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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e550-e553, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292810

ABSTRACT

Las leucemias son las neoplasias malignas más frecuentes en la infancia; la leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) es la más frecuente. Desde principios de los 80, la adición de metotrexato intratecal a los esquemas de quimioterapia ha sido beneficiosa para prevenir la recidiva en el sistema nervioso central y evitar el uso de radioterapia. Su mecanismo de acción es la inhibición de la enzima dihidrofolato reductasa, por lo que posee múltiples efectos adversos (neurotoxicidad aguda, subaguda o crónica) después de la infusión intratecal o de dosis altas por vía intravenosa.Se presenta un paciente de 11 años con diagnóstico de LLA de línea T (LLA-T), que presenta hemiparesia faciobraquial y afasia de expresión de instauración aguda 8 días después de la administración intratecal de metotrexato. Luego de excluir otras patologías más frecuentes de origen vascular y la evolución típica del cuadro, con resolución espontánea ad integrum de los síntomas, se arribó al diagnóstico de encefalopatía subaguda reversible por metotrexato.


Leukemias are the most frequent malignant neoplasms in childhood; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent. The addition of intrathecal methotrexate to chemotherapy regimens has been beneficial in preventing relapse to the central nervous system and avoiding the use of radiation therapy. Due to its mechanism of action, by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, when it is used systemically, it has multiple expected adverse effects such as mucositis, myelosuppression and it has also been observed after intrathecal administration or high intravenous doses, acute, subacute neurotoxicity where stroke like syndrome is found. We present an 11-year-old patient diagnosed with T-ALL, who manifested after 8 days of intrathecal administration of methotrexate, faciobrachial hemiparesis and acute onset expression aphasia. The diagnosis of subacute encephalopathy reversible by methotrexate was reached by excluding other more frequent pathologies and the typical evolution, with spontaneously ad integrum resolution of the symptoms


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Stroke/chemically induced , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of NUDT15 gene (SNP rs116855232) and hepatotoxicity in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A total of 135 children with ALL in Shandong Province were recruited in this study, and patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of liver injury. Genotypes of each patient were detected using PCR and Sanger sequencing. Clinical data and the average dose of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) were collected and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 software.@*RESULTS@#Respectively, 99 patients were found with CC genotype, 32 patients with CT genotype and 4 patients with TT genotype. Compared with ALL patients without hepatotoxicity, there was a difference in genotypes between the two groups in the initial stage of chemotherapy for leukemia (Chi@*CONCLUSION@#The polymorphism of rs116855232 in NUDT15 gene was associated with hepatotoxicity induced by 6-mercaptopurine in children with ALL, and ALL patients with TT genotype should take a lower dose of 6-MP to avoided hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Child , Genotype , Humans , Mercaptopurine/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Pyrophosphatases/genetics
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146948

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A quimioterapia, uma das formas de tratamento de neoplasias malignas, tem sua administração associada a inúmeras drogas, sendo uma delas o metotrexato (MTX), de alta toxicidade, responsável por inúmeros fatores agravantes para a saúde e bem-estar do paciente. Uma das principais complicações é a mucosite oral, manifestação clínica resultante do tratamento oncológico que pode interferir no tratamento e na cura. Objetivo: Avaliar, comparativamente, por meio de um estudo retrospectivo, o efeito do laser preventivo na ocorrência da mucosite oral quimioinduzida em pacientes com osteossarcoma não metastático submetidos a altas doses de MTX, bem como a intensidade da mucosite oral, utilizando o laser preventivo após os ciclos quimioterápicos contendo o medicamento MTX nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Câncer infantojuvenil de Barretos/SP. Método: Estudo de coorte com coleta retrospectiva em prontuários. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, um submetido à terapia profilática com laser de baixa intensidade após infusão do MTX e outro grupo não submetido a essa terapia. Resultados: Os dados obtidos mostraram que houve redução da gravidade da mucosite oral com o uso da laserterapia preventiva, com resultados estatisticamente significativos (p<0,001), corroborando os resultados encontrados na literatura. Conclusão: O uso da laserterapia é uma terapêutica auxiliar importante na prevenção e na redução da severidade da mucosite oral em pacientes submetidos a altas doses de MTX, diminuindo o número de internações por mucosite e os atrasos no protocolo terapêutico, o que reduz gastos e melhora o prognóstico para o paciente.


Introduction: Chemotherapy, one of the treatments for malignant neoplasms, is associated to innumerous drugs, one of them methotrexate (MTX), of high toxicity, responsible for several health damages and impact on the patient's well-being. One of the main complications is oral mucositis, a clinical manifestation resulting from the oncologic treatment that can interfere in the treatment and cure. Objective: To evaluate comparatively through a retrospective study, the effect of preventive laser in the occurrence of chemo-induced oral mucositis in patients with non-metastatic osteosarcoma submitted to high doses of methotrexate (MTX), and the intensity of oral mucositis, using the preventive laser after the chemotherapy cycles containing the drug methotrexate (MTX) in the patients treated at the Child and Adolescent Cancer Hospital of Barretos/SP. Method:Retrospective cohort study with charts review. The patients were divided in two groups, one submitted to low-intensity laser prophylaxis therapy after infusion of MTX and another group not submitted to prophylactic therapy. Results: The data obtained showed that preventive laser-therapy reduced the severity of oral mucositis with statistically significant results (p<0.001), corroborating the results found in the literature. Conclusion: The use of laser therapy is an important auxiliary therapy in the prevention and reduction of severity of oral mucositis in patients submitted to high doses of MTX, reducing the number of hospitalizations and delays in therapeutic protocol, which reduces costs and improves the patient prognosis.


Introducción: La quimioterapia, es uma de las formas de tratamiento de las neoplasias malignas, tiene su administración asociada a numerosas drogas siendo una de ellas el metotrexato (MTX), de alta toxicidad, responsable de numerosos factores agravantes para la salud y bienestar del paciente. Una de las principales complicaciones es la mucositis oral, manifestación clínica resultante del tratamiento oncológico que puede interferir en el tratamiento y cura. Objetivo: Evaluar, comparativamente, a través de um estudio retrospectivo, el efecto del láser preventivo em la aparición de la mucositis oral quimio inducida em pacientes com osteosarcoma no mestastásico sometido a altas dosis de MTX, bien como la intensidade de la mucositis oral, utilizando el láser preventivo después de los ciclos quimioterápicos que contiene el medicamento MTX en los pacientes antendidos en el Hospital del Cáncer Infantojuvenil de Barretos/SP. Método: Estudio de coorte con colección retrospectiva en prontuários. Los pacientes fueron divididos em dos grupos, uno sometido a terapia profiláctica con láser de baja intensidade después de la infusión de MTX y otro grupo no sometido a terapia profiláctica. Resultados: Los dados obtenidos mostraron que hubo una reducción en la severidad de la mucositis oral con el uso de la terapia láser preventiva, con resultados estáticamente significativos (p<0,001), corroborando los resultados encontrados em la literatura. Conclusión: El uso de la terapia con láser es una terapia auxiliar importante en la prevención y reducción de la severidad de la mucositis oral em pacientes sometidos a altas dosis de MTX, diminuendo el número de internaciones por mucositis y retrasos en el protocolo terapéutico, lo que reduce los gastos y mejora el pronóstico para el paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomatitis/radiotherapy , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Low-Level Light Therapy , Stomatitis/chemically induced , Stomatitis/prevention & control , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774120

ABSTRACT

As an important drug during maintenance treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) has several side effects, including hepatotoxicity and bone marrow suppression. Since its tolerability varies from person to person, 6-MP treatment should be individualized. The deficiency of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme activity is associated with 6-MP intolerance. There is a lower frequency of mutation in TPMT alleles among Asian patients. Recent studies have shown that in ALL patients with NUDT15 gene mutation, the maximum tolerated dose of 6-MP is lower than the conventional dose. The article reviews the significance of NUDT15 gene in individualized treatment with 6-MP in children with ALL.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Child , Humans , Mercaptopurine , Methyltransferases , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Pyrophosphatases , Genetics
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 136 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995079

ABSTRACT

Os nanocristais são partículas de fármacos cristalinos, com tamanho médio na faixa de submicrons, geralmente entre 200 e 500 nm, estabilizados por agentes estéricos ou eletrostáticos adsorvidos na superfície das partículas do fármaco. Sua dimensão reduzida proporciona propriedades especiais, como a adesividade às mucosas e o aumento de área superficial e da solubilidade de saturação, o que melhora significativamente a biodisponibilidade de fármacos pouco solúveis em água. Outra aplicação emergente dos nanocristais é na melhoria da entrega e da retenção de fármacos em tecidos e células tumorais. Estudos demonstraram que o flubendazol é um fármaco capaz de induzir a morte celular em tumores malignos e retardar o seu crescimento, por meio da alteração que provoca na estrutura dos microtúbulos e pela inibição da polimerização da tubulina. Foi demonstrada sua atividade antiproliferativa em linhagens de leucemia, mieloma, câncer intestinal, câncer de mama e neuroblastoma. O flubendazol é também um fármaco eficaz contra os helmintos, demonstrando atividade superior na eliminação dos vermes adultos, quando comparado com a dietilcarbamazina. Embora o flubendazol pareça ser uma molécula promissora, é um fármaco praticamente insolúvel em água (0,005 mg/mL). Para atingir o efeito terapêutico desejado, é necessário o desenvolvimento de uma formulação com melhores solubilidade e biodisponibilidade. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho apresenta o preparo e a caracterização físico-química de nanocristais de flubendazol por meio da microfluidização. Foram realizados ensaios exploratórios para avaliar a performance de diferentes agentes estabilizantes nas suspensões: o polissorbato 80, o polaxamer 188 e o D-α tocoferol polietilenoglicol 1.000 succinato (TPGS). A avaliação da distribuição do tamanho de partícula foi realizada por espalhamento de luz laser (LLS), espalhamento de luz dinâmica (DLS), análise de rastreamento de nanopartículas (NTA) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A utilização do TPGS favoreceu a obtenção de uma nanossuspensão com o menor diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio das partículas, de 253,9 ± 3,0 nm. Nos estudos exploratórios, também foram determinados os parâmetros ótimos de moagem do microfluidizador, sendo estabelecidos: 35.000 psi de pressão, temperatura do produto de 30°C (± 5°C) e tempo de recirculação de 2 horas/100 gramas. Objetivando alcançar o menor diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio dos nanocristais, executou-se um planejamento estatístico no qual foi avaliada a influência da concentração de flubendazol (% p/p) e de TPGS (% p/p) na formulação. A análise revelou a significativa influência da concentração do TPGS na redução do tamanho de partícula e na estabilidade físico-química da nanossuspensão. Ensaios complementares de solubilidade demonstraram que o nanocristal proporcionou incremento na solubilidade de 2,3 e 3,2 e 5,2 vezes em HCl 0,1 N, tampão fosfato pH 6,8 e tampão fosfato salino pH 7,4, respectivamente. No ensaio de dissolução conduzido em HCl 0,1 N e 0,1% TPGS, observou-se significativo incremento, de 41% de fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos, quando comparado com o flubendazol micronizado. As características do estado sólido do nanocristal foram avaliadas por meio de análise térmica (calorimetria exploratória diferencial e termogravimetria) e difratometria de raios X, não sendo observadas significativas alterações da estrutura cristalina. O presente trabalho também avaliou a efetividade dos nanocristais de flubendazol em tumores de pulmão, demonstrando sua expressiva capacidade de retardar o crescimento e diminuir o tamanho desses tumores em camundongos xenotransplantados


Os nanocristais são partículas de fármacos cristalinos, com tamanho médio na faixa de submicrons, geralmente entre 200 e 500 nm, estabilizados por agentes estéricos ou eletrostáticos adsorvidos na superfície das partículas do fármaco. Sua dimensão reduzida proporciona propriedades especiais, como a adesividade às mucosas e o aumento de área superficial e da solubilidade de saturação, o que melhora significativamente a biodisponibilidade de fármacos pouco solúveis em água. Outra aplicação emergente dos nanocristais é na melhoria da entrega e da retenção de fármacos em tecidos e células tumorais. Estudos demonstraram que o flubendazol é um fármaco capaz de induzir a morte celular em tumores malignos e retardar o seu crescimento, por meio da alteração que provoca na estrutura dos microtúbulos e pela inibição da polimerização da tubulina. Foi demonstrada sua atividade antiproliferativa em linhagens de leucemia, mieloma, câncer intestinal, câncer de mama e neuroblastoma. O flubendazol é também um fármaco eficaz contra os helmintos, demonstrando atividade superior na eliminação dos vermes adultos, quando comparado com a dietilcarbamazina. Embora o flubendazol pareça ser uma molécula promissora, é um fármaco praticamente insolúvel em água (0,005 mg/mL). Para atingir o efeito terapêutico desejado, é necessário o desenvolvimento de uma formulação com melhores solubilidade e biodisponibilidade. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho apresenta o preparo e a caracterização físico-química de nanocristais de flubendazol por meio da microfluidização. Foram realizados ensaios exploratórios para avaliar a performance de diferentes agentes estabilizantes nas suspensões: o polissorbato 80, o polaxamer 188 e o D-α tocoferol polietilenoglicol 1.000 succinato (TPGS). A avaliação da distribuição do tamanho de partícula foi realizada por espalhamento de luz laser (LLS), espalhamento de luz dinâmica (DLS), análise de rastreamento de nanopartículas (NTA) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A utilização do TPGS favoreceu a obtenção de uma nanossuspensão com o menor diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio das partículas, de 253,9 ± 3,0 nm. Nos estudos exploratórios, também foram determinados os parâmetros ótimos de moagem do microfluidizador, sendo estabelecidos: 35.000 psi de pressão, temperatura do produto de 30°C (± 5°C) e tempo de recirculação de 2 horas/100 gramas. Objetivando alcançar o menor diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio dos nanocristais, executou-se um planejamento estatístico no qual foi avaliada a influência da concentração de flubendazol (% p/p) e de TPGS (% p/p) na formulação. A análise revelou a significativa influência da concentração do TPGS na redução do tamanho de partícula e na estabilidade físico-química da nanossuspensão. Ensaios complementares de solubilidade demonstraram que o nanocristal proporcionou incremento na solubilidade de 2,3 e 3,2 e 5,2 vezes em HCl 0,1 N, tampão fosfato pH 6,8 e tampão fosfato salino pH 7,4, respectivamente. No ensaio de dissolução conduzido em HCl 0,1 N e 0,1% TPGS, observou-se significativo incremento, de 41% de fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos, quando comparado com o flubendazol micronizado. As características do estado sólido do nanocristal foram avaliadas por meio de análise térmica (calorimetria exploratória diferencial e termogravimetria) e difratometria de raios X, não sendo observadas significativas alterações da estrutura cristalina. O presente trabalho também avaliou a efetividade dos nanocristais de flubendazol em tumores de pulmão, demonstrando sua expressiva capacidade de retardar o crescimento e diminuir o tamanho desses tumores em camundongos xenotransplantados


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/classification , Nanotechnology/classification , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 9-17, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991367

ABSTRACT

Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has high relapse and mortality rates. There is a survival benefit when treatment is intensified with cytarabine (AraC), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and maintenance with rituximab. Aim: To assess the outcomes of patients with MCL treated in a university hospital. Material and Methods: Review of an oncology center database and medical records identifying patients with MCL treated between 2006 and 2017. Death dates were obtained from the death certificate database of the National Identification Service. We analyzed the response rate, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). As a secondary objective, the survival impact of AraC, HCT and maintenance with rituximab, was also analyzed. Results: Information on 20 patients aged 62 ± 11 years, followed for a median of 45 months was retrieved. Eighty-five percent were diagnosed at an advanced stage. The most used first-line regime was R-CHOP in 11 patients, followed by R-HyperCVAD in five. Only 47% achieved complete response. 4-year PFS and OS were of 30 and 77% respectively. Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) significantly predicted PFS and OS. Maintenance with rituximab or HCT was associated with better PFS (48 vs 21 months, p < 0.01). The exposure to AraC or HCT, in refractory or relapsed disease, was associated with an increase in PFS from 9 to 28 months (p = 0,02) and 4-year OS from 40 to 100% (p = 0.05). OS increased even more, from 25 to 100% in those with high-risk MIPI (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The incorporation of AraC, HCT and maintenance with rituximab in the therapeutic backbone of MCL, especially for high-risk cases, was associated with improved survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/surgery , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Combined Modality Therapy , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Progression-Free Survival , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 802-807, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961462

ABSTRACT

Intrathecal chemotherapy may be complicated with the development of myelopathies or toxic radiculopathies. This myeloradicular involvement, of toxic character, is unpredictable, since these patients have repeatedly received Intrathecal chemotherapy with the same drugs without apparent injury. The toxic effect should be mainly attributed to Cytarabine and not to methotrexate, since the central nervous system lacks Cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that degrades Cytarabine. We report two patients, an 18-year-old woman and a 16 years old male, who received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy (methotrexate, cytarabine) for the treatment of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia and developed, in relation to this procedure, a spinal subacute combined degeneration. They had a proprioceptive and motor alteration of the lower extremities and neuroimaging showed selective rear and side spinal cord hyper intensity produced by central axonopathy. Two weeks later the woman developed a quadriplegia and the young man a flaccid paraplegia due to added root involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Cytarabine/adverse effects , Subacute Combined Degeneration/chemically induced , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Injections, Spinal , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Fatal Outcome , Cytarabine/administration & dosage , Subacute Combined Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 459-462, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950027

ABSTRACT

La necrólisis epidérmica tóxica y el síndrome de StevensJohnson son enfermedades mucocutáneas raras que están asociadas a una evolución prolongada y a un desenlace potencialmente mortal. Principalmente están inducidas por fármacos y las tasas de mortalidad son muy elevadas. Aunque la piel es la más comprometida, también pueden estar afectados múltiples aparatos o sistemas como el cardiovascular, pulmonar, gastrointestinal y urinario. En este artículo, describimos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de Stevens-Johnson asociado al tratamiento con metotrexato, quien desarrolló insuficiencia cardíaca aguda y hemorragia gastrointestinal además de las manifestaciones en la piel. El paciente recibió un tratamiento satisfactorio con metilprednisolona e inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa y continuó la quimioterapia con metotrexato.


Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are rare mucocutaneous diseases which are associated with a prolonged course and potentially lethal outcome. They are mostly drug induced and mortality rates are very high. Although mostly skin is involved, multiple organ systems such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems may be affected. Here, we report a case of StevensJohnson Syndrome associated with methotrexate treatment who developed acute cardiac failure and gastrointestinal hemorrhage beside skin findings. He had been treated with intravenous immunglobulin and methylprednisolone succesfully and continued chemotherapy with methotrexate treatment again.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/diagnosis , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1719-1725, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate a reliable clinical indication for predicting the therapeutic response of decitabine therapy in the patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).@*METHODS@#The clinical efficacy of decitabine for 55 cases of MDS was analyzed retrospectively. According to the lymphocyte level at d28 after the first time treatment with decitabine, the patients were divided into high lymphocyte level group (H-Lym≥1.2×10/L) and low lymphocyte level group (L-Lym<1.2×10/L), and the overall response rate (ORR) and the progression-free survival (PFS) time in 2 groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#As compared with L-Lym group, the ORR and PFS time in H-Lym group were significantly enhanced [(76.0% vs 50.0%) (P<0.05) and median time (15.7 months vs 8.5 months)(P<0.05), respectively];the ratio of platelet level ≥100×10/L in H-Lym group was very significantly higher than that in L-Lym group (72.0% vs 20.0%)(P<0.01). Multivariat analysis showed that the risk of disease progression in L-Lym group was 4.45-fold of H-Lym group (95% CI:1.58-12.59)(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The patients with lymphocyte level ≥1.2×10/L at day 28 after the first time treatment with decitabine show the higher ORR and longer PFS time, therefore. the lymphocyte level at day 28 after first time treatment with decitabine can be used as an early clinical indicator for predecting the response to decitabine treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Decitabine , Humans , Lymphocytes , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691330

ABSTRACT

The clinical application of novel chemotherapeutic drugs including oral 5-FU and targeted drugs and preoperatively accurate imaging grading has brought challenges to the indication criteria developed by NCCN and ESMO for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Extended hotspots have focused on the effectiveness of using capecitabine instead of fluorouracil infusion, the combination of multiple drugs and the feasibility of using neoadjuvant chemotherapy instead of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for selective patients. Traditionally, the evaluation of the effect of neoadjuvant therapy has been based on the effect on the pathological complete remission (pCR) rate. However, current studies recommend the disease-free survival (DFS) as a more important outcome. Besides, seeking for effective biomarkers as predictive markers for neoadjuvant therapies or as prognostic markers remains a hotspot in the field of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The "watch and wait" approach refers to taking a close follow-up strategy instead of direct operation for patients achieving clinically complete remission (cCR) after neoadjuvant therapy. However, there is no unified evaluation criteria and time point for the evaluation of cCR following neoadjuvant therapy. Therefore, there remain a lot of controversies regarding the clinical application of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in LARC. In this manuscript, research progress in the indication for neoadjuvant therapy, improvement in the neoadjuvant therapeutic schedule, advancement of the efficacy evaluation criteria of neoadjuvant therapy, the "watch and wait" approach and other hot topics is summarized to provide references for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Therapeutic Uses , Capecitabine , Therapeutic Uses , Chemoradiotherapy , Fluorouracil , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Rectal Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Treatment Outcome
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 662-666, mayo 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902524

ABSTRACT

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a multifocal tumor that rarely metastasizes. It is difficult to diagnose, most often it is an incidental finding in young asymptomatic women. The radiologic pattern is heterogeneous. Histologic confirmation of Weibel-Palade bodies or immunohistochemistry based on specific tumor markers such as factor VIII and CD34 are the most important finding to confirm the diagnosis. We report a 21 years old woman Presenting with cough and dyspnea. A chest X ray was suggestive of tuberculosis. Sputum smears were negative for acid fat bacilli and the tuberculin test was negative. A chest CAT scan showed multiple nodular lesions. A surgical biopsy of the lesions confirmed the presence of a hemangioendothelioma. The patient was initially treated with prednisone and azathioprine without response. Thereafter, the patient is without treatment and without evidence of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297209

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the adverse effects of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) therapy, and to provide a theoretical basis for optimizing clinical treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 120 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent 601 times of HDMTX therapy. The adverse effects of various systems were analyzed according to the WHO criteria for the classification of adverse effects of anticancer drugs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Almost all the children experienced bone marrow suppression, and 93.3% had granulocytopenia. The most common adverse effects in the digestive system and urinary system were elevated glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (60.4%) and proteinuria (9.2%) respectively. For skin symptoms, skin erythema had the highest incidence rate (7.2%). The adverse effects in the nervous system (hyperpathia, numbness of extremities, or headache) were only observed in 7 cases. Serious adverse effects were only seen in the blood system and digestive system. Compared with the 3 g/mmethotrexate (MTX) group, the 5 g/mHDMTX group had a significantly higher 24-hour plasma MTX concentration, significant reductions in hemoglobin and platelet count, and significantly higher incidence rates of oral mucositis, proteinuria, and skin symptoms (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Serious adverse effects of HDMTX therapy mainly involve the blood system and digestive system, and the adverse effects such as bone marrow suppression, oral mucositis, proteinuria, and skin symptoms occur in a dose-dependent manner.</p>


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Child , Child, Preschool , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Drug Therapy , Male , Methotrexate , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297161

ABSTRACT

Mercaptopurine is a common chemotherapeutic drug and immunosuppressive agent and plays an important role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and inflammatory bowel disease. It may cause severe adverse effects such as myelosuppression, which may result in the interruption of treatment or complications including infection or even threaten patients' lives. However, the adverse effects of mercaptopurine show significant racial and individual differences, which reveal the important role of genetic diversity. Recent research advances in pharmacogenomics have gradually revealed the genetic nature of such differences. This article reviews the recent research advances in the pharmacogenomics and individualized application of mercaptopurine.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Mercaptopurine , Metabolism , Therapeutic Uses , Methyltransferases , Genetics , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pyrophosphatases , Genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8638

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/genetics , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Genotype , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Methyltransferases/genetics , Pharmacogenomic Testing/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics , Warfarin/therapeutic use
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 35-42, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Decitabine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, was recently approved for use in Korea for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for standard chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the role of decitabine as a first-line treatment for older adults with AML. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with AML who received at least one course of decitabine (20 mg/m²/d intravenously for 5 days every 4 weeks) as a first-line therapy at Severance Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The longest follow-up duration was 502 days. A total of 113 cycles of treatment were given to 24 patients, and the median number of cycles was four (range, 1–14). Thirteen patients dropped out because of death, no or loss of response, patient refusal, or transfer to another hospital. Twenty-one (87.5%) and 12 (50%) patients completed the second and fourth cycles, respectively, and responses to treatment were evaluated in 17. A complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete blood-count recovery was achieved in six (35.3%) patients, and the estimated median overall survival was 502 days. Ten patients developed grade >2 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicities. In univariate analysis, bone marrow blasts, lactate dehydrogenase, serum ferritin level, and bone marrow iron were significantly associated with response to decitabine. CONCLUSION: Five-day decitabine treatment showed acceptable efficacy in older patients with AML who are unfit for conventional chemotherapy, with a CR rate 35.3% and about a median overall survival of 18 months.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Azacitidine/analogs & derivatives , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Remission Induction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(10): 1305-1318, oct. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845445

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a malignancy of great impact in developed countries and is having an increasing impact in Latin America. Incidence and mortality rates are similar for this cancer. This is an important reason to offer to the patients the best treatments available. During the Latin American Symposium of Gastroenterology Oncology (SLAGO) held in Viña del Mar, Chile, in April 2015, a multidisciplinary group of specialists in the field met to discuss about this disease. The main conclusions of this meeting, where practitioners from most of Latin American countries participated, are listed in this consensus that seek to serve as a guide for better decision making for patients with pancreatic cancer in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disease Management , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxycytidine/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Latin America , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 42-44, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837922

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report a 33-year-old male patient diagnosed with erythroplasia of Queyrat. The patient had an erythematous and eroded lesion affecting more than 50% of the glans associated with bleeding and local pain. Despite previous indication of penectomy, he was successfully treated with topical 5-fluorouracil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Penile Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma in Situ/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Erythroplasia/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Penis/pathology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Erythroplasia/pathology
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(2): 255-259, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787883

ABSTRACT

Resumo A gencitabina é um fármaco utilizado no tratamento de vários tipos de neoplasias malignas. Há poucas descrições de associação entre a droga e a síndrome hemolítico-urêmica (SHU), apesar de os pacientes em questão terem ido a óbito em pelo menos 50% dos casos. O presente artigo relata o caso de uma paciente com 25 anos de idade em remissão diagnosticada com colangiocarcinoma que apresentou anemia hemolítica microangiopática acompanhada de insuficiência renal aguda anúrica após cinco ciclos de quimioterapia com gencitabina; as manifestações eram condizentes com SHU causada pelos efeitos colaterais do medicamento. A administração de gencitabina foi interrompida, e a paciente foi tratada com hemodiálise, transfusões de sangue, trocas de plasma, corticosteroides, doxiciclina e rituximabe. Foi atingido um desfecho favorável; mais especificamente, a hemólise foi controlada e a função renal foi plenamente restabelecida.


Abstract Gemcitabine is a medication used to treat various types of malignant neoplasms. Its association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been described in few cases, although these cases have resulted in mortality rates of at least 50%. We report on the case of a 25-year-old patient with cholangiocarcinoma in remission who developed microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with acute anuric renal failure after receiving 5 cycles of gemcitabine chemotherapy; this condition was consistent with HUS caused by the side effects of this drug. The administration of gemcitabine was stopped, and hemodialysis, blood transfusions, plasma exchanges, steroids, doxycycline, and rituximab were used to treat the patient. A favorable outcome was achieved; in particular, hemolysis was controlled, and renal function was completely recovered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/chemically induced , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cholangiocarcinoma/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/adverse effects , Deoxycytidine/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 456-463, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328223

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination therapies are standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer, where the modulation of autophagy is becoming increasingly important in offering effective treatment for patients in clinical practice. This review focuses on the role of autophagy in 5-FU-induced tumor suppression and cancer therapy in the digestive system.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>All articles published in English from 1996 to date those assess the synergistic effect of autophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were identified through a systematic online search by use of PubMed. The search terms were "autophagy" and "5-FU" and ("colorectal cancer" or "hepatocellular carcinoma" or "pancreatic adenocarcinoma" or "esophageal cancer" or "gallbladder carcinoma" or "gastric cancer").</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Critical reviews on relevant aspects and original articles reporting in vitro and/or in vivo results regarding the efficiency of autophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were reviewed, analyzed, and summarized. The exclusion criteria for the articles were as follows: (1) new materials (e.g., nanomaterial)-induced autophagy; (2) clinical and experimental studies on diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in digestive system cancers; and (3) immunogenic cell death for anticancer chemotherapy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Most cell and animal experiments showed inhibition of autophagy by either pharmacological approaches or via genetic silencing of autophagy regulatory gene, resulting in a promotion of 5-FU-induced cancer cells death. Meanwhile, autophagy also plays a pro-death role and may mediate cell death in certain cancer cells where apoptosis is defective or difficult to induce. The dual role of autophagy complicates the use of autophagy inhibitor or inducer in cancer chemotherapy and generates inconsistency to an extent in clinic trials.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Autophagy might be a therapeutic target that sensitizes the 5-FU treatment in gastrointestinal cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Therapeutic Uses , Autophagy , Physiology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fluorouracil , Therapeutic Uses , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Humans
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