ventricular mass when associated to the treatment of diabetic hypertensive patients using amlodipine. Methods: 34 hypertensive type-2 diabetic outpatients from the Internal Medicine service of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro were randomized into two groups, after a period of 6 weeks receiving only amlodipine, to receive losartan or benazepril. At the beginning and end of the combined treatment, patients were submitted to echocardiography for cavity assessment, wall thickness and flow measurements. Results: There was reduction in left ventricular mass index in the losartan group (from 81.1 ± 23.5 to 76.9 ± 23.8 g/m²; p = 0.044), with no difference in the benazepril group (from 81.8 ± 10.8 to 79.7 ± 12.1 g/m²; p = 0.520). The left atrial diameter index was lower at 12 weeks (p=0.034) in the losartan group, which ranged from 2.12 ± 0.23 to 2.03 ± 0.22 cm/m² (p = 0.103) when compared to the benazepril group, which ranged from 2.12 ± 0.30 to 2.23 ± 0.29 cm/m² (p = 0.064). Conclusion: The losartan and amlodipine combination was better than the benazepril and amlodipine combination for left ventricular mass and left atrial size reduction in this sample of type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Medication Adherence , Amlodipine/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles , Randomized Controlled Trial , Renin-Angiotensin System , Statistical Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 32(3): 236-244, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1009377

ABSTRACT

Analizar los cambios del Índice de rigidez arterial ambulatorio y el Péptido Natriurético cerebral tipo B, ( IRAA y BNP) en 52 pacientes hipertensos que asistieron a la consulta Cardio-metabólica del Hospital Militar Dr. Carlos Arvelo, Caracas, Venezuela, entre enero y junio del 2015, antes y después del tratamiento antihipertensivo. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico pareado, abierto, aleatorizado, donde los pacientes hipertensos de novo que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión fueron asignados de forma aleatoria al grupo de trabajo. Se realizó seguimiento por tres meses posterior al inicio del tratamiento antihipertensivo. Se comparó la presión arterial media según el MAPA, IRAA y BNP en el primer y tercer mes en el grupo para evaluar éxito en alcanzar el control, así como también, se analizó la frecuencia de complicaciones cardiovasculares y muerte durante el estudio. Resultados: se encontró diferencia significativa entre los valores de AASI y BNP antes y después de 3 meses de tratamiento antihipertensivo (p= < 0,01) independientemente del tratamiento antihipertensivo utilizado en el grupo de estudio. Conclusión: El AASI y BNP mostraron ser modificables con el tratamiento antihipertensivo, y que ésta modificación se relaciona positivamente con los cambios de algunos de los parámetros del MAPA, como la Carga, la Presión de Pulso y la Presión Arterial Sistólica(AU)


to analyze the changes of AASI and BNP in hypertensive patients attending the Cardiometabolic consultation of Hospital Dr. Carlos Arvelo Military (Caracas, Venezuela) between January and June 2015, before and after antihypertensive treatment. Methods: this is a paired trial, open, clinical, randomized trial, where hypertensive patients recently diagnosed were randomly assigned to the study group. Monitoring was done three months after initiation of antihypertensive treatment. The mean blood pressure was compared according to ABPM, AASI and BNP from the first to the third month in the group to evaluate success in achieving control, and the frequency of cardiovascular complications and death during the study were also analyzed. Results: A significant difference was found between the values of AASI and BNP before and after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment ( p = <0,01) regardless of which antihypertensive treatment was used in the study group. Conclusion: The AASI and BNP were modified with antihypertensive treatment, and this change was positively related to changes in some parameters of the ABP Monitoring, such as Load, Pulse Pressure and Systolic. Blood Pressure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases , Internal Medicine
14.
Clinics ; 70(11): 751-757, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-766151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. RESULTS: Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. CONCLUSION: The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Hypertension/chemically induced , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nicardipine/administration & dosage , Nicardipine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(4): 459-465, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-763153

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective:This study aimed to show the effects of intra-operative diltiazem infusion on flow in arterial and venous grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.Methods:Hundred fourty patients with a total of 361 grafts [205 (57%) arterial and 156 (43%) venous] underwent isolated coronary surgery. All the grafts were measured by intraoperative transit time flow meter intra-operatively. Group A (n=70) consisted of patients who received diltiazem infusion (dose of 2.5 microgram/kg/min), and Group B (n=70) didn't receive diltiazem infusion.Results:Mean graft flow values of left internal mammary artery were 53 ml/min in Group A and 40 ml/min in Group B (P<0.001). Pulsatility index (PI) values of left internal mammary artery for Group A and Group B were 2.6 and 3.0 respectively (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between venous graft parameters.Conclusion:We recommend an effect of diltiazem infusion in increasing graft flows in coronary artery bypass graft operations.


ResumoObjetivo:Este estudo teve como objetivo mostrar os efeitos da infusão de diltiazem intraoperatória no fluxo arterial e enxertos venosos em cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio.Métodos:Cento e quarenta pacientes com um total de 361 enxertos [205 (57%) arteriais e 156 (43%) venosos] passaram por uma cirurgia coronária isolada. Todos os enxertos foram medidos pelo medidor de fluxo de tempo de trânsito intraoperatório. Grupo A (n=70), formado por pacientes que receberam infusão de diltiazem (dose de 2,5 micrograma/kg/min), e Grupo B (n=70), por aqueles que não receberam infusão de diltiazem.Resultados:Os valores médios de fluxo de enxerto de artéria mamária interna esquerda foram 53 ml/min no grupo A e 40 ml/min no Grupo B (P<0,001). Valores do índice de pulsatilidade da artéria mamária interna esquerda para o Grupo A e do Grupo B foram de 2,6 e 3,0, respectivamente (P<0,001). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os parâmetros do enxerto venoso.Conclusão:Sugerimos um efeito da infusão de diltiazem em aumentar os fluxos de enxerto em operações de bypass de artéria coronária.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Circulation/drug effects , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Infusions, Intra-Arterial/methods , Intraoperative Care/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion , Vascular Grafting/methods , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Diltiazem/administration & dosage , Flowmeters , Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis , Mammary Arteries/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome
16.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 437-440
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-162398

ABSTRACT

Severe persistent hypertension is seen infrequently in newborns and infants, but we came across two infants who developed severe paradoxical hypertension after successful coarctation repair. Treatment of systemic hypertension following repair of coarctation of the aorta is always challenging particularly in infants. Dexmedetomidine was used successfully as an adjunct to the established anti‑hypertensive drugs in the immediate postoperative period in our cases to treat postoperative paradoxical hypertension.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Infant , Postoperative Complications/etiology
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(5): 569-576, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-751701

ABSTRACT

Background: Lack of adherence with medications is the main cause of antihypertensive treatment failure. Aim: To assess adherence to antihypertensive drugs and its determinants. Material and Methods: The Morinsky-Green questionnaire to determine treatment adherence was applied to 310 hypertensive patients from primary care centers, aged 60 ± 10 years (65% females) in treatment for 4 ± 1 months. Socio-demographic features, use of medications and quality of life using EQ5D questionnaire were also assessed. Results: Twenty percent of patients were diabetic and 19% were smokers. Fifty four percent were adherent to therapy. A higher age and being unemployed were associated with a higher compliance. The main reasons to justify the lack of adherence were forgetting to take the pills in 67% and adverse effects in 10%. Only diastolic pressure was lower in adherent patients, compared with their non-adherent counterparts (78 ± 12 and 81 ± 17 mmHg, respectively p < 0.01). Conclusions: Only half of hypertensive patients comply with their antihypertensive therapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Logistic Models , Nutritional Status/physiology , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/psychology
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-157704

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received antihypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/therapy , Middle Aged , Registries/methods , Registries/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(1): 14-18, jan.-mar.- 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-767979

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Renina Angiotensina é reconhecidamente um poderoso determinante da homeostase e da hemodinâmica renal e cardiovascular. Nos últimos anos, os estudos têm focado o eixo angiotensina II (Ang II)/receptor AT1 e o eixo angiotensina 1-7 (Ang 1-7)/receptor Mas, evidenciando que a atividade dos peptídeos é modulada com a Ang1-7antagonizando as ações da Ang II. As ações da Ang II, via receptor AT1, relacionadas à vasoconstrição, estresse oxidativo, inflamação, proliferação e fibrose são equilibradas pelas ações da Ang 1-7, mediadas pelo receptor Mas, que levam à vasodilatação, inibem o estresse oxidativo, a proliferação e a fibrose tecidual. O balanço obtido entre os eixos parece conduzir as ações do sistema para condições fisiológicas ou para o desenvolvimento de patologias, e sobretudo, tem dissociado o sistema circulante do tecidual. O conhecimento de marcadores biológicos que possam ser utilizados no diagnóstico e prognóstico de doenças cardiovasculares é de extrema importância para o desenvolvimento aprimoramento de métodos terapêuticos e profiláticos incluindo novas drogas.


The Renin Angiotensin System has a critical role in renal and cardiovascular homeostasis and hemodynamics. In recent years, studies have focused in the two main axes of RAS: angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor and angiotensin 1-7 axis (Ang 1-7)/Mas receptor, evidencing that the peptide activity is modulated with Ang1-7 antagonizing the actions of Ang II. The actions of Ang II, via the AT1 receptor, related to vasoconstriction, oxidative stress,inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis, are balanced by the actions of Ang 1-7. These, in turn, are mediated by the Mas receptor, but lead to vasodilation and inhibit oxidative stress, proliferation and tissue fibrosis. The balance obtained between the axes of the system appearsto lead to physiological conditions or pathologies, and above all, has disassociated the circulatory system from the tissue system. The discovery of biomarkers that may be useful inthe diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases is critical for the development and improvement of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches, including new drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evidence-Based Practice , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(1): 26-31, jan.-mar.- 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-767982

ABSTRACT

Evidências comprovam que a rigidez arterial apresenta uma forte correlação com lesões de órgãos-alvo e é um fator de risco para eventos cardiovasculares na população hipertensa,independente de outros fatores de risco mais conhecidos. Diversos mecanismos estão envolvidos na relação entre hipertensão e rigidez arterial, como envelhecimento, inflamação, alterações metabólicas e neuro-humorais. Estes mecanismos justificam a rigidez arterial como consequência, mas também com causa de elevação da pressão arterial, de acordo com alguns estudos clínicos e experimentais. A rigidez arterial pode ser avaliada de forma local, regional ou sistêmica. Entre as diversas formas, a medida da velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP) é considerada um preditor independente para morbidade e mortalidade cardiovascular em diversas populações. Particularmente, a VOP carótido-femoral tem o maior valor preditivo e possui valores de referência disponíveis, por isso é considerada o padrão-ouro para a medida da rigidez arterial aórtica ou central. Considerando que a VOP carótido-femoral é altamente dependente da idade e da pressão arterial, há uma série de limitações quando se define um ponto de corte fixo para toda a população. Além disso, a distância entre as artérias deve ser medida com muita precisão, pois pequenas diferenças podem influenciar o valor final da VOP. A rigidez arterial sistêmica pode ser avaliada indiretamente através da análise da onda de pulso aórtica derivada a partir da tonometria de aplanação da artéria radial. Todavia, a relação entre os parâmetros centrais obtidos e a rigidez arterial é complexa e, por isso, não devem ser interpretados isoladamente.


Evidence has shown that arterial stiffness is closely correlated with lesions of the target organs, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular events in the hypertensive population, independent of other more well-known risk factors. Various mechanisms are involved in the relationship between Hypertension and arterial stiffness, such as aging, inflammation, metabolic changes and neuro-humoral changes. These mechanisms explain arterial stiffness as a consequence, but also as the cause of increased blood pressure, according to some clinical and experimental studies. Arterial stiffness can be evaluated locally, regionally, or systemically. Among the various forms, the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered an independent predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in various populations. Carotid-femoral PWV, in particular, has the highest predictive value, and available reference values. For this reason, it is considered the gold standard for measuring aortic or central arterial stiffness. Considering that the carotid-femoral PWV is highly dependent on age and arterial pressure, there is a series of limitations when defining a fixed cut-off point for the whole population. Furthermore, the distance between the arteries should be measured very precisely, as small diferences can influence the final PW score. Systemic arterial stiffness can be evaluated indirectly, through the analysis of aortic pulse wave derived from radial artery applanation tonometry. However, the relationship between the central parameters obtained, and arterial stiffness,is complex, and should not be interpreted in isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hypertension/complications , Risk Factors , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Arterial Pressure , Pulse Wave Analysis/methods , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Stroke Volume/physiology
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