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3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 248-254, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137826

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in women with chronic hypertension (CH). Methods Retrospective cohort of women with CH followed at a referral center for a 5 year period (2012-2017). Data were obtained from medical charts review and described as means and frequencies, and a Poisson regression was performed to identify factors independently associated to the occurrence of superimposed preeclampsia (sPE). Results A total of 385 women were included in the present study; the majority were > than 30 years old, multiparous, mostly white and obese before pregnancy. One third had pre-eclampsia (PE) in a previous pregnancy and 17% of them had organ damage associated with hypertension, mainly kidney dysfunction. A total of 85% of the patients used aspirin and calcium carbonate for pre-eclampsia prophylaxis and our frequency of sPE was 40%, with an early onset (32.98 ± 6.14 weeks). Of those, 40% had severe features of PE, including 5 cases of HELLP syndrome; however, no cases of eclampsia or maternal death were reported. C-section incidence was high, gestational age at birth was 36 weeks, and nearly a third (115 cases) of newborns had complications at birth One third of the women remained using antihypertensive drugs after pregnancy. Conclusion Chronic hypertension is related with the high occurrence of PE, C-sections, prematurity and neonatal complications. Close surveillance and multidisciplinary care are important for early diagnosis of complications.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os resultados maternos e perinatais em gestação de mulheres com hipertensão crônica. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva de mulheres hipertensas crônicas acompanhadas em hospital de referência por 5 anos (2012-2017). Foi realizada revisão dos prontuários médicos e os resultados são descritos em médias e frequências. A regressão de Poisson foi usada para identificar os fatores independentemente associados à ocorrência de pré-eclâmpsia superajuntada. Resultados Um total de 385 mulheres foram incluídas no presente estudo, e amaioria tinha idade > 35 anos, era multípara, majoritariamente brancas e obesas antes da gravidez. Um terço teve pré-eclâmpsia em gestação anterior, e 17% apresentavam lesão de órgão-alvo associada à hipertensão, majoritariamente disfunção renal. Um total de 85% das pacientes usaram ácido acetilsalicílico e carbonato de cálcio para a profilaxia de pré-eclâmpsia, sendo que a frequência de pré-eclâmpsia superajuntada foi de 40%, com um início prematuro (32.98 ± 6.14 semanas). Destas, 40% apresentaram sinais de gravidade associados à pré-eclâmpsia, com 5 casos de síndrome HELLP; entretanto sem nenhum caso de eclampsia ou morte materna. A incidência de cesárea foi alta, comidade gestacional de 36 semanas ao parto, e umterço dos recém-nascidos tiveram complicações ao nascimento. Um terço das mulheres permaneceu usando medicamentos anti-hipertensivos ao fim da gravidez. Conclusão A hipertensão crônica se relaciona comalta prevalência de pré-eclâmpsia, cesárea, prematuridade e complicações neonatais. Vigilância e cuidado multidisciplinar são importantes para o diagnóstico precoce das complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia/drug therapy , Referral and Consultation , Pregnancy Outcome , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy. Aim: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model. Method: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days. Results: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups. Conclusion: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.


RESUMO Racional: A hipertensão portal (HP), medida indiretamente através do gradiente pressórico da veia hepática >5 mmHg, tem como principal causa etiológica a cirrose. Possui como complicações a ascite, disfunção hepática, disfunção renal e varizes esofagogástricas, que caracterizam o quadro de gastropatia. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso do carvedilol como profilaxia primária no desenvolvimento da circulação colateral em ratos submetidos ao modelo de ligadura parcial de veia porta (LPVP). Método: Estudo experimental qualitativo e quantitativo no qual foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos (n=8): grupo I - cirrose + carvedilol (LPVP+C); grupo II - cirrose + veículo (LPVP); grupo III - controle + carvedilol (SO - sham-operated+C); grupo IV - controle + veículo (SO - sham-operated). Após transcorridos sete dias do procedimento cirúrgico, foi administrado carvedilol (10 mg/kg) e veículo (1mL) para os respectivos grupos por sete dias consecutivos. Resultados: A análise histológica não mostrou alteração hepática em nenhum grupo e diminuição de edema e vasodilatação no grupo LPVP+C. A avaliação laboratorial da função hepática não mostrou alteração com significância estatística entre os grupos. Conclusão: Carvedilol mostrou ser fármaco com efeito positivo no sangramento das varizes gástricas e sem efeitos adversos significantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/administration & dosage , Carvedilol/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1527-1534, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094186

ABSTRACT

Background Losartan is widely used in many clinicals settings. Its dosage is related to the genetic characteristics of CYP2C9 enzymatic activity, which metabolizes losartan to its active form E-3174, responsible for the antihypertensive effect. Aims To identify the frequency of allelic variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in hypertensive patients and to compare genotypes with a healthy Chilean population. To relate polymorphisms with the losartan dosing to obtain an optimal blood pressure. Material and Methods We studied 30 patients with controlled essential hypertension using losartan with normal liver function, and 202 healthy people. Peripheral blood DNA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction to identify the polymorphisms. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared. Results In hypertensive patients, allelic frequencies were 0.85 (CYP2C9*1), 0.05 (CYP2C9*2) and 0.1 (CYP2C9*3). Genotypic frequencies were 73.3% (CYP2C9*1/*1), 6.7% (CYP2C9*1/*2), 16.7% (CYP2C9*1/*3) and 3.3% (CYP2C9*2/3); observing a significantly higher frequency of the allele CYP2C9*3 (p=0.041) and CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype (p=0.04). A non-significant tendency to need a larger dose of losartan was observed with the CYP2C9 * 3 allele, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.01-18.64). The same tendency was observed with the need to use losartan twice a day, obtaining an OR of 5.88 (CI 0.54 -62.14). Conclusions There could be a relationship between the presence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of hypertension. The presence of CYP2C9*3 is associated with the need for higher doses of losartan, possibly due to a decrease in the conversion of losartan to E-3174.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Losartan/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Gene Frequency , Genotype
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3733-3742, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039486

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar prevalências de falhas no diagnóstico, no uso de anti-hipertensivos e na eficácia do tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão, e a associação destes parâmetros com variáveis sociodemográficas, de saúde e acesso ao serviço de saúde em idosos não institucionalizados. O estudo foi descritivo, transversal, com 3478 idosos, analisados separadamente em regiões Norte/Nordeste e Sul/Sudeste. Utilizou-se a regressão múltipla de Poisson para estimar razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas pelo tipo de serviço de saúde utilizado. Do total, 29,6% dos idosos apresentaram falhas no diagnóstico, 4,6% no uso de anti-hipertensivos e 65,3% na eficácia medicamentosa. A falha no diagnóstico associou-se ao sexo masculino, menos morbidades, ter um companheiro, raça/cor branca, ter acesso ao convênio ou serviço privado de saúde, possuir renda pessoal inferior/média e ainda trabalhar. A falha no uso de anti-hipertensivos esteve associada à renda pessoal inferior/média e trabalhar. As falhas no manejo da hipertensão são prevalentes em idosos não institucionalizados. Há necessidade de ações que minimizem os impactos negativos destas insuficiências em saúde, em um país com diferenças sociais, econômicas e étnicas.


Abstract This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of failure in hypertension diagnosis, antihypertensive drug use and drug therapy efficacy and the association of these parameters with sociodemographic, health-related and access to health services variables in community-dwelling elderly. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 3,478 elderly from different Brazilian regions. We used Pearson's chi-square test to verify associations between outcomes and independent variables, and Poisson multiple regression to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. Of the total, 29.6% of the elderly evidenced failure in the diagnosis, 4.6% in the use of antihypertensives and 65.3% in drug efficacy. Diagnostic failure was associated with males, presence of morbidity, having a partner, white skin color/ethnicity, having access to the health covenant or private health service, with low/medium personal income and working. Antihypertensive use failure was associated with low/medium personal income and work. Hypertension management failures are prevalent in community-dwelling elderly. There is a need for actions that minimize the negative impact of these health shortcomings, in a country burdened by social, economic and ethnic differences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Services Accessibility , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Failure , Independent Living , Hypertension/diagnosis , Income
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3539-3550, set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019673

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho adaptou transculturalmente o questionário espanhol "Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" (CPM-ES-ES) para uso no Brasil. Ele mede o grau de conhecimento sobre medicamentos por meio de 11 perguntas. Oitenta pacientes ≥ 80 anos foram investigados e com 39 também foi entrevistado o cuidador. A avaliação das equivalências conceitual e de item considerou o conceito de conhecimento e as perguntas que o medem como pertinentes. A equivalência semântica foi obtida pela correspondência de significado denotativo e conotativo dos itens. O estudo da equivalência de mensuração incluiu análise fatorial e o cálculo de estimativas de validade e confiabilidade. Semelhante ao questionário original, a análise de componentes principais identificou 4 componentes, porém, em 2 deles houve diferenças nos itens incluídos. Uma pergunta foi removida desta análise devido à sua inadequação amostral. O conhecimento sobre medicamentos esteve correlacionado à complexidade da prescrição r = -0,22, p = 0,046. O conhecimento sobre anti-hipertensivos esteve correlacionado à sua adesão r = 0,70, p < 0,001, e ao controle da pressão arterial rb = 0,46, p = 0,029. A versão adaptada apresentou equivalência funcional de modo que pode ser usada no contexto brasileiro.


Abstract This work cross-culturally adapted the Spanish questionnaire `Patients' knowledge about their medications ("Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" - CPM-ES-ES) for use in Brazil. It measures the level of medication knowledge by means of 11 questions. Eighty patients ≥ 80 years were investigated and in 39 cases the caregivers were interviewed. The evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences considered the concept of knowledge and the questions that assess it as pertinent. Semantic equivalence was obtained by the correspondence in the denotative and connotative meaning of items. The study of measurement equivalence included factorial analysis and the calculation of validity and reliability estimates. As with the original questionnaire, principal component analysis identified 4 components, however, in 2 of them there were differences regarding included items. One question was removed from this analysis due to its sample inadequacy. Medication knowledge was correlated with medication regimen complexity r = -.22, p = .046. Medication knowledge of antihypertensives was correlated with their adherence r = .70, p < .001, and blood pressure control rb = .46, p = .029. The adapted version revealed functional equivalence, therefore it can be used in the Brazilian context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Patient Medication Knowledge/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Principal Component Analysis , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(3): 336-342, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013842

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) en niños y adolescentes es una importante patología, de reservado pronóstico, asociada a factores modificables y no modificables. La prevalencia estimada es de apro ximadamente un 3,5%, la cual va aumentando progresivamente con la edad. El método ideal para su diagnóstico es la medición de la presión arterial (PA) con instrumentos auscultatorios. De acuerdo a la Academia Americana de Pediatría (AAP) la PA debe ser medida en niños mayores de 3 años una vez al año, y en niños menores de 3 años, si presentan factores de riesgo. Una vez confirmada la HTA, la evaluación debe dirigirse hacia la detección de una enfermedad causal y/o a la búsqueda de factores de riesgo asociados a una HTA primaria. El objetivo del tratamiento de la HTA primaria y secundaria en pediatría es lograr un nivel de PA que disminuya el riesgo de daño de los órganos blanco. Las opciones terapéuticas incluyen: tratamiento según etiología específica, no farmacológico y farmacológico. En esta Guia se presenta la posición de la Rama de Nefrología de la Sociedad Chile na de Pediatría con el objetivo de orientar a pediatras y nefrólogos infantiles en correcto manejo de la HTA en la infancia. En esta segunda parte se presentan las recomendaciones sobre el tratamiento antihipertensivo, haciendo énfasis en los cambios de estilo de vida.


Abstract: Hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents is an important pathology, of, guarded prognosis, associated with modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The estimated prevalence is around 3.5% which increases progressively with age. The ideal method for its diagnosis is the measurement of blood pressure (BP) with auscultatory instruments. According to the American Academy of Pedia trics (AAP), BP should be measured in children older than three years of age once a year, and in children younger than three years of age if they present risk factors. Once the HTN is confirmed, the evaluation should be directed towards the detection of a causative disease and/or the search for risk factors associated with a primary HTN. The objective of treating primary and secondary HTN in pediatrics is to achieve a BP level that decreases the risk of target organ damage. Therapeutic op tions include treatment according to specific etiology, non-pharmacological and pharmacological one. This paper presents the position of the Chilean Society of Pediatrics Nephrology Branch with the aim of guiding pediatricians and pediatric nephrologists in the correct management of HTN in childhood. In this second part, recommendations on antihypertensive treatment are presented with an emphasis on lifestyle changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Hypertension/therapy , Life Style , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Determination , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hypertension/diagnosis
10.
Clinics ; 74: e1234, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, open-label study aimed to compare the effects of antihypertensive treatment based on amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide on the circulating microparticles and central blood pressure values of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The effects of treatments on circulating microparticles were assessed during monotherapy and after the consecutive addition of valsartan and rosuvastatin followed by the withdrawal of rosuvastatin. Each treatment period lasted for 30 days. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity were measured at the end of each period. Endothelial, monocyte, and platelet circulating microparticles were determined by flow cytometry. Central blood pressure values and pulse wave velocity were recorded at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS: No differences in brachial blood pressure were observed between the treatment groups throughout the study. Although similar central blood pressure values were observed during monotherapy, lower systolic and diastolic central blood pressure values and early and late blood pressure peaks were observed in the amlodipine arm after the addition of valsartan alone or combined with rosuvastatin. Hydrochlorothiazide-based therapy was associated with a lower number of endothelial microparticles throughout the study, whereas a higher number of platelet microparticles was observed after rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar brachial blood pressure values between groups throughout the study, exposure to amlodipine was associated with lower central blood pressure values after combination with valsartan, indicating a beneficial interaction. Differences between circulating microparticles were modest and were mainly influenced by rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Amlodipine/administration & dosage , Cell-Derived Microparticles/drug effects , Rosuvastatin Calcium/administration & dosage , Hydrochlorothiazide/administration & dosage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Flow Cytometry , Valsartan/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(6): 3006-3012, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between the characteristics of follow-up in health services and adherence to antihypertensive medication in patients with cardiovascular disease. Method: Analytical study carried out with 270 patients suffering from hypertension and hospitalized due to cardiovascular complications. Data collection occurred between November 2015 and April 2016, involving sociodemographic variables, presence of self-reported diabetes, accessibility and use of health services, blood pressure levels and medication adherence (analyzed through the Morisky-Green Test). Results: The rate of adherence to antihypertensive therapy was 63.0%. Enrollment in the Hiperdia program had no statistical significance to medication adherence. People who attended at least between 4 and 6 nursing consultations throughout the data collection period (p = 0.02) had better adherence. Conclusion: The study's findings provide support for the reorientation of health services and their public policies towards improving adherence to antihypertensive therapeutics.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre las características del seguimiento en servicios de salud y la adhesión al tratamiento antihipertensivo en pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular. Método: Estudio analítico, realizado con 270 pacientes con hipertensión internados por la ocurrencia de complicación cardiovascular. La recolección de datos ocurrió entre noviembre de 2015 y abril de 2016. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, presencia de diabetes autorreferida, condiciones de acceso y utilización de servicios de salud, niveles de presión arterial y adhesión terapéutica a través de la prueba de Morisky-Green. Resultados: La tasa de adhesión terapéutica antihipertensiva identificada fue del 63,0%. El registro en el programa Hiperdia no presentó significancia estadística con la adhesión. Esta medida fue mejor en aquellos que asistieron entre 4 y 6 consultas de enfermería en el año (p=0,02). Conclusión: Los hallazgos proporcionan subsidios para la reorientación de los servicios de salud y sus políticas públicas para la ampliación de la adhesión terapéutica antihipertensiva.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre as características do acompanhamento em serviços de saúde e a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo em pacientes com doença cardiovascular. Método: Estudo analítico, realizado com 270 pacientes com hipertensão internados pela ocorrência de complicação cardiovascular. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre novembro de 2015 e abril de 2016. Analisaram-se variáveis sociodemográficas, presença de diabetes autorreferida, condições de acesso e utilização de serviços de saúde, níveis de pressão arterial e adesão terapêutica por meio do Teste de Morisky-Green (TMG). Resultados: A taxa de adesão terapêutica anti-hipertensiva identificada foi de 63,0%. O cadastro no programa Hiperdia não apresentou significância estatística com a adesão. Esta medida foi melhor naqueles que compareceram entre 4 e 6 consultas de enfermagem no ano (p=0,02). Conclusão: Os achados fornecem subsídios para a reorientação dos serviços de saúde e suas políticas públicas para a ampliação da adesão terapêutica anti-hipertensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Health Care/standards , Aftercare/standards , Medication Adherence/psychology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/psychology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(5): 681-691, set.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Hipertensión Arterial es el factor de riesgo más frecuente de infarto agudo de miocardio, enfermedad cerebrovascular, insuficiencia cardíaca y otras afecciones. Objetivo: Caracterizar el consumo intrahospitalario de medicamentos antihipertensivos en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Manuel Fajardo en el período comprendido entre 2013 y 2017. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal sobre el consumo intrahospitalario de antihipertensivos. El universo estuvo determinado por todos los antihipertensivos que tuvieron indicación facultativa intrahospitalaria en los años comprendidos. Resultados: Se consumió un total de 301 616 unidades de drogas antihipertensivas. El Enalapril fue el antihipertensivo más consumido con 126 306 unidades, representando 41.89 por ciento del consumo total de antihipertensivos en el período, siendo además el más empleado en todos los años del estudio. El mayor costo lo representó el Enalapril para un total de 31 576.50 CUP. Conclusiones: Los antihipertensivos más empleados fueron el Enalapril, la Clortalidona y el Amlodipino. El Enalapril fue el más consumido en todos los años estudiados, mientras que la Clortalidona estuvo entre los tres más empleados en todos esos años. En cuanto a la repercusión económica del consumo de los antihipertensivos más empleados, el Enalapril fue el más costoso, seguido por el Amlodipino(AU)


Introduction: Arterial hypertension is the most frequent risk factor associated with acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and other conditions. Objective: To characterize the intra-hospital consumption of antihypertensive drugs at Manuel Fajardo Hospital throughout the period between 2013 and 2017. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study of the intra-hospital consumption of antihypertensive drugs was carried out. The universe was determined by all the antihypertensive drugs that had intra-hospital medical prescription during the period studied. Results: A total of 301.616 units of antihypertensive drugs were used. Enalapril was the most consumed drug with 126.306 units, representing 41.89 percent of the total consumption of antihypertensive drugs during the period; also being the most used drug for the entire years of the study. The increased cost was represented by Enalapril for a total of 31.576.50 Cuban pesos (CUP). Conclusions: The most used antihypertensive drugs were Enalapril, Chlorthalidone and Amlodipine. Enalapril was the most consumed drug in all the years studied, whereas Chlorthalidone was one of the three most commonly used. Regarding economical repercussion of the most consumed antihypertensive drugs, Enalapril was the most expensive one, followed by Amlodipine(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Self Medication/adverse effects , Hospital Care/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 189-193, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959102

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: O glaucoma e a principal causa de cegueira irreversivel no Brasil. Ate o momento nao se dispoe de uma droga ideal para o controle da pressao intraocular (PIO), geralmente necessitando associar dois ou mais medicamentos hipotensores, com frequentes instilacoes diarias e ma aderencia ao tratamento. Objetivos: Descrever quantitativa e qualitativamente as drogas usadas para controle da PIO e a eficacia do tratamento na prevencao da cegueira. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo, atraves de revisao de 420 prontuarios de portadores de Glaucoma severo acompanhados no ambulatorio do Hospital Emilio Carlos, de Catanduva-SP, de janeiro/2014 a dezembro/2016. As variaveis analisadas foram: idade, acuidade visual e medicamentos antiglaucomatosos utilizados: topicos (colirios) e sistemicos. Resultados: A media de idade dos participantes foi 62,99±16,29 anos. Foram detectados 68 casos de cegueira, sendo que 3 pacientes (0,7%)perderam a visao no tempo investigado, com referencias a periodos sem tratamento/subdose/instilacao indevida/uso de 3 ou 4 colirios. Em 73,3% dos casos conseguiu-se estabilizacao da PIO com o uso de um (38,1%) ou no maximo 02 (35,2%) colirios associados. Houve correlacao significativa entre o no de combinacoes de hipotensores topicos e o no de pacientes em uso de Acetazolamida. O medicamentomais usado foi o Maleato de Timolol (67,1%). Conclusões: Na maioria dos pacientes a PIO foi controlada com 1 ou 2 colirios associados; pequena porcentagem dos casos evoluiu para cegueira; muito provavelmente a evolucao para perda de visao foi decorrente da complexidade e ma aderencia ao tratamento.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness in Brazil. To date, there is no ideal drug for the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), usually requiring the combination of two or more hypotensive drugs, with frequent daily instillations and poor adherence to treatment. Objectives: To describe quantitatively and qualitatively the drugs used to control IOP and the efficacy of treatment in the prevention of blindness. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out through a review of 420 medical records of patients with severe Glaucoma who were followed up at the Emílio Carlos Hospital outpatient clinic in Catanduva, SP, from January 2014 to December 2016. The analyzed variables were: age, visual acuity and antiglaucomatous drugs used: topical (eye drops) and systemic. Results:The mean age of participants was 62.99 ± 16.29 years. Sixty-eight cases of blindness were detected, and three patients (0.7%) lost vision at the time investigated, with references to periods without treatment / subdose / improper instillation / use of 3 or 4 eye drops. In 73.3% of the cases, IOP stabilization was achieved with one (38.1%) or at most 02 (35.2%) associated drops. There was a significant correlation between the number of combinations of topical hypotensive agents and the number of patients taking acetazolamide. The drugmostused was Timolol (67.1%). Conclusions: In the majority of patients IOP was controlled with 1 or 2 associated eye drops; small percentage of cases evolved into blindness; most likely the evolution to loss of vision was due to the complexity and poor adherence to the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/prevention & control , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Medical Records , Blindness/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Intraocular Pressure
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(2): 129-135, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is more common in low and middle-income countries. The effectiveness of hypertension treatment is determined by health cost, awareness, and patients' compliance with the treatment. People worldwide with an adequate control of hypertension correspond to a very small percentage in low and medium income countries as the Latin America ones. Between the causes to explain these are the low availability, affordability and adherence to treatment with multiple pills. It has been proposed that fixed dose combination therapy could improve the availability, affordability, adherence and control of hypertension. This article aims to review the evidence, showing that fixed dose combination can improve adherence, decrease health cost and improve control of hypertension. Improvement in hypertension control with fixed dose combination could make an important contribution to efforts to fight against the global cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Resumen La hipertensión es un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Su prevalencia está aumentando en todo el mundo, y es más común en los países de medianos a bajos ingresos. La eficacia del tratamiento de la hipertensión está determinada por el costo, el conocimiento y la adherencia de los pacientes con el tratamiento. El control adecuado de la hipertensión corresponde a un porcentaje muy pequeño en países de medianos a bajos ingresos como los países de América Latina. Entre las causas para explicar esto se encuentran la baja disponibilidad, asequibilidad y adherencia al tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos antihipertensivos. Se ha propuesto que la terapia combinada a dosis fija podría mejorar la disponibilidad, asequibilidad, adherencia y control de la hipertensión. Este artículo tiene como objetivo revisar la evidencia que demuestra que la combinación de dosis fija puede mejorar la adherencia, disminuir los costos de salud y mejorar el control de la hipertensión. La mejoría en el control de la hipertensión con terapia de combinación a dosis fija podría aportar una importante contribución a los esfuerzos para combatir la morbilidad y la mortalidad cardiovascular a nivel mundial. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Latin America
15.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 74 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-912824

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: Sabe-se que o risco cardiovascular (CV) aumenta com a falta de controle pressórico, além de outros fatores como diabetes mellitus, lesão em órgãos-alvo, obesidade, altas taxas de ingestão de sódio, sexo feminino e raça negra. Além disso, as doenças CV são causa de morte de 17,5 milhões de pessoas no mundo todos os anos, sendo a hipertensão arterial responsável por 14% das mortes no Brasil. Objetivos: O presente estudo avaliou (1) a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares ¿ acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), infarto do miocárdio (IM) e morte ¿ assim como, (2) os fatores associados à ocorrência de tais eventos, na população de hipertensos resistentes em ambulatórios especializados entre os anos de 1998 e 2017. Desenho de estudo e Métodos: Este estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu 156 pacientes com hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR) regularmente atendidos e acompanhados em ambulatórios especializados a partir de 1998 - Hospitais de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) e Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). Foram avaliadas características gerais (idade, raça, gênero), exames bioquímicos, parâmetros antropométricos (índice de massa corporal), clínicos (pressão arterial ambulatorial e de consultório, hipertrofia cardíaca, microalbuminúria) e medicações em uso em dois períodos distintos, sendo a primeira e última consultas dos pacientes em seguimento. Resultados: Observou-se que, após a média de cinco anos de seguimento em ambulatórios especializados, 9% dos pacientes HAR apresentaram evento CV: AVC (6%); IM (3%) e morte (0,6%). Os pacientes HAR, ao final do seguimento, apresentaram um perfil clínico mais favorável em comparação ao momento inicial, quando foram observadas: (1) melhora do perfil pressórico de consultório (PAS: -18mmHg; PAD: -12mmHg) e 24h ( PAS 24h: -9mmHg; PAD 24h: -7mmHg) e (2) dos níveis de LDL-colesterol (-9,03mg/dL). A redução dos parâmetros pressóricos foi decorrente de alterações na conduta terapêutica, com aumento da prescrição de diferentes classes de anti-hipertensivos. De maneira interessante, o diabetes e uso de betabloqueadores no início do seguimento, foram associados, de maneira independente, à redução da pressão arterial sistólica no final do seguimento, assim como as estatinas. Por outro lado, a presença de obesidade foi associada inversamente à redução desses níveis. Os pacientes HAR que apresentaram algum evento CV tinham, tanto o nível pressórico de 24h quanto o de triglicérides, mais elevados em relação aos pacientes HAR que não apresentaram nenhum evento. Conclusão: Através do tratamento farmacológico otimizado, a redução dos parâmetros pressóricos e do perfil lipídico, pode ter sido favorável à baixa ocorrência de eventos CV na população estudada. Esses dados sugerem a importância de se prestar atendimento individualizado aos pacientes de alto risco CV. Além disso, o conhecimento dos fatores de risco CV pode contribuir para melhor se guiar a terapia farmacológica e, consequentemente, proporcionar maior sobrevida a grupos de alto risco CV, como o de pacientes HAR(AU)


Abstract: Background: It is known that cardiovascular (CV) risk increases with lack of blood pressure (BP) control, in addition to other factors such as diabetes mellitus, target organ damage, obesity, high sodium intake, female sex and black race. In addition, CV diseases are responsible for the deaths of 17.5 million people worldwide, it being known that hypertension accounts for 14% of deaths in Brazil. Objectives: This study evaluated (1) the occurrence of CV events - stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and death - as well as (2) factors associated with the occurrence of such events in the population of hypertensive specialized outpatient clinics between 1998 and 2017. Design and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 156 patients with resistant hypertension (RH) regularly attended and followed up in specialized outpatient clinics from 1998 ¿ in Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and Medical School of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). General characteristics (age, race, gender), biochemical tests, anthropometric parameters (body mass index), clinical parameters (ambulatory and office BP, cardiac hypertrophy, microalbuminuria) and medications in use were evaluated in two distinct periods: at the beginning and at the end of this follow-up. Results: It was observed that, after a follow-up in specialized outpatient clinics that lasted, in average, five years, 9% of RH patients presented CV event: stroke (6%); MI (3%) and death (0.6%). At the end of the follow-up, the RH patients presented a more favorable clinical profile compared to the initial moment, when: (1) improvement of the office BP profile (SBP: -18mmHg; DBP: -12mmHg) and 24h: -9mmHg, DBP 24h: -7mmHg) and (2) LDL-cholesterol levels (-9.03mg/dL). The reduction in BP parameters was due to changes in therapeutic management, with an increase in the prescription of different classes of antihypertensives. Interestingly, diabetes and the use of beta-blockers at the beginning of follow-up were associated with a reduction in systolic BP in an independent way at the end of follow-up, as well as statins. On the other hand, the presence of obesity was inversely associated with the reduction of these levels. The RH patients who had a CV event had the 24h BP and the triglyceride levels higher than the RH patients who did not present any events. Conclusion: Through optimized pharmacological treatment the reduction of pressure parameters and lipid profile could have been favorable to the low occurrence of CV events in the study population. These data suggest the importance of providing individualized care to patients at high risk CV. In addition, knowledge of CV risk factors may contribute to better guiding pharmacological therapy and, consequently, providing greater survival rates to high-risk CV groups, such as in RH patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Abnormalities , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Antihypertensive Agents , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular System , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Stroke , Stroke/epidemiology , Therapeutics
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(4): 316-325, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887542

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of 60 mg and 120 mg Fimasartan (FMS) alone or combined with 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in a Mexican population. Methods: A six month, treat-to-target, open study was conducted on subjects with grade 1-2 hypertension. The subjects were initially treated with 60 mg FMS once daily. In week 8, those with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) <90 mmHg continued on the same FMS dose during the rest of the study, while those with DBP ≥90 mmHg were randomised to either 120 mg FMS or 60 mg FMS + 12.5 mg HCTZ once daily. In week 12, randomised subjects with DBP ≥90 mmHg received 120 mg FMS + 12.5 mg HCTZ, while those achieving target continued with their assigned treatment until the end of the study. Results: FMS 60 mg (n = 272) decreased both DBP and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) by 11.3 ± 8.9 (p<.0001) and 16.0 ± 14.1 (p<.0001) mmHg, respectively, with 75.4% of subjects reaching the treatment target. Subjects assigned to FMS 120 mg, FMS 60 mg + HCTZ 12.5 mg, or FMS 120 mg + HCTZ 12.5 mg once daily, showed significant reductions in DBP and SBP with their assigned treatment. At the end of the study, 237/272 subjects (87.1%) achieved a DBP < 90 mmHg and an SBP<140 mmHg. The most frequently reported adverse reactions included headache (3.7%), dry mouth (1.1%), transient liver enzyme increase (1.1%), and dizziness (0.7%). Conclusion: Fimasartan is safe and effective in Mexican subjects with grade 1-2 essential hypertension.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de 60 y 120 mg de fimasartán (FMS) solo o combinado con 12.5 mg de hidroclorotiazida (HCTZ) en población mexicana. Métodos: Estudio abierto, de 24 semanas, con tratamiento escalado hasta el objetivo terapéutico en sujetos hipertensos grados 1-2. Tratamiento inicial: FMS 60 mg una vez al día; en la semana 8, los sujetos con presión arterial diastólica (PAD) <90 mmHg mantuvieron su tratamiento inicial durante el estudio, mientras que los sujetos con PAD ≥90 mmHg fueron aleatorizados a 120 mg de FMS o a 60 mg de FMS + 12.5 mg de HCTZ. En la semana 12, los sujetos aleatorizados con PAD ≥90 mmHg recibieron 120 mg de FMS + 12.5 mg de HCTZ; quienes alcanzaron el objetivo terapéutico mantuvieron su tratamiento asignado hasta finalizar el estudio. Resultados: FMS 60 mg (n = 272) disminuyó la PAD y la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) en 11.3 ± 8.9 (p < 0.0001) y 16.0 ± 14.1 (p < 0.0001) mmHg, respectivamente, con logro del objetivo de tratamiento en el 75.4% de los sujetos. Los sujetos asignados a 120 mg de FMS, a 60 mg de FMS + 12.5 mg de HCTZ 12.5 y a 120 mg de FMS + 12.5 mg de HCTZ mostraron reducciones significativas de PAD y PAS; al final del estudio, 237/272 sujetos (87.1%) lograron PAD <90 y PAS <140 mmHg. Las reacciones adversas más frecuentemente reportadas fueron: cefalea (3.7%), boca seca (1.1%), incremento de enzimas hepáticas (1.1%) y mareo (0.7%). Conclusión: FMS es seguro y eficaz en sujetos mexicanos con hipertensión esencial de grados 1-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Biphenyl Compounds/administration & dosage , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Hydrochlorothiazide/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Tetrazoles/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mexico , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(6): 312-315, nov.-dez. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899098

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report a case of a middle-aged woman who developed acute, bilateral, symmetrical, slightly transilluminating depigmentation of the iris and pigment discharge into the anterior chamber following the use of oral moxifloxacin for bacterial sinusitis. She had been misdiagnosed as having autoimmune uveitis, treated with steroids and tropicamide, and underwent severe ocular hypertension and glaucoma despite posterior correct diagnosis.


Resumo Relato de um caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino de meia idade que desenvolveu despigmentação bilateral simultânea aguda com dispersão de pigmentos na câmara anterior e discreta transiluminação após o uso de moxifloxacino oral para tratamento de sinusite bacteriana. Ela Havia sido diagnosticada com uveite autoimune e tratada com corticosteroide tópico e tropicamida e evoluiu com hipertensão ocular grave e glaucoma apesar de ,posteriormente, o diagnóstico ter sido correto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Glaucoma/etiology , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Iris Diseases/complications , Pigment Epithelium of Eye/diagnostic imaging , Pigmentation Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Trabecular Meshwork/pathology , Transillumination , Iridocyclitis/diagnosis , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Iris/diagnostic imaging , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Photophobia , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Field Tests , Brimonidine Tartrate/administration & dosage , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Moxifloxacin/adverse effects , Gonioscopy , Iris Diseases/chemically induced , Iris Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(2): 217-220, Mar.-Apr. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843378

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report a case of perianesthetic refractory anaphylactic shock with cefuroxime in a patient with history of penicillin allergy on regular therapy with atenolol, losartan, prazosin and nicardipine. Severe anaphylactic shock was only transiently responsive to 10 mL of (1:10,000) epinephrine and needed norepinephrine and dopamine infusion. Supportive therapy with vasopressors and inotropes along with mechanical ventilation for the next 24 hours resulted in complete recovery. She was successfully operated upon 2 weeks later with the same anesthetic drugs but intravenous ciprofloxacin as the alternative antibiotic for perioperative prophylaxis.


Resumo Relatamos um caso de choque anafilático refratário no período perianestésico com cefuroxima em paciente com história de alergia à penicilina em terapia regular com atenolol, losartan, prazosina e nicardipine. O choque anafilático grave foi apenas transitoriamente responsivo a 10 mL de epinefrina (1:10000) e precisou de infusão de norepinefrina e dopamina. A terapia de apoio com vasopressores e inotrópicos, juntamente com ventilação mecânica por 24 horas, resultou em recuperação completa. A paciente foi operada com sucesso duas semanas mais tarde, com os mesmos agentes anestésicos, mas com ciprofloxacina intravenosa como antibiótico opcional para a profilaxia perioperatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cefuroxime/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Penicillins/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Dopamine/administration & dosage , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Cefuroxime/administration & dosage , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
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