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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1381-1390, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355675

ABSTRACT

The utilization of antimicrobials in animal production, causes selection of resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of alternatives in association with preventive antibiotic therapy in swine feed during the growing and finishing phases. 1,045 animals were used from 60 to 190 days of age and were subjected to six treatments with 16 repetitions as follows: 1) antibiotic free; 2) antibiotics; 3) prebiotic; 4) probiotic; 5) essential oils; and 6) organic acid. Animals were weighted, and clinical history was recorded including mortality and diarrhea. At the abattoir, pneumonia index and gastric ulcers were investigated. The cost for each treatment was discussed. No difference between treatments were observed (P>0.05) regarding feed conversion rate (2.64±0.03), overall average weight gain (107.06±0.9kg), average daily weight gain (856.49±7.7g) and carcass weight (92.4±0.7kg). The application injectable drugs in animals presenting clinical symptoms, represented US$ 0.56/intervention, without difference between the treatments (P>0.05). Furthermore, independently of the treatment, high frequency of pneumonia was observed (>0.90). No difference for the degree of gastric ulcer nor feces consistency were observed (P>0.05). The utilization of antibiotic therapy and alternatives to antibiotics in feed did not produce benefits to the production indices and sanitary performances of the animals.(AU)


A utilização de antimicrobianos na produção animal provoca seleção de bactérias resistentes. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a utilização de alternativas associadas à antibioticoterapia preventiva na alimentação de suínos nas fases de recria e de terminação. Foram utilizados 1.045 animais de 60 a 190 dias de idade, submetidos a seis tratamentos com 16 repetições, como segue: 1) sem antibióticos; 2) com antibióticos; 3) prebióticos; 4) probióticos; 5) óleos essenciais; e 6) ácidos orgânicos. Os animais foram pesados, e a história clínica foi registrada, incluindo mortalidade e diarreia. No abatedouro, foram investigados índices de pneumonia e úlceras gástricas. O custo de cada tratamento foi discutido. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05) em relação à taxa de conversão alimentar (2,64 ± 0,03), ao ganho de peso médio geral (107,06 ± 0,9kg), ao ganho de peso médio diário (856,49 ± 7,7g) e ao peso de carcaça (92,4 ± 0,7kg). A aplicação de medicamentos injetáveis em animais com quadro clínico representou US$ 0,56/intervenção, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). Além disso, independentemente do tratamento, foi observada alta frequência de pneumonia (>0,90). Não foi observada diferença para o grau de úlcera gástrica nem na consistência das fezes (P>0,05). A utilização de antibioticoterapia e de alternativas aos antibióticos na ração não trouxe benefícios aos desempenhos zootécnico e sanitário dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Animal Feed/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 565-575, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058082

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es una amenaza para la salud pública mundial. Los programas de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos (PROAs) son programas que promueven su adecuado uso, mejoran los resultados clínicos, económicos y contribuyen a contener la RAM. Objetivos: Evaluar las fases de diagnóstico e implementación temprana de los PROAs en tres hospitales de alta complejidad pertenecientes al Sistema de Seguridad Social del Perú. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico, cuasi experimental. La estructuración de los programas, las líneas de base microbiológicas, el consumo de antimicrobianos y los consensos fueron evaluadas durante los períodos de diagnóstico inicial y durante la implementación temprana de los PROAs. Resultados: Con posterioridad a la implementación, los hospitales duplicaron la puntuación de recursos disponibles para los programas (6,75 vs 13,75). La prevalencia de enterobacterias portadoras de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido era de 50-60%, mientras que la resistencia a carbapenémicos en Pseudomonas aeruginosa promedió el 69%. La dosis diaria definida de ceftriaxona fue de 13,63, de 7,35 para vancomicina y 6,73 para meropenem en promedio. Los hospitales A y C disminuyeron el uso de antimicrobianos en 30 a 50%. Discusión: A través de estrategias diseñadas por equipos multidisciplinarios para implementar los PROAs, se logró disminuir tempranamente el consumo de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro.


Background. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health. Antibiotic stewardship programs (AMSP) promote the proper use of antimicrobials, improve clinical and economic outcomes, and helps containing the AMR. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic phase of the AMS programs and early implementation of AMS at three high complexity hospitals that belong to the social security system in Peru. Methods: A quasi-experimental multicenter study was implemented. The construction of the AMSP, microbiological baselines, antimicrobial consumption and consensus on AMS activities were evaluated at the diagnosis and early implementation periods of the AMSP. Results: Following implementation, hospitals doubled their score of resources and processes available for the AMS program from 6.75 to 13.75. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteria was 50-60% while Pseudomonas aeruginosa averaged 69% resistance to carbapenems. The defined daily dose (DDD) of ceftriaxone was 13.63, vancomycin 7.35 and meropenem 6.73 in average. Hospitals A and C decreased the use of antimicrobials (30-50%). Discussion: The implementation of the AMSP in the three hospitals was achieved through diverse strategies designed by multidisciplinary teams, which in addition to its articulation, reduce the consumption of broad spectrum antimicrobials at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Program Evaluation/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Peru , Social Security , Time Factors , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Health Plan Implementation , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 403-413, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042655

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una entidad que afecta pacientes inmunocomprometidos y críticamente enfermos. En los últimos años, el número de pacientes con riesgo de presentarla viene en aumento, con el consecuente incremento de la formulación de antifúngicos de manera profiláctica, anticipada o empírica. Algunos estudios que evaluaron el uso adecuado de antifúngicos han mostrado que hasta 72% de las formulaciones pueden ser inapropiadas, exponiendo a los pacientes al riesgo de efectos adversos e interacciones medicamentosas, con mayores costos de la atención. Se han recomendado diferentes intervenciones para el control y el uso racional de antimicrobianos, conocidas como "antimicrobial stewardship", las que se pueden aplicar al uso de antifúngicos denominándose "antifungal stewardship"". Se presenta una revisión de la literatura médica sobre el uso apropiado de antifúngicos y el impacto de la implementación de programas de optimización del uso de estos medicamentos en algunos centros.


Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a condition affecting immunosuppressed and critically ill patients. Recently there has been an increase in the amount of patients at risk for IFD, which implies an increase in the prescription of antifungal agents as prophylactic, pre-emptive or empiric therapy. Some studies evaluating appropriateness of antifungal prescription have shown that inappropriate formulations reach 72%, exposing patients to side effects, pharmacological interactions and rising costs. Some groups have recommended many interventions to control and make a rational use of antimicrobials, into strategies known as "antimicrobial stewardship", these interventions are useful also for antifungal agents and it has been named "antifungal stewardship". Here we present a narrative review of the scientific literature showing published articles about appropriate use of antifungal agents and the experience of some centers after implementing antifungal stewardship programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Drug Monitoring , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 544-552, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899757

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los antimicrobianos (ATM) son uno de los medicamentos más utilizados en recién nacidos (RN) hospitalizados. El uso indiscriminado de ATM trae consecuencias negativas como son el predominio de bacterias resistentes a los ATM usualmente utilizados y asociaciones individuales a morbilidad relevante como son la displasia broncopulmonar, enterocolitis necrosante, sepsis tardía y/o muerte. Objetivo: Registrar y evaluar las tendencias del uso de ATM a lo largo del tiempo en RN hospitalizados en el Servicio de Neonatología (SRN) del Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río, con el fin de objetivar los cambios en la práctica habitual de la indicación de ATM. Un objetivo secundario fue evaluar el impacto de estas conductas sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte, prospectivo, observacional, unicéntrico, en todos los pacientes hospitalizados entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2014. Se registró el peso al nacer, días de hospitalización, indicación y días de uso de ATM para cada paciente. El uso de ATM fue cuantificado por medio de distintas tasas: días de indicación de un o más ATM para el consumo global (TUA), sumatoria total de días de uso (STUA) como para los ATM más frecuentemente utilizados. Cada tasa calculada por 100 días hospitalizados. Además, se registró la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de las bacterias más frecuentemente aisladas en nuestro servicio: Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (SCN) y bacilos gramnegativos (BGNs). Resultados: El 34,7% de los pacientes hospitalizados recibió algún tipo de antimicrobiano, correspondiendo 32,3% a antibacterianos. El ATM más utilizado fue ampicilina (20,2% del total) y luego cefadroxilo (11,6%). El TUA no cambió entre 2011 y 2014. La STUA disminuyó en 10,7% entre 2011 y 2014 (p < 0,05). En el análisis por rangos de peso, en el grupo < 750 g disminuyó la tendencia de uso de vancomicina (descenso de uso en 9,9%) y un aumento de 18,8% para metronidazol. Por otra parte, hubo un aumento en el uso del régimen de piperacilina/tazobactam en el grupo > 1.500 g. Al evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, hubo una disminución de la susceptibilidad a cloxacilina en SCN entre 2011 y 2014 desde 27 a 10,3%, respectivamente. Para BGN hubo una disminución desde 76,9 a 40,5% en la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas de tercera generación, principalmente debido a Klebsiella pneumoniae que pasó a ser el BGN predominante, con un aumento de 6,7 a 50% en los años 2011 y 2014, respectivamente. Para Klebsiella pneumoniae la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas de tercera generación descendió desde 77 a 22%. Por último, amikacina mostró una actividad sobre 85% en todos los BGNs entre 2011 y 2014. Conclusiones: Es recomendable planificar y mantener un registro continuo del consumo de ATM tanto como terapia y profilaxis, idealmente llevar el TUA, el STUA y siendo categorizado por tipo de ATM y rango de peso de los RN. En forma concomitante, es de considerable importancia analizar y evaluar la susceptibilidad de microorganismos. Es esencial que un equipo interdisciplinario prepare este registro, y que continuamente proporcione retroalimentación a los profesionales que mantienen el funcionamiento de las unidades de cuidados neonatales.


Background: Antibiotics (ATB) are drugs widely used in hospitalized newborns. The indiscriminate use of ATBs promote the rise of resistant bacteria to the most commonly indicated antimicrobials. In addition, ATB prescription presents associations to morbidity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, late sepsis and even death. All of the above leads to an increase in health care costs. Aim: To record and to evaluate trends of antibiotic use over time in hospitalized NB in the Neonatology Unit at Dr. Sótero del Río Hospital, in order to objectify the changes in the usual practice of the ATM indication. A secondary objective was to assess its impact on antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Cohort, observational, prospective unicenter study which included all hospitalized patients between January 2011 and December 2014. Birth weight, hospitalization days, ATB indication and days of ATB use were recorded for each patient. The use of ATB was quantified by means of different rates; days of indication of one or more ATBs for global consumption (RUA), total sum of days of use (TSUA) and for the most frequently used ATBs. Each calculated rate for 100 days hospitalized. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility of the most frequently isolated bacteria in our service: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (SCN) and Gram-negative bacilli (BGN) were recorded continuously. Results: The 34.7% of the hospitalized patients received some type of antimicrobial agent. ATBs were 32.3% of medicines used. The most widely used was ampicillin (with 20.2% of the total) and cefadroxyl (with 11.6%). The RUA did not change during the study time, but STUA decreased by 10.7% between 2011 and 2014 with p < 0.05. When subgroup analyzes were divided by weight ranges, in the < 750 g group, the use of vancomycin decreased in use by 9.9% and an increase of 18.8% for metronidazole was observed. On the other hand, there was an increase in the use of the piperacillin-tazobactam regimen in the range > 1,500 g. When evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility, there was a decrease in susceptibility for oxacillin in SCN between 2011 and 2014 from 27% to 10.3% respectively. In addition, for Gram negative there was a decrease from 76.9% to 40.5% in susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins, mainly due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, which became the predominantly isolated BGN with an increase of 6.7% to 50% between 2011 and 2014, respectively. For K. pneumoniae the loss of susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins decreased from 77% to 22%. Finally, amikacin showed an activity over 85% in all BGNs between 2011 and 2014. Conclusions: It is advisable to plan and to maintain a continuous record of ATB consumption, as well as therapy and prophylaxis, being categorized by ATB type and range of newborn weight. It is of considerable importance to analyze and to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms. It is essential that an interdisciplinary team prepare this recording, and to continuously provide feedback to professionals who maintain the functioning of neonatal care units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Prescription Drug Misuse
7.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 16(4): 564-578, jul.-ago. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901749

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los antimicrobianos constituyen uno de los grupos farmacológicos más utilizados en la práctica clínica y está demostrada su relación con la resistencia microbiana. El uso racional de antibióticos puede producir beneficios desde el punto de vista médico y social, pero su uso en ocasiones no es el más adecuado y debe ser objeto de una vigilancia especial y sistemática. Es necesaria una política antimicrobiana coherente en las unidades de salud. Objetivo: Revisar consensos y criterios nacionales e internacionales sobre política antimicrobiana para tratar de unificar criterios aplicables lo más uniforme posible en las instituciones de salud. Material y Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos: Clinical Evidence, The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Google Académico, MEDLINE, LIS, Scielo, Medscape, LILACS, Latindex, HINARI, MEDIGRAPHIC-NEWS, NIH Reporter y en la web de la OPS/OMS sobre política antimicrobiana, comisión de antibióticos, política de antibióticos. Desarrollo: Se consideraron conceptos de diferentes publicaciones cubanas y consensos internacionales, componentes humanos, objetivos, funciones, recursos, métodos, estrategias y control. Conclusiones: Introducir cualquier modificación terapéutica en la atención médica tiene que ser correctamente valorado en todas sus dimensiones: científica, tecnológica y social. La selección del antibiótico cuando no es posible el estudio microbiológico y/o se carece de antibiograma debe ser hecha sobre las bases clínicas y epidemiológicas locales. La creación de una Política Antimicrobiana con todos sus componentes, recursos y metodología es necesaria más que nunca en estos tiempos. Puede estar sujeta a modificaciones con nuevas evidencias; pero tiene que ser cumplida para disminuir la resistencia microbiana, los costos y obtener mejores resultados(AU)


Introduction: Antimicrobials are one of the most pharmacological groups used in the clinical practice, and its relation to microbial resistance is demonstrated. The rational use of antibiotics can be beneficial from the social and medical point of view, but occasionally, their use is not the most correct one and there should be a systematic and special surveillance. A rational antimicrobial policy is necessary in the health care centers. Objective: To review national and international consensuses and criteria on antimicrobial policy to try to unify criteria and apply them the most uniform way possible in health care centers. Material and method: A bibliographic review on antimicrobial policy, antibiotics commission, and antibiotics policy was made in different databases; some of them were: Clinical Evidence, The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Academic Google, MEDLINE, LIS, Scielo, Medscape, LILACS, Latindex, HINARI, MEDIGRAPHIC-NEWS, NIH Reporter, and the Web sites of the PAHO/ WHO. Development: Concepts on different Cuban publications, international consensuses, human components, objectives, functions, resources, methods, strategies, and controls were considered. Conclusions: The implementation of any therapeutic modification in the medical attention has to be analyzed correctly in all its dimensions: scientific, technological, and social ones. When the microbiological study is not possible or there is no antibiogram, the selection of the antibiotic should be made on the local epidemiological and clinical basis. The creation of an Antimicrobial Policy with all its components, resources, and methodology is needed now more than ever. It can be submitted to modifications with new evidences, but it has to be fulfilled to reduce both microbial resistance and the costs, and obtain better results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Policy Making , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Health Facilities/ethics , Anti-Infective Agents/standards
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