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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 484-491, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339173

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A hipertensão é um importante e persistente problema de saúde pública, sendo uma das principais causas de doenças cardiovasculares e mortalidade geral. Objetivos Este estudo buscou verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à hipertensão arterial sistêmica em trabalhadores da indústria do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados secundários de 20.792 industriários de 18 a 59 anos de idade. A presença de hipertensão arterial foi determinada a partir da pressão arterial sistólica ≥140mmHg e/ou pressão arterial diastólica ≥90mmHg, ou estar fazendo uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva. Os fatores investigados incluíram características demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, de estado nutricional e de história familiar. Regressão de Poisson foi utilizada na análise multivariável, adotando-se um p<0,05 como nível de significância. Todas as análises foram estratificadas por sexo. Resultados A amostra incluiu 12.349 homens e 8.443 mulheres com média de idade geral de 32,8 anos (Desvio-padrão=9,8 anos). A prevalência de hipertensão foi de 10,3% (IC95%:9,8-10,7), sendo esta significativamente maior entre os homens do que entre as mulheres (10,9% vs 9,4%;p=0,001). A hipertensão mostrou-se associada à elevação da faixa etária, baixa escolaridade, viver com companheiro, ter sobrepeso ou obesidade, e ter pelo menos um parente com história de hipertensão para ambos os sexos. As mulheres com melhores condições socioeconômicas apresentaram menores prevalências de hipertensão. Conclusões Os principais fatores associados à hipertensão arterial compreenderam características sociodemográficas, nutricionais e de história familiar. Ademais, as condições socioeconômicas demonstraram uma associação com a ocorrência de hipertensão, principalmente entre as mulheres.


Abstract Background Hypertension is a serious and persistent public health problem and is one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases and general mortality. Objectives This study aimed to verify the prevalence and factors associated with systemic arterial hypertension in workers from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using the secondary data from 20,792 industry workers from 18 to 59 years of age. The presence of arterial hypertension was determined from systolic blood pressure ≥ 140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication. Factors investigated included demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, nutritional status, and family history characteristics. Poisson regression was used in multivariate analysis, adopting a significance level of p<0.05. All analyses were stratified by sex. Results The sample included 12,349 men and 8,443 women with a mean age of 32.8 years (Standard Deviation = 9.8). The prevalence of arterial hypertension was 10.3% (95% CI: 9.8-10.7), which was significantly higher in men than in women (10.9% vs 9.4%; p = 0.001). Arterial hypertension was associated with increased age, a low level of education, living with a partner, being overweight or obese, and having at least one relative with a history of hypertension for both sexes. Women with better socioeconomic conditions presented a lower prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The main factors associated with hypertension included sociodemographic, nutritional, and family history characteristics. In addition, socioeconomic conditions showed an association with the occurrence of hypertension, especially among women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Overweight , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 520-527, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339187

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Hipertensos tratados avaliados apenas com a medida casual da pressão arterial (PA) podem estar sujeitos a decisões equivocadas. Objetivos: Avaliar o comportamento da PA pela medida casual e residencial (MRPA), o comportamento das classes de anti-hipertensivos e as prevalências de hipertensão do avental branco (HABNC) e mascarada não-controladas (HMNC). Métodos: Estudo transversal que avaliou pacientes pela plataforma TeleMRPA entre 2017 e 2019. Foram excluídos aqueles sem medicamentos, com 3 ou mais, em uso de espironolactona e alfa-2 agonistas. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, sexo, índice de massa corporal (IMC), número de medidas válidas da PA, médias da PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) pela medida casual e MRPA, e as classes de anti-hipertensivos. Utilizados os testes t pareado e não pareado e qui-quadrado. Adotado nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Selecionados 22.446 pacientes, dos quais 6.731 preencheram os critérios, sendo 61,3% do sexo feminino, com idade média de 57,8 (±12,6) anos e IMC médio de 29,0 (±5,1) kg/m2. Os valores médios de PAS e PAD foram 6,6 mmHg (p<0,001) e 4,4 mmHg (p<0,001) maiores na medida casual que na MRPA. As taxas de controle da PA foram de 57,0% pela medida casual e 61,3% pela MRPA (p<0,001), com prevalência de HABNC e HMNC de 15,4% e 11,1%, respectivamente. O bloqueio do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona ocorreu em 74,6% das vezes e 54,8% estavam em monoterapia. Conclusões: O uso da MRPA deve ser considerado no acompanhamento de hipertensos tratados em virtude das elevadas prevalências de HABNC e HMNC. Os anti-hipertensivos tiveram comportamentos distintos nas medidas domiciliares. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background: Hypertensive patients undergoing treatment and assessed only by casual blood pressure (BP) measurement may be subject to mistaken decisions. Objective: To assess BP behavior by measuring its levels at the office (casual) and at home (HBPM), the behavior of different classes of antihypertensive drugs, and the prevalence of uncontrolled white-coat hypertension (UCWCH) and uncontrolled masked hypertension (UCMH). Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing patients who underwent BP monitoring in the TeleMRPA platform between 2017 and 2019. The exclusion criteria were: use of no antihypertensive drug; combined use of 3 or more antihypertensive drugs; and use of spironolactone and alpha-2 agonist. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of valid BP measurements, means of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) obtained from HBPM and casual measurement, and the classes of antihypertensive drugs. Paired and unpaired t tests, as well as chi-square test, were used. The 5% significance level was adopted. Results: This study selected 22 446 patients, 6731 of whom met the inclusion criteria [61.3%, female sex; mean age, 57.8 (±12.6) years; mean BMI, 29.0 (±5.1) kg/m2]. Mean SBP and DBP were 6.6 mm Hg (p<0.001) and 4.4 mm Hg (p<0.001) higher in casual measurement than in HBPM. The rates of BP control were 57.0% in casual measurement and 61.3% in HBPM (p<0.001), and the prevalence of UCWCH and UCMH was 15.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade was observed in 74.6% of the patients, and 54.8% were on single-drug therapy. Conclusions: HBPM should be considered for the follow-up of treated hypertensive patients because of the high prevalence of UCWCH and UCMH. Antihypertensive drugs behaved differently in HBPM. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , White Coat Hypertension/diagnosis , White Coat Hypertension/drug therapy , White Coat Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Middle Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 37(1): e3535, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341375

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El enfoque terapéutico para la presión arterial alta incluye medidas no farmacológicas y farmacológicas. La no adherencia al tratamiento es uno de los desafíos más importantes para la salud pública. Objetivo: Caracterizar los factores asociados con la adherencia a la medicación y el tratamiento sin medicación de pacientes hipertensos. Métodos: Este es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo y transversal realizado en una Unidad Básica de Salud en la ciudad de Teresina- Piauí/Brasil con 160 pacientes hipertensos. Los datos se recopilaron de febrero a julio de 2019 mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario semiestructurado que contiene preguntas relacionadas con los aspectos socioeconómicos y demográficos, el tratamiento sin medicamentos, la verificación de la presión arterial y el conocimiento de los antihipertensivos en uso. Para el análisis de los datos, se consideró la prueba de chi-cuadrado con una significación del 95 por ciento considerando las pruebas de independencia 2x2 en la combinación de variables. Resultados: La muestra consistió en mujeres, ancianos, jubilados, con ingresos salariales entre uno y dos salarios mínimos. La principal modificación de estilo de vida adoptada fue la abstención del consumo de alcohol y tabaco. La mayoría afirmó que verificaban la presión arterial de forma rutinaria (57,5 por ciento), que tenían conocimiento sobre la medicación antihipertensiva en uso (68 por ciento) y que estaban satisfechos con la atención establecida en la unidad básica de salud (78,75 por ciento). Conclusión: La población hipertensa estudiada se adhiere parcialmente al tratamiento recomendado(AU)


Introdução: A abordagem terapêutica da pressão arterial elevada inclui medidas não medicamentosas e medidas farmacológicas. A não adesão ao tratamento é um dos mais importantes desafios para a saúde pública. Objetivo: Caracterizar os fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e não medicamentoso de pacientes hipertensos. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, quantitativo e transversal realizado em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de Teresina- Piauí/Brasil com 160 hipertensos. Os dados foram coletados no período de fevereiro a julho de 2019, por meio da aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado contendo questões relativas a aspectos socioeconômicos e demográficos, tratamento não medicamentoso, verificação da pressão arterial e conhecimento dos anti-hipertensivos em uso. Para a análise dos dados foi aplicado o teste qui-quadrado com significância de 95 porcento, considerando testes de independência 2x2 na combinação das variáveis. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída em sua maioria por mulheres, idosas, aposentadas, com renda salarial entre um e dois salários mínimos. As principais modificações de estilo de vida adotadas foram a abstenção do uso de álcool e tabaco. A maioria afirmou verificar a PA rotineiramente (57,50 porcento), ter conhecimento sobre o medicamento anti-hipertensivo em uso (68 porcento) e estarem satisfeitas com o atendimento estabelecido na Unidade Básica de Saúde (78,75 porcento). Conclusão: Conclui-se que a população hipertensa estudada adere parcialmente ao tratamento recomendado(AU)


Introduction: The therapeutic approach to high blood pressure includes non-drug and pharmacological measures. Non-adherence to treatment is one of the greatest, and consequently one of the most important challenges for public health. Objective: To characterize the factors associated with adherence to medication and non-medication treatment of hypertensive patients. Methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted in a Basic Health Unit in the city of Teresina- Piauí with 160 hypertensive patients. The data were collected from February to July 2019 by applying a semi-structured questionnaire containing questions related to socioeconomic and demographic aspects, non-drug treatment, blood pressure verification and knowledge of antihypertensives in use. For the data analysis, the chi-square test with significance of 95 percent was considered considering 2x2 independence tests in the combination of variables. Results: The sample consisted of women, elderly, retired, with wage income between one and two minimum wages. The main lifestyle modification adopted was abstention from alcohol and tobacco use. Most stated that they routinely check blood pressure (57,50 percent), have knowledge about the antihypertensive medication in use (68,00 percent) and are satisfied with the care established at the basic health unit (78,75 percent). Conclusion: The hypertensive population studied partially adheres to the recommended treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypertension/diagnosis , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Analysis
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00061120, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339542

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este trabalho analisa de que forma ocorre a interação entre adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso, meta pressórica e depressão em uma amostra probabilística de hipertensos assistidos pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família, de Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 641 hipertensos de 40 anos e mais, residentes na zona urbana do município. Foram utilizados roteiros estruturados para a coleta de dados em entrevistas domiciliares, com foco nos indicadores: Medication Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) e aferição da pressão arterial. Devido à simultaneidade dos eventos analisados (depressão, meta pressórica e adesão), aplicou-se um sistema de equações não lineares recursivas e simultâneas. Os resultados sugerem que a chance de estar na meta pressórica aumenta significativamente com a adesão ao tratamento; também sugerem que indivíduos que estão na meta pressórica apresentam uma chance 2,6 vezes maior de adesão ao tratamento. A adesão possui efeito protetor sobre a depressão: indivíduos com adesão mínima possuem chances 8,4 vezes maiores de desenvolver sintomas depressivos quando comparados aos de máxima adesão. A adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso está relacionada simultaneamente ao controle da pressão arterial e a menores níveis de depressão. Promover a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso é essencial para garantir que os indivíduos se mantenham normotensos, com potencial de redução nos níveis de depressão. Essas externalidades positivas podem reduzir a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde, com ganhos simultâneos na qualidade de vida dos hipertensos.


Abstract: The study analyzes interactions between drug treatment adherence, blood pressure targets, and depression in a probabilistic sample of hypertensive individuals treated in the Family Health Strategy in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study with 641 hypertensive individuals 40 years or older, residing in the urban area of Governador Valadares. Structured scripts were used to collect data in home interviews, with a focus on the following indicators: Medication Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and blood pressure measurement. Due to the simultaneity of the target events (depression, blood pressure target, and adherence), we applied a system of recursive and simultaneous nonlinear equations. The results suggest that the odds of meeting the blood pressure target increase significantly with adherence to treatment; they also suggest that individuals that meet the blood pressure target show 2.6 higher odds of treatment adherence. Adherence has a protective effect against depression: individuals with minimal adherence show 8.4 higher odds of developing depressive symptoms when compared to those with maximum adherence. Drug treatment adherence is related simultaneously to blood pressure control and lower levels of depression. Promoting drug treatment adherence is essential for ensuring that individuals remain normotensive, with the potential for reducing levels of depression. These positive externalities can reduce pressure on the health system, with simultaneous gains in quality of life for hypertensive individuals.


Resumen: Este trabajo analiza de qué forma se produce la interacción entre la adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso, meta de presión y depresión en una muestra probabilística de hipertensos, asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia de Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio transversal con 641 hipertensos de 40 años y más, residentes en la zona urbana del municipio. Se utilizaron itinerarios estructurados para la recogida de datos, mediante entrevistas domiciliarias, centradas en los indicadores: Medication Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) y comprobación de la presión arterial. Debido a la simultaneidad de los eventos analizados (depresión, meta de presión y adhesión), se aplicó un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales recursivas y simultáneas. Los resultados sugieren que la oportunidad de encontrarse dentro de la meta de presión aumenta significativamente con la adhesión al tratamiento; también indican que los individuos que están en la meta de presión presentan una oportunidad 2,6 veces mayor de adhesión al tratamiento. La adhesión posee un efecto protector sobre la depresión: individuos con una adhesión mínima tienen 8,4 veces mayores oportunidades de desarrollar síntomas depresivos, cuando se comparan con los de máxima adhesión. La adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso está relacionada simultáneamente con el control de la presión arterial y a menores niveles de depresión. Promover la adhesión al tratamiento con medicamentos es esencial para garantizar que los individuos se mantengan normotensos, con una potencial de reducción en los niveles de depresión. Estas externalidades positivas pueden reducir la presión sobre el sistema de salud, con beneficios simultáneos en la calidad de vida de los hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Hypertension/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Family Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Medication Adherence , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE001055, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349851

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Descrever o processo de produção do protótipo de um aplicativo para smartphone para motivar pessoas com hipertensão arterial sistêmica a aderir ao tratamento medicamentoso. Métodos Estudo de produção tecnológica do tipo prototipagem, com construção baseada no modelo design instrucional contextualizado, que seguiu as etapas de análise (levantamento de crenças); design (seleção de ícones, mídias, interface gráfica e validação de conteúdo) e desenvolvimento (construção do protótipo). O conteúdo motivacional para composição textual baseou-se nas crenças dos indivíduos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica em observância à Teoria do Comportamento Planejado. Resultados O protótipo foi composto por vídeo motivacional contendo conceitos, estatísticas e apelos persuasivos relacionados às crenças emitidas; contatos preferenciais; controles de medicamentos com horários e alarmes direcionados, informações sobre os medicamentos em uso, controle de valores da pressão arterial; mensagens persuasivas positivas e negativas; e perfil do usuário. Conclusão O protótipo é uma inovação tecnológica com potencial para motivar a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e diminuição dos níveis pressóricos dos indivíduos com hipertensão.


Resumen Objetivo Describir el proceso de producción del prototipo de una aplicación para smartphone para motivar a las personas con hipertensión arterial sistémica a adherir al tratamiento medicamentoso. Métodos Estudio de producción tecnológica de creación de prototipo, con elaboración basada en el modelo de diseño educativo contextualizado, que consistió en una etapa de análisis (recopilación de creencias), una de diseño (selección de íconos, comunicación, interfaz gráfica y validación de contenido) y una de desarrollo (construcción del prototipo). El contenido motivacional para la composición textual se basó en las creencias de los individuos con hipertensión arterial sistémica en cumplimiento con la teoría del comportamiento planeado. Resultados El prototipo está compuesto por un video motivacional que contiene conceptos, estadísticas y llamadas persuasivas relacionadas con las creencias expresadas; contactos preferenciales, control de medicamentos con horarios y alarmas específicas, información sobre los medicamentos en uso, control de valores de la presión arterial; mensajes persuasivos positivos y negativos; y perfil del usuario. Conclusión El prototipo es una innovación tecnológica con potencial para motivar la adherencia al tratamiento medicamentoso y la reducción de los niveles de presión de los individuos con hipertensión.


Abstract Objective To describe the prototype production process for a smartphone application to motivate people with hypertension to adhere to medication treatment. Methods This is a study of technological production of the prototyping type, with building based on the contextualized instructional design model, which followed the analysis (survey of beliefs), design (selection of icons, media, graphic interface and content validation), and development (prototype building) steps. The motivational content for textual composition was based on the beliefs of individuals with hypertension in compliance with the Theory of Planned Behavior. Results The prototype was composed of motivational video containing concepts, statistics and persuasive appeals related to the beliefs issued; preferred contacts; medication control with targeted schedules and alarms, information about the medications in use; control of blood pressure values; persuasive positive and negative messages; user profile. Conclusion The prototype is a technological innovation with the potential to motivate adherence to medication treatment and decrease blood pressure levels in individuals with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Technological Development and Innovation Projects , Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Hypertension/drug therapy , Motivation , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200213, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1142953

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a associação entre a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo e a ocorrência de Síndrome Metabólica em pacientes hipertensos de uma unidade de atenção primária à saúde. Método Estudo analítico com corte transversal realizado com 306 pacientes hipertensos de uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde localizada na cidade de Fortaleza-CE. Resultados Dos participantes do estudo 74,2% eram do sexo feminino, média 61,8 ± 11,9 anos e dentro da faixa etária de 54 a 69, 77,1% raça/cor parda, 60,8% com nível fundamental incompleto ou completo e 70,6% com renda familiar entre 1 e 2 salários mínimos. Dos hipertensos avaliados, 41,5% apresentaram Síndrome Metabólica e 76,5% apresentava aderência parcial ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Na avaliação estatística da associação entre as variáveis foi verificado não existir (p = 0,149 e p = 0,642). Os valores referentes à adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo eram iguais, tanto nos pacientes com Síndrome Metabólica como dos que não apresentavam essa condição. Conclusão e implicações para a prática A adesão terapêutica anti-hipertensiva alta e parcial foi prevalente. A frequência de Síndrome Metabólica entre os hipertensos em estudo foi elevada. Portanto, medidas de prevenção para doenças cardiovasculares e alcance das metas terapêuticas devem ser implementas continuamente. Um desafio a ser superado pelos profissionais e serviços de saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la asociación entre la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo y la aparición del síndrome metabólico en pacientes hipertensos en una unidad de atención primaria de salud. Método Estudio analítico con corte transversal realizado con 306 pacientes hipertensos de una Unidad de Atención Primaria de Salud ubicada en la ciudad de Fortaleza-CE. Resultados De los participantes en el estudio, el 74,2% eran mujeres, con una media de 61,8 ± 11,9 años y dentro del grupo de edad de 54 a 69, 77,1% raza / color marrón, 60,8% con nivel fundamental incompleto o completo y 70.6% con ingresos familiares entre 1 y 2 salarios mínimos. De los pacientes hipertensos evaluados, el 41.5% tenía síndrome metabólico y el 76.5% tenía adherencia parcial al tratamiento antihipertensivo. En la evaluación estadística de la asociación entre las variables, se encontró que no existía (p = 0,149 e p = 0,642). Los valores con respecto a la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo fueron los mismos, tanto en pacientes con síndrome metabólico como en aquellos que no tenían esta condición. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica La adherencia a la terapia antihipertensiva alta y parcial fue prevalente. La frecuencia del síndrome metabólico entre los pacientes hipertensos en estudio fue elevada. Por lo tanto, las medidas preventivas para las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el logro de objetivos terapéuticos deben implementarse continuamente. Un desafío a superar por los profesionales y servicios de salud.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the association between adherence to antihypertensive treatment and the occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in hypertensive patients in a primary health care unit. Method Analytical cross-sectional study carried out with 306 hypertensive patients from a Primary Health Care Unit located in the city of Fortaleza-CE. Results Of the study participants, 74.2% were female, mean 61.8 ± 11.9 years old and within the age group of 54 to 69, 77.1% race / brown color, 60.8% with incomplete fundamental level or complete and 70.6% with family income between 1 and 2 minimum wages. Of the evaluated hypertensive patients, 41.5% had Metabolic Syndrome and 76.5% had partial adherence to antihypertensive treatment. In the statistical evaluation of the association between the variables, it was verified that it did not exist (p = 0,149 e p = 0,642). The values regarding adherence to antihypertensive treatment were the same, both in patients with Metabolic Syndrome and in those who did not have this condition. Conclusions and implications for practice High and partial antihypertensive therapy adherence was prevalent. The frequency of Metabolic Syndrome among hypertensive patients under study was high. Therefore, preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases and achievement of therapeutic goals must be implemented continuously. A challenge to be overcome by health professionals and services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Metabolic Syndrome , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hypertension/drug therapy
12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200127, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1133822

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Construir e validar comunicação audiovisual e mensagens persuasivas para motivar o uso de anti-hipertensivos. Método Estudo metodológico baseado nas crenças de pessoas com hipertensão arterial sistêmica em relação ao tratamento medicamentoso, tendo o suporte da Teoria do Comportamento Planejado. Adotaram-se os princípios de Fleming e da Persuasão para desenvolvimento da comunicação audiovisual e mensagens. 13 juízes especialistas realizaram a validação de conteúdo, analisada pelo Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Resultados A comunicação audiovisual apresenta 3 minutos e 58 segundos de duração e 71 telas. Foram consideradas válidas 29 mensagens persuasivas ilustradas, sendo 15 positivas e 14 negativas. Conclusão e implicações para a prática A comunicação audiovisual e as mensagens persuasivas foram consideradas válidas, adequadas e com capacidade de persuasão para motivar o uso de anti-hipertensivos orais. Pesquisa de intervenção faz-se necessária para testar o efeito dos recursos audiovisuais com intenção de realizar o comportamento.


Resumen Objetivo Construir y validar la comunicación audiovisual y los mensajes persuasivos para motivar el uso de antihipertensivos. Método Estudio metodológico basado en las creencias de las personas con hipertensión arterial sistémica en relación con el tratamiento farmacológico, apoyado por la Teoría del Comportamiento Planificado. Los principios de Fleming y la Persuasión fueron adoptados para el desarrollo de la comunicación y los mensajes audiovisuales. 13 jueces expertos realizaron la validación del contenido, analizada por el Índice de Validez del Contenido. Resultados La comunicación audiovisual tiene 3 minutos y 58 segundos de duración y 71 pantallas. Se consideraron válidos 29 mensajes ilustrativos persuasivos, 15 mensajes eran positivos y 14 negativos. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica La comunicación audiovisual y los mensajes persuasivos se consideraron válidos, adecuados y capaces de persuadir para motivar el uso de antihipertensivos orales. La investigación de intervención es necesaria para probar el efecto de los recursos audiovisuales con la intención de llevar a cabo el comportamiento.


Abstract Objective Building and validating audiovisual communication and persuasive messages to motivate the use of antihypertensive drugs. Method Methodological study based on the beliefs of people with systemic arterial hypertension in relation to drug treatment, supported by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The principles of Fleming and Persuasion were adopted for the development of audiovisual communication and messages. 13 expert judges performed the content validation, analyzed by the Content Validity Index. Results the audiovisual communication has 3 minutes and 58 seconds in duration and 71 screens. Twenty-nine persuasive illustrated messages were considered valid, 15 positive and 14 negative messages. Conclusion and implications for practice Audiovisual communication and persuasive messages were considered valid, adequate and capable of persuasion to motivate the use of oral antihypertensives. Intervention research is necessary to test the effect of audiovisual resources with the intention of carrying out the behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Health Promotion , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Persuasive Communication , Chronic Disease/drug therapy
13.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1357923

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar a utilização de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã, na ocorrência de desfechos cardiovasculares fatais ou não fatais. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática com as plataformas PUBMED / MEDLINE e EMBASE, sem restrições de data ou idioma. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados com indivíduos adultos hipertensos que avaliaram o uso de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã com desfecho primário de mortalidade e morbidade cardiovascular. A análise do risco de viés dos estudos seguiu as recomendações da colaboração Cochrane. Resultados: Foram encontrados 1219 artigos, sendo apenas 03 estudos incluídos após critérios de elegibilidade. O estudo CONVINCE não mostrou benefício cardiovascular com essa prática. Os estudos MAPEC e Hygia mostraram redução do desfecho primário em 61% e 45%, respectivamente. Considerações finais: Devido a inconsistências na validade interna e externa dos estudos, o benefício do uso de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã até o momento é incerto, sendo necessários novos trabalhos para confirmar ou refutar essa prática


Objective: Comparison of the use of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime versus in the morning in the occurrence of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the PUBMED / MEDLINE and EMBASE platforms without data or language restrictions. Only randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime compared to the morning were included. The required primary outcome of the clinical trials was to assess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A risk-of-bias analysis of tue studies followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Results: 1219 articles were found, with only 03 studies included after eligibility criteria. The CONVINCE study showed no cardiovascular benefit with this practice. The MAPEC and Hygia studies reduced the primary outcome by 61% and 45%, respectively. Final considerations: due to inconsistencies in the internal and external validity of the studies, the benefit of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime versus the morning is uncertain so far, and further clinical trials are needed to confirm or refute this practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hour Variations , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bias
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2656-2665, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increased risk of depression, but it remains unclear whether treatment with cardiovascular agents decreases or increases this risk. The effects of drugs on individual usage are also often unknown. This review aimed to examine the correlation between depression and common cardiovascular drugs, develop more potent interventions for depression in cardiovascular patients, and further research on the bio-behavioural mechanisms linking cardiovascular drugs to depression.@*DATA SOURCES@#The data in this review were obtained from articles included in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.@*STUDY SELECTION@#Clinical trials, observational studies, review literature, and guidelines about depression and cardiovascular drugs were selected for the article.@*RESULTS@#We systematically investigated whether the seven most used cardiovascular drugs were associated with altered risk of incident depression in this literature review. Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effects. Some studies believe angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) can exert an antidepressant influence by acting on the renin-angiotensin system, but further clinical trials are needed to confirm this. Beta-blockers have previously been associated with depression, but the current study found no significant association between beta blockers and the risk of depression. Aspirin may have antidepressant effects by suppressing the immune response, but its role as an antidepressant remains controversial. calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can regulate nerve signal transduction by adjusting calcium channels, but whether this effect is beneficial or harmful to depression remains unclear. Finally, some cases have reported that nitrates and diuretics are associated with depression, but the current clinical evidence is insufficient.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effect, and the antidepressant effects of ACEIs/ARB and aspirin are still controversial. CCBs are associated with depression, but it is unclear whether it is beneficial or harmful. No association has been found with β-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878895

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating patients with resistant hypertension. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMbase and other databases were retrieved by computers to screen out the randomized controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicine in treating resistant hypertension. Cochrane Handbook was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature, RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0 was used for Meta-analysis. Finally, 11 literatures meeting the criteria were included, involving 1 023 patients. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the combined therapy of standard triple antihypertensive regimen with traditional Chinese medicine could further reduce systolic blood pressure of patients with resistant hypertension(MD=-16.69, 95%CI[-22.21,-11.16], P<0.000 01), reduce diastolic blood pressure(MD=-7.51, 95%CI[-8.26,-6.76], P<0.000 01), improve the effective rate of anti-hypertension(OR=5.16, 95%CI[3.01, 8.84], P<0.000 01), improve the up-to-standard rate of blood pressure(OR=3.01, 95%CI[1.49, 6.09], P=0.002), and improve the effectiveness of clinical symptoms(OR=4.48, 95%CI[2.31, 8.68], P<0.000 01), with no significant effect on creatinine level(MD=-2.51, 95%CI[-6.91, 1.89], P=0.26). The results of this study indicated that the combined therapy of standard triple antihypertensive regimen with traditional Chinese medicine could further improve the clinical efficacy in patients with resistant hypertension with a good safety, but more high-quality clinical studies are still needed to verify this conclusion.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Treatment Outcome
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1602-1609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups.@*RESULTS@#Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 292-301, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Generic drugs are bioequivalent to their brand-name counterparts; however, concerns still exist regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs because of small sample sizes and short follow-up time in most studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term antihypertensive efficacy, cost-effectiveness and cardiovascular outcomes of generic drugs compared with brand-name drugs.@*METHODS@#In a multicenter, community-based study including 7955 hypertensive patients who were prospectively followed up for an average of 2.5 years, we used the propensity-score-matching method to match the patients using brand-name drugs to those using generic drugs in a ratio of 1:2, 2176 patients using brand-name drugs and 4352 patients using generic drugs.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between generic drugs and brand-name drugs in blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy, BP control rate, and cardiovascular outcomes including coronary heart disease and stroke. The adjusted mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) of systolic BP (SBP)-lowering was -7.9 mmHg (95% CI, -9.9 to -5.9) in the brand-name drug group and -7.1 mmHg (95% CI, -9.1 to -5.1) in the generic drug group after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, number of antihypertensive drugs and traditionally cardiovascular risk factors. Among patients aged <60 years, brand-name drugs had a higher BP control rate (47% vs. 41%; P = 0.02) and a greater effect in lowering SBP compared with generic drugs, with the between-group difference of 1.5 mmHg (95% CI, 0.2-2.8; P = 0.03). BP control rate was higher in male patients using brand-name drugs compared with those using generic drugs (46% vs. 40%; P = 0.01). Generic drugs treatment yielded an average annual incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $315.4 per patient per mmHg decrease in SBP compared with brand-name drugs treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our data suggested that generic drugs are suitable and cost-effective in improving hypertension management and facilitating public health benefits, especially in low- and middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , China , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880733

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. A total of 30 hypertensive COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of which 17 were classified as non-ARB group and the remaining 13 as ARB group based on the antihypertensive therapies they received. Compared with the non-ARB group, patients in the ARB group had a lower proportion of severe cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as shortened length of hospital stay, and manifested favorable results in most of the laboratory testing. Viral loads in the ARB group were lower than those in the non-ARB group throughout the disease course. No significant difference in the time of seroconversion or antibody levels was observed between the two groups. The median levels of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) in serum and urine samples were similar in both groups, and there were no significant correlations between serum sACE2 and biomarkers of disease severity. Transcriptional analysis showed 125 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in oxygen transport, bicarbonate transport, and blood coagulation. Our results suggest that ARB usage is not associated with aggravation of COVID-19. These findings support the maintenance of ARB treatment in hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transcriptome , Viral Load
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879057

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional anti-hypertensive drugs in the treatment of essential hypertension. The clinical randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on the treatment of essential hypertension with Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional anti-hypertensive drugs were searched in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed since the establishment of the databases to April 2020 based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and Meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 15 RCTs were included, involving a total of 1 508 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional Western medicine were supe-rior to the control group in reducing systolic blood pressure(MD=-10.24, 95%CI[-13.54,-6.95], P<0.000 01), diastolic blood pressure(MD=-5.33, 95%CI[-7.21,-3.45], P<0.000 01), improving the clinical efficacy of patients(RR=1.22, 95%CI[1.15, 1.28], P<0.000 01) and curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome(RR=1.26, 95%CI[1.02, 1.57], P=0.04), increasing nitric oxide content(MD=9.59, 95%CI[7.23, 11.96], P<0.000 01), reducing endothelin-1(MD=-10.74, 95%CI[-15.74,-5.75], P<0.000 1), tumor necrosis factor(MD=-0.28, 95%CI[-0.36,-0.19], P<0.000 01), and interleukin-6(MD=-39.71, 95%CI[-43.40,-36.03], P<0.000 01). There was no statistically significant difference between the test group and the control group in the incidence of adverse reactions. No liver and kidney dysfunction occurred. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the effect of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with ARB drugs was more obvious in reducing the systolic and diastolic pressure. Trial sequential analysis showed that the studies accumulatively included for clinical efficacy crossed the traditional threshold and the TSA threshold, further affirming its clinical efficacy. The clinical application of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension and accompanying symptoms has clear efficacy and certain safety, so it is recommended for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Humans
20.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 61-67, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344688

ABSTRACT

30 to 40% of the adult population worldwide has been diagnosed with hypertension, among these patients 5 to 10% of them could have a possibly curable condition. In order to recognize this special population, the clinician must perform a complete work up and be aware of the main underlying causes of secondary hypertension. Often this could be a goal difficult to accomplish. The purpose of this article is to discuss the most frequent causes of secondary hypertension and offer a diagnostic approach for these patients. Clinicians should never forget that drug-related hypertension is a common cause that is discovered only with the help of a good medical history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension, Renovascular/etiology , Pheochromocytoma , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension, Renovascular/diagnosis , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
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