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1.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 436-439, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040244

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) syndrome encompasses a set of clinical-radiological findings associated with severe systemic arterial hypertension. This case report proposes to discuss the identification, diagnosis, and management of PRES in the pediatric population. Case presentation: Female patient, 10 years old, admitted to the emergency room with complaint of oliguria and generalized edema. At the initial physical exam, the only alteration present was anasarca. The diagnostic investigation revealed nephrotic syndrome, and clinical treatment was started. She evolved on the 8th day of hospitalization with peak hypertension, sudden visual loss, reduced level of consciousness, nystagmus, and focal seizures requiring intubation. She was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological improvement, after the established therapy. CT scan revealed a discrete hypodense area in the white matter of the occipital lobe and anteroposterior groove asymmetry, compatible with PRES. Discussion: PRES is due to vasogenic cerebral edema of acute or subacute installation. Symptoms include headache and altered consciousness, stupor, coma, neurological deficits, seizures and cortical blindness. Nephropathies are the main cause of PRES in pediatrics. Magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion of molecules is the gold standard for diagnosis. The initial treatment objectives are the reduction of blood pressure, antiepileptic therapy, correction of hydroelectrolytic and acid-base disorders and management of intracranial hypertension. Conclusion: PRES is associated with acute hypertension. Early diagnosis and proper management may determine a better prognosis and minimize the severity of the clinical course.


Resumo Introdução: A Síndrome de Encefalopatia Posterior Reversível (SEPR) engloba um conjunto de achados clínico-radiológicos, associados a hipertensão arterial sistêmica grave. Este relato de caso propõe discutir a identificação, o diagnóstico e o manejo de SEPR na população pediátrica. Apresentação do caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 10 anos, admitida em pronto-atendimento com queixa de oligúria e edema generalizado. Ao exame físico inicial, a única alteração presente era anasarca. A investigação diagnóstica revelou síndrome nefrótica, iniciando-se tratamento clínico. Evoluiu no 8º dia de internação com pico hipertensivo, perda visual súbita, redução do nível de consciência, nistagmo e crises convulsivas focais, demandando intubação. Foi transferida para Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, com melhora neurológica, após a terapêutica instituída. Tomografia de crânio evidenciou área de hipodensidade discreta em substância branca do lobo occipital e assimetria anteroposterior de sulcos, compatível com SEPR. Discussão: A SEPR decorre de edema cerebral vasogênico de instalação aguda ou subaguda. Sintomas descritos incluem cefaleia e alteração de consciência, estupor, coma, déficits neurológicos, convulsões e cegueira cortical. As nefropatias constituem as principais causas de SEPR em pediatria. A ressonância magnética com difusão de moléculas é o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Os objetivos iniciais são a redução dos níveis pressóricos, terapia antiepiléptica, correção de distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e do equilíbrio ácido-básico, e manejo da hipertensão intracraniana. Conclusão: A SEPR ocorre associada à hipertensão aguda. O diagnóstico precoce e manejo adequado podem determinar melhor prognóstico e minimizar a gravidade do curso clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Intracranial Hypertension/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
2.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 400-411, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypertension (blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg) is very common in patients undergoing regular dialysis, with a prevalence of 70-80%, and only the minority has adequate blood pressure (BP) control. In contrast to the unclear association of predialytic BP recordings with cardiovascular mortality, prospective studies showed that interdialytic BP, recorded as home BP or by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hemodialysis patients, associates more closely with mortality and cardiovascular events. Although BP is measured frequently in the dialysis treatment environment, aspects related to the measurement technique traditionally employed may be unsatisfactory. Several other tools are now available and being used in clinical trials and in clinical practice to evaluate and treat elevated BP in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. While we wait for the ongoing review of the CKD Blood Pressure KIDGO guidelines, there is no guideline for the dialysis population addressing this important issue. Thus, the objective of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the information available on the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanisms, and the main pillars involved in the management of blood pressure in stage 5-D CKD, based on current knowledge.


Resumo A hipertensão (pressão arterial > 140/90 mmHg) é muito comum em pacientes submetidos à diálise regular, com uma prevalência de 70-80%, e apenas a minoria tem controle adequado da pressão arterial (PA). Em contraste com a associação incerta entre de PA pré-dialítica com mortalidade cardiovascular, estudos prospectivos mostraram que a PA interdialítica, registrada como PA domiciliar ou pela monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em pacientes em hemodiálise, está mais relacionada à mortalidade e eventos cardiovasculares. Embora a PA seja medida com frequência no ambiente de tratamento de diálise, aspectos relacionados à técnica de medição tradicionalmente empregada podem ser insatisfatórios. Várias outras ferramentas estão agora disponíveis, e estão sendo usadas em ensaios clínicos e na prática clínica para avaliar e tratar a PA elevada em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Enquanto esperamos pela revisão das diretrizes do KIDGO para a pressão sanguíneana DRC, não há nenhuma diretriz para a população em diálise abordando essa importante questão. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer uma análise crítica das informações disponíveis sobre a epidemiologia, os mecanismos patogênicos e os principais pilares sustentadores do manejo da pressão arterial no estágio 5-D da DRC, com base no conhecimento atual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 61-69, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-984522

ABSTRACT

Arterial hypertension is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing awareness of the consequences of uncontrolled hypertension and the publication of several recommendations and guidelines, blood pressure control rates are suboptimal, and approximately half of the patients do not reach the targets. Defined as an increase in blood pressure, hypertension is characterized by hemodynamic abnormalities in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or arterial compliance. Therefore, the approach to arterial hypertension can be improved by the knowledge of the hemodynamics underlying the blood pressure increase. Impedance Cardiography has emerged as a new strategy to customize therapy and monitor patients aiming to improve blood pressure control according to the hemodynamic profile, rather than a blind intensive care approach. This is a review of impedance cardiography evidence, its benefits, actual and future applications in the approach and management of arterial hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiography, Impedance , Hypertension/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 61-69, jan.-fev. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-981613

ABSTRACT

Arterial hypertension is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing awareness of the consequences of uncontrolled hypertension and the publication of several recommendations and guidelines, blood pressure control rates are suboptimal, and approximately half of the patients do not reach the targets. Defined as an increase in blood pressure, hypertension is characterized by hemodynamic abnormalities in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or arterial compliance. Therefore, the approach to arterial hypertension can be improved by the knowledge of the hemodynamics underlying the blood pressure increase. Impedance Cardiography has emerged as a new strategy to customize therapy and monitor patients aiming to improve blood pressure control according to the hemodynamic profile, rather than a blind intensive care approach. This is a review of impedance cardiography evidence, its benefits, actual and future applications in the approach and management of arterial hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiography, Impedance , Hypertension/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(2): 146-156, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1016637

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la hipertensión es el principal factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, por tanto, la adopción responsable del tratamiento antihipertensivo es fundamental para el control adecuado de las cifras tensionales. Objetivo: caracterizar la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo en los pacientes adultos mayores del consultorio de Arroyo Bueno del policlínico Fausto Favier Favier del área de salud de Palenque de Yateras en la provincia Guantánamo de junio a diciembre del 2017. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal en los 21 pacientes adultos mayores hipertensos del consultorio. La información se obtuvo a través de una entrevista a pacientes y familiares apoyados en una guía en correspondencia con las variables a investigar (edad, sexo, medicamento prescrito, enfermedades asociadas, efectos indeseables) y de las historias clínicas. La adherencia se evaluó según el Test de Cumplimiento Autocomunicado de Morisky-Green. Resultados: el 57,1 por ciento de los pacientes correspondieron al sexo femenino y el 52,4 por ciento tenían entre 60 y 60 años de edad; la mayoría de los adultos mayores no tenían controlada su presión arterial 66,7 por ciento y en el 80,9 por ciento de ellos se identificó inadecuada adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo por diversos motivos pero el incumplimiento por las reacciones adversas de los medicamentos fue el más frecuente para un 28,6 por ciento; entre éstas se reportaron el decaimiento en un 52,4 por ciento, la tos nocturna en un 47,6 por ciento y los calambres musculares en el 33,3 por ciento. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes no se adherían al tratamiento antihipertensivo por diversas causas, más prevaleció el temor a las reacciones adversas, situación que condicionó el pobre control de la presión arterial de los mismos(AU)


Introduction: hypertension is the main risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, therefore, the responsible adoption of antihypertensive treatment is fundamental for the adequate control of the blood pressure figures. Objective: to characterize adherence to antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients in the Arroyo Bueno clinic of the Fausto Favier Favier polyclinic in the health area of Palenque de Yateras in Guantánamo province from June to December 2017. Method: a study was conducted descriptive, cross-sectional in the 21 hypertensive elderly patients of the office. The information was obtained through an interview with patients and relatives supported by a guide in correspondence with the variables to be investigated (age, sex, prescribed medication, associated diseases, undesirable effects) and the medical records. Adherence was assessed according to the MoriskyGreen Self-Reported Compliance Test. Results: 57.1 percent of the patients corresponded to the female sex and 52.4 percent were between 60 and 60 years of age; Most of the older adults did not have their blood pressure under control, 66.7 percent and in 80.9 percent of them inadequate adherence to antihypertensive treatment was identified for various reasons, but noncompliance due to adverse drug reactions was the most frequent. 28.6 percent; among these, the decline was reported in 52.4 percent, night cough in 47.6 percent and muscle cramps in 33.3 percent. Conclusions: the majority of patients did not adhere to antihypertensive treatment for various reasons, but the fear of adverse reactions prevailed, a situation that conditioned the poor control of their blood pressure(AU)


Introdução: a hipertensão é o principal fator de risco das doenças cardiovasculares, portanto, a adoção responsável do tratamento antihipertensivo é fundamental para o controle adequado dos valores da pressão arterial. Objetivo: Caracterizar a adesão ao tratamento antihipertensivo em pacientes idosos escritório Boa policlínica do Arroyo Fausto Favier Favier área de saúde de Palenque de Yateras na província de Guantánamo de junho a dezembro de 2017. Método: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, transversal nos 21 pacientes idosos hipertensos do consultório. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevista com pacientes e familiares apoiados por um guia em correspondência às variáveis a serem investigadas (idade, sexo, medicação prescrita, doenças associadas, efeitos indesejáveis) e prontuários. A adesão foi avaliada de acordo com o Teste de Conformidade Auto-Relatado de Morisky-Green. Resultados: 57,1 por cento dos pacientes correspondiam ao sexo feminino e 52,4 por cento tinham entre 60 e 60 anos de idade; A maioria dos idosos não tinha a pressão arterial controlada, 66,7 por cento e em 80,9 por cento deles a adesão inadequada ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo foi identificada por vários motivos, mas a não adesão devido a reações adversas a medicamentos foi a mais frequente. 28,6 por cento; dentre estes, o declínio foi relatado em 52,4 por cento, tosse noturna em 47,6 por cento e cãibras musculares em 33,3 por cento. Conclusões: a maioria dos pacientes não aderiu ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo por várias razões, mas prevaleceu o medo de reações adversas, situação que condicionou o mau controle da pressão arterial(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 82(3/4): 34-37, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1049891

ABSTRACT

Os autores realizaram um estudo piloto, na Associação Paulista de Homeopatia, para averiguar os efeitos de placebo e medicação homeopática sobe os níveis pressóricos de pacientes portadores de hipertensão arterial sistêmica idiopática. Foram estudados 19 pacientes em uso concomitante ou não de drogas hipotensoras, sendo 14 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 53 anos, e 5 do sexo masculino, com idade média de 44 anos. Fez-se uso do medicamento homeopático único, escolhido por totalidade sintomática característica, nas dinamizações 6C, 12C, 30C, 200C, em doses repetidas, 2 vezes ao dia, por 4 semanas cada. Todos os pacientes receberam previamente placebo por um período de 4 semanas (fase "washout"). Constatou-se efeito significativo da terapêutica homeopática, porém, dentro de uma dinamização individualizada para cada paciente, além da individualização do medicamento. Os autores finalmente fazem considerações para estudos futuros. (AU)


The authors performed a pilot study at the São Paulo Medical Homeopathic Association to investigate the effects of placebo and homeopathic treatment on the blood pressure of patients with idiopathic hypertension. We analyzed 19 patients concomitantly using or not antihypertensive agents, 14 females, with average age 53 years old, and 5 males, with average age 44 years old. One single homeopathic drug was selected as per the total set of characteristic symptoms, and prescribed in dilutions 6C, 12C, 30C and 200C, in repeated doses, twice per day, over 4 weeks each. All the patients previously received placebo over 4 weeks (washout). We found significant effect of homeopathic treatment, however, only for the best individual dilution, in addition to the individualization of the prescribed drugs. The authors finally make some considerations relative to future studies. (au)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hypertension/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Placebos/therapeutic use , Homeopathic Therapeutics
9.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 86(1/2): 11-17, ene-. jul. 2018. graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007048

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipertensión arterial es la patología más vista en atención primaria, se ha descrito que la presión arterial no está controlada en el 40% de aquellos que reciben tratamiento. Objetivo. Determinar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo; El criterio para la clasiicación de la HTA fue la Guía de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología 2013. Resultados. Se incluyeron 4634 individuos (63% mujeres y 37% hombres) con promedio de 7.5 años de tener diagnóstico. La media de edad fue 56 años. Un 51% y 55% no tenían la presión arterial sistólica y dias-tólica controlada respectivamente, a pesar de que 73% airmaron tomar regularmente sus antihipertensivos. Los hombres tuvieron un porcentaje mayor de presión arterial no controlada. La PA no controlada (diastólica o sistólica) aumentó desde valores de 0.4% - 2.7% en el grupo de menor edad hasta cifras de 63.2% - 67.8% en el grupo ≥ 50 años. El análisis multivariado se realizó en dos grupos de participantes: los que no se tomaban los medicamentos antihipertensivos al momento del estudio (1258) y los que airmaron estar tomando sus medicamentos (3376). El sobrepeso y la obesidad fueron factores contribuyentes de forma signiicativa a la PA no con-trolada y fueron comunes en ambos grupos. Conclusión. Los niveles de control de la hipertensión son insatisfactorios. La presencia de múltiples factores de riesgo modiicables requiere de un abordaje interdisciplinario de este problema prioritario de la salud públic...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pressure , Hypertension/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
10.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 86(1/2): 18-21, ene-. jul. 2018. graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007078

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La hipertensión arterial es una enfermedad crónica no transmisible altamente prevalente en Honduras. Es un factor de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares y renales. La mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares es del 27% en el país, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, en los pacientes hipertensos que acudieron al centro de salud San Juan de Ojojona, en el primer trimestre del año 2017. Pacientes y métodos: Se utilizó el cuestionario Martin-Bayarre-Grau para estudio del nivel de adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo, aplicado mediante entrevistas personales a 66 pacientes seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple. Resultados: La mayoría de las personas estudiadas (60%) estaban parcialmente adheridas al tratamiento, el 36.4% totalmente adherido y 3% tenía adherencia nula al tratamiento. Conclusión: La escasa actividad física y no seguir las indicaciones dietéticas inluyen grandemente en la adherencia parcial que tiene la mayoría de la población estudiada...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypertension/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3)jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-916417

ABSTRACT

As situações clínicas de aumento súbito da pressão arterial (PA) que caracterizam as crises hipertensivas são comuns na prática clínica, principalmente nas consultas realiza-das no pronto atendimento, portanto, o diagnóstico adequado é essencial para o melhor tratamento e desfecho clínico. A crise hipertensiva é definida pelo aumento súbito na PA (≥180 /120 mmHg) e a necessidade da redução agressiva da PA depende da gravidade da situação clinica associada. A presença de lesões novas ou progressivas em órgãos-alvo e risco iminente de morte definem as emergências hipertensivas que requerem tratamento imediato visando a rápida redução da pressão arterial, porém, não, necessariamente, a níveis normais. Na maioria dos casos, a velocidade do aumento da PA é mais importante que o nível real da PA, portanto, é fundamental que haja avaliação clínica para o diagnóstico preciso dessas condições clínicas, as quais incluem encefalopatia hipertensiva, síndromes coronarianas agudas, edema agudo dos pulmões, acidente vascular cerebral, dissecção de aorta e eclampsia. As metas para diminuição da PA para as emergências hipertensivas, de acordo com o órgão-alvo envolvido, são revisadas pelas atuais diretrizes brasileiras e ame-ricanas de hipertensão. O tratamento das emergências hipertensivas inclui vasodilatadores de ação direta e bloqueadores adrenérgicos já consagrados, entretanto, evidências recentes mostram o benefício do uso de novos fármacos ainda não disponíveis em nosso meio


The clinical conditions of an acute rise in blood pressure (BP) that characterize hyperten-sive crises are common in clinical practice, particularly in consultations that take place in the emergency room. Therefore the correct diagnosis is important for the best treatment and clinical outcome. Hypertensive crisis is defined as a sudden rise in BP (≥ 180/120 mmHg), and the need for aggressive reduction of BP depends on the severity of the associated clinical situation. The presence of new or progressive target organ injury and imminent risk of death define hypertensive emergencies requiring immediate treatment aimed at rapid reduction of blood pressure, not ne-cessarily to normal levels. In most cases, the speed of the rise in BP is more important than the actual level of BP, and clinical evaluation is essential for the accurate diagnosis of these clinical conditions, which include hypertensive encephalopathy, acute coronary syndromes, pulmonary edema, stroke, aortic dissection, and eclampsia. The goals of BP reduction for hypertensive emergencies, according to the target organ involved, have been reviewed by the current Brazi-lian and American guidelines on hypertension. Treatment of hypertensive emergencies includes direct action vasodilators and adrenergic blockers, which are already well established, but recent evidence shows the benefit of the use of new drugs, not yet available in Brazil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Risk Factors , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Aorta , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Clonidine/therapeutic use , Dissection/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Nitroprusside/therapeutic use , Stroke , Target Organs , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 964-972, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of atenolol in inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress in a myocardial injury by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rat model. Methods: Adult Wistar male rats were randomly (n=8), anesthetized and divided in: Sham: submitted to operation only; group SS+IR: intravenous saline infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); group AT+IR: intravenous atenolol infusion (2 mg/kg) following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); and group AT+I+AT+R: intravenous atenolol infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and in the time 45 minutes other atenolol doses were administrated and the artery was open for 120 minutes (reperfusion), all animals were submitted to muscular relaxation for mechanical ventilation. In the end of experiment the animals were euthanized and the hearts tissue were morphology analyzed by histology and malondialdehyde by ELISA, and the plasma were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha by ELISA. Results: The group SS+IR demonstrated the higher malondialdehyde levels when compared with the atenolol treated-groups (p=0.001) in the heart tissue. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in plasma decrease in the treated groups when compared with SS+IR group (p=0.001). Histology analyses demonstrate pyknosis, edema, cellular vacuolization, presence of inflammatory infiltrate and band contraction in the heart tissue of the rats. Conclusion: Atenolol significantly reduce the degree of cardiac damage after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Atenolol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Heart/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacokinetics
15.
Medisan ; 21(8)ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-894639

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, de utilización de medicamentos, de tipo indicación-prescripción, de 67 gestantes con enfermedad hipertensiva en el embarazo, atendidas en el Hospital Materno Sur Mariana Grajales Coello de Santiago de Cuba, desde julio de 2015 hasta junio de 2016, con vistas a caracterizar la prescripción de metildopa en estas pacientes. En la casuística predominó el uso de este fármaco en las pacientes que tenían situaciones asociadas con las formas más graves de la enfermedad, tales como la edad avanzada, la nuliparidad y el antecedente de hipertensión arterial. Las principales dificultades correspondieron a la combinación de medicamentos con riesgo de interacciones con la metildopa y al empleo de esta a dosis elevadas


A descriptive cross-sectional indication-prescription study of medications use, of 67 pregnant women with hipertensive disease during pregnancy, assisted in Mariana Grajales Coello Southern Maternal Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from July, 2015 to June, 2016, aimed at characterizing methyldopa prescription in these patients. The use of this medicine prevailed in the case material in patients that had situations associated with the most serious forms of the disease, such as advanced age, nonpariity and hypertension history. The main difficulties corresponded to the combination of medicines with risk of methyldopa interactions and its use at a high dose


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Methyldopa/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
16.
J. vasc. bras ; 16(2): f:150-l:161, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-859624

ABSTRACT

A doença renovascular aterosclerótica é a principal causa de hipertensão secundária. A história natural da doença demonstra taxas de progressão de 4 a 12% ao ano. Entre os métodos de tratamento existe a angioplastia com stent de artérias renais; porém, poucos estudos clínicos demonstraram seus resultados a longo prazo. Esta revisão sistemática da literatura se propõe a apresentar os resultados a longo prazo (acima de 24 meses) da angioplastia com stent de artérias renais na doença aterosclerótica em relação à função renal e aos níveis pressóricos no controle da hipertensão. Foi realizada uma ampla pesquisa, utilizando os termos apropriados, nas bases de dados LILACS, EMBASE, SCIELO, Cochrane Library e MEDLINE. De um total de 2.170 referências, apenas sete artigos contemplavam todos os critérios de inclusão. Conclui-se que, a longo prazo, há uma estabilização da função renal, redução dos níveis pressóricos e diminuição do número de classes de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos


Atherosclerotic renovascular disease is the most important cause of secondary hypertension. The natural history of the disease reveals progression rates of 4 to 12% per year. Angioplasty with renal artery stenting is one treatment option; but there are few studies that have reported long-term results. The objective of this systematic literature review is to discuss the long-term results (at least 24 months) of angioplasty with stenting of renal arteries for atherosclerotic disease, in terms of renal function and blood pressure levels for control of hypertension. A thorough search was conducted of LILACS, EMBASE, SCIELO, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE using the appropriate terms. Just seven out of 2170 references identified met all inclusion criteria. It was concluded that over the long term renal function was stabilized, blood pressure levels were reduced, and the number of classes of antihypertensive medication decreased


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Angioplasty/methods , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Renal Artery Obstruction/diagnosis , Renal Artery Obstruction/therapy , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Database , Hypertension, Renovascular/diagnosis , Hypertension, Renovascular/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Renal Artery , Sex Factors
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 82(2): 131-143, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-844558

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Establecer recomendaciones en el tipo de antihipertensivo que se debe seleccionar según escenarios clínicos en la hipertensión/preeclampsia postparto, dosis y pautas de seguridad en lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en inglés y español, utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, Ebsco y Science Direct, tomando como palabras clave los descriptores del Decs (español) y Mesh (inglés), realizando combinaciones con la conjunción Y (AND) y la disyunción O (OR), que hubieran evaluado el manejo, seguimiento en hipertensión y preeclampsia posparto. Como criterio de inclusión se tomaron estudios tipo Revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos clínicos, guías de práctica clínica, estudios observacionales, la calidad de los artículos se evaluó por PRISMA, CONSORT y STROBE según corresponda y se utilizó la herramienta Cochrane para la evaluación del riesgo de sesgos. Resultados: Se identificaron 59 artículos que cumplieron con los requisitos preestablecidos, se encontró que el reconocimiento de la hipertensión posparto es de vital importancia por el riesgo de complicaciones maternas, existe un grupo de mayor riesgo: las que presentaron trastorno hipertensivo ante parto sobre todo severo y con parto pretérmino, de ahí la importancia de vigilar la presión arterial en este periodo. La crisis hipertensiva requiere pronto reconocimiento, evaluación y tratamiento estandarizado para prevenir daño en órgano blanco. Los antihipertensivos de primera línea a utilizar durante la crisis son: labetalol, nifedipino, hidralazina, no existiendo diferencias estadísticas entre ellos con respecto al alcance de metas de control de presión arterial, ni en el tiempo de alcance de estas, tampoco diferencias en resultados adversos maternos perinatales, en la hipertensión no crisis el medicamento a elegir depende de la experticia sobre el fármaco que el clínico tenga, no hay un fármaco superior a otro, y finalmente se encontró que la mayoría de los antihipertensivos utilizados son de amplia seguridad en la lactancia materna, se consideran seguros de riesgo muy bajo (nivel 0) y riesgo bajo (nivel 1). Conclusiones: Los antihipertensivos de primera línea a utilizar durante la crisis son: labetalol, nifedipino, hidralazina, en la hipertensión no crisis el medicamento a elegir depende de la experticia sobre el fármaco que el clínico tenga, no hay un fármaco superior a otro, y en lactancia materna la mayoría de los antihipertensivos son considerados de amplio margen de seguridad.


Objective: To establish recommendations on the type of antihypertensive that should be selected according to clinical scenarios in postpartum hypertension/preeclampsia, doses and safety guidelines in lactation. Methods: A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed, Ebsco and Science Direct databases, using Decs (Spanish) and Mesh (English) descriptors as keywords, combining with the conjunction Y (AND) And O (OR) disjunction, who would have evaluated management, follow-up on hypertension, and postpartum preeclampsia. Inclusion criteria included systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, observational studies, the quality of the articles was evaluated by PRISMA, CONSORT and STROBE as appropriate and the Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Results: We identified 59 articles that fulfilled the pre-established requirements, we found that the recognition of postpartum hypertension is of vital importance because of the risk of maternal complications, exists a higher risk group: those who presented hypertensive disorder before delivery, especially severe and with preterm labor, hence the importance of monitoring blood pressure in this period. The hypertensive crisis requires prompt recognition, evaluation, and standardized treatment to prevent damage to the target organ. The first line antihypertensives to be used during the crisis are: labetalol, nifedipine, hydralazine, there are no statistical differences between them in relation to the reach of blood pressure control goals, nor in the time of reach of these, nor differences in adverse outcomes Maternal perinatal, in non-crisis hypertension, the drug to be chosen depends on the expert's knowledge about the drug that the clinician has, there is no drug superior to another, and finally it was found that most of the antihypertensives used are of wide safety in lactation Are considered very low risk (level 0) and low risk (level 1). Conclusions: The first line antihypertensives to be used during the crisis are: labetalol, nifedipine, hydralazine, in non-crisis hypertension, the drug to be chosen depends on the expert's knowledge about the drug that the clinician has, there is no drug superior to another, and In breastfeeding the majority of antihypertensive drugs are considered to have a wide margin of safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Puerperal Disorders/therapy , Breast Feeding , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/therapy
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(2): 219-231, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-899897

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Establecer recomendaciones en el tipo de antihipertensivo que se debe seleccionar según escenarios clínicos en la hipertensión/preeclampsia postparto, dosis y pautas de seguridad en lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en inglés y español, utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, Ebsco y Science Direct, tomando como palabras clave los descriptores del Decs (español) y Mesh (inglés), realizando combinaciones con la conjunción Y (AND) y la disyunción O (OR), que hubieran evaluado el manejo, seguimiento en hipertensión y preeclampsia posparto. Como criterio de inclusión se tomaron estudios tipo Revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos clínicos, guías de práctica clínica, estudios observacionales, la calidad de los artículos se evaluó por PRISMA, CONSORT y STROBE según corresponda y se utilizó la herramienta Cochrane para la evaluación del riesgo de sesgos. Resultados: Se identificaron 59 artículos que cumplieron con los requisitos preestablecidos, se encontró que el reconocimiento de la hipertensión posparto es de vital importancia por el riesgo de complicaciones maternas, existe un grupo de mayor riesgo: las que presentaron trastorno hipertensivo ante parto sobre todo severo y con parto pretérmino, de ahí la importancia de vigilar la presión arterial en este periodo. La crisis hipertensiva requiere pronto reconocimiento, evaluación y tratamiento estandarizado para prevenir daño en órgano blanco. Los antihipertensivos de primera línea a utilizar durante la crisis son: labetalol, nifedipino, hidralazina, no existiendo diferencias estadísticas entre ellos con respecto al alcance de metas de control de presión arterial, ni en el tiempo de alcance de estas, tampoco diferencias en resultados adversos maternos perinatales, en la hipertensión no crisis el medicamento a elegir depende de la experticia sobre el fármaco que el clínico tenga, no hay un fármaco superior a otro, y finalmente se encontró que la mayoría de los antihipertensivos utilizados son de amplia seguridad en la lactancia materna, se consideran seguros de riesgo muy bajo (nivel 0) y riesgo bajo (nivel 1). Conclusiones: Los antihipertensivos de primera línea a utilizar durante la crisis son: labetalol, nifedipino, hidralazina, en la hipertensión no crisis el medicamento a elegir depende de la experticia sobre el fármaco que el clínico tenga, no hay un fármaco superior a otro, y en lactancia materna la mayoría de los antihipertensivos son considerados de amplio margen de seguridad.


Objective: To establish recommendations on the type of antihypertensive that should be selected according to clinical scenarios in postpartum hypertension/preeclampsia, doses and safety guidelines in lactation. Methods: A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed, Ebsco and Science Direct databases, using Decs (Spanish) and Mesh (English) descriptors as keywords, combining with the conjunction Y (AND) And O (OR) disjunction, who would have evaluated management, follow-up on hypertension, and postpartum preeclampsia. Inclusion criteria included systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, observational studies, the quality of the articles was evaluated by PRISMA, CONSORT and STROBE as appropriate and the Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Results: We identified 59 articles that fulfilled the pre-established requirements, we found that the recognition of postpartum hypertension is of vital importance because of the risk of maternal complications, exists a higher risk group: those who presented hypertensive disorder before delivery, especially severe and with preterm labor, hence the importance of monitoring blood pressure in this period. The hypertensive crisis requires prompt recognition, evaluation, and standardized treatment to prevent damage to the target organ. The first line antihypertensives to be used during the crisis are: labetalol, nifedipine, hydralazine, there are no statistical differences between them in relation to the reach of blood pressure control goals, nor in the time of reach of these, nor differences in adverse outcomes Maternal perinatal, in non-crisis hypertension, the drug to be chosen depends on the expert's knowledge about the drug that the clinician has, there is no drug superior to another, and finally it was found that most of the antihypertensives used are of wide safety in lactation Are considered very low risk (level 0) and low risk (level 1). Conclusions: The first line antihypertensives to be used during the crisis are: labetalol, nifedipine, hydralazine, in non-crisis hypertension, the drug to be chosen depends on the expert's knowledge about the drug that the clinician has, there is no drug superior to another, and In breastfeeding the majority of antihypertensive drugs are considered to have a wide margin of safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Puerperal Disorders/therapy , Breast Feeding , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/therapy
20.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 20(4): 86-88, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1097192

ABSTRACT

La urgencia hipertensiva (UH) es una situación muy frecuente que asusta tanto a los pacientes como a sus familiares y al personal de salud y representa aproximadamente el 30% de las consultas no programadas (o de urgencia). En el presente artículo, los autores se hacen eco de publicaciones recientes y proponen dejar de utilizar el término urgencia hipertensiva para describir las situaciones de elevación de la presión arterial por encima de una tensión arterial sistólica ≥ 180 mmHg y/o una tensión arterial diastólica (TAD) ≥ 110 mmHg, sin asociación con daño de órgano blanco (con o sin sintomatología inespecífica concurrente), ya que los pacientes con este cuadro no corren riesgo inminente, no requieren atención médica de urgencia y, por lo tanto, deberían enmarcarse dentro de los cuidados habituales de los pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular global elevado. Esto implica no solo un cambio semántico, sino un desafío en el abordaje y manejo de estas situaciones tan frecuentes. (AU)


Hypertensive urgency (UH) is a very frequent clinical situation that scares patients, their families as well as health care provid-ers and represents approximately 30% of the non-scheduled (or urgent) visits. In the present article, taking into account recent publications, the authors propose to stop using the term hypertensive urgency to describe situations of elevated blood pressure above systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure ( TAD) ≥ 110 mmHg, without end organ dam-age (with or without concurrent non-specific symptomatology), since patients with this condition are not at imminent risk, do not require urgent medical attention and should therefore be framed within usual care of patients with cardiovascular risk factors and high overall cardiovascular risk. This implies not only a semantic change, but a challenge in the approach and management of these frequent situations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Disease Management , Hypertension/classification , Signs and Symptoms , Cardiovascular Diseases/classification , Health Education/trends , Patient Education as Topic , Risk Factors , Emergencies/classification , Arterial Pressure , Health Promotion/trends , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
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