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1.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 349-354, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986141

ABSTRACT

Liver histological assessment is of great clinical significance for the diagnosis, classification, and prognosis prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Liver histological evaluation can effectively supplement RUCAM. The clinical phenotypes of DILI are complex and diverse, including acute, chronic and severe hepatic injury. DILI has multiple insult-targets, including hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and vascular endothelial cells and others. The pathological damage patterns are similar to many types of non-DILI liver diseases, therefore making differential diagnosis difficult. New anti-tumor drugs such as immune checkpoints inhibitors and targeted therapy are widely used in clinical antineoplastic practice, thus the growing incidence of related liver injury occurs. Liver histological examination can effectively assess the pathological phenotypes and severity of DILI, so as to guide treatment. In uncommon conditions such as special types of DILI (such as hepatic vascular disease), DILI with other competitive etiology overlapping, chronic DILI, and DILI induced liver failure, liver histological assessment can provide strong support for identifying the cause, rational treatment, and prognosis. Currently, the histological evaluation system for drug-induced liver injury seems to be a lack of consensus, and the diagnosis of DILI is short of highly specific and sensitive serological markers. All in all, liver histological assessment plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of DILI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endothelial Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Liver/pathology , Hepatocytes , Phenotype , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression pattern and clinical significance of Integral membrane protein 2A(ITM2A) in drug resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).@*METHODS@#The expression of ITM2A in CML was evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. In order to understand the possible biological effects of ITM2A, apoptosis, cell cycle and myeloid differentiation antigen expression of CML cells were detected by flow cytometry after over-expression of ITM2A. The nuderlying molecular mechanism of its biological effect was explored.@*RESULTS@#The expression of ITM2A in bone marrow of CML resistant patients was significantly lower than that of sensitive patients and healthy donors(P<0.05). The CML resistant strain cell K562R was successfully constructed in vitro. The expression of ITM2A in the resistant strain was significantly lower than that in the sensitive strain(P<0.05). Overexpression of ITM2A in K562R cells increased the sensitivity of K562R cells to imatinib and blocked the cell cycle in G2 phase(P<0.05), but did not affect myeloid differentiation. Mechanistically, up-regulation of ITM2A reduced phosphorylation in ERK signaling (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of ITM2A was low in patients with drug resistance of CML, and the low expression of ITM2A may be the key factor of imatinib resistance in CML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971323

ABSTRACT

Cancers have high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Current anticancer therapies have demonstrated specific signaling pathways as a target in the involvement of carcinogenesis. Autophagy is a quality control system for proteins and plays a fundamental role in cancer carcinogenesis, exerting an anticarcinogenic role in normal cells and can inhibit the transformation of malignant cells. Therefore, drugs aimed at autophagy can function as antitumor agents. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic secondary metabolites commonly found in plants and, consequently, consumed in diets. In this review, the systematic search strategy was used, which included the search for descriptors "flavonoids" AND "mTOR pathway" AND "cancer" AND "autophagy", in the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus, from January 2011 to January 2021. The current literature demonstrates that flavonoids have anticarcinogenic properties, including inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, impaired cell migration, invasion, tumor angiogenesis and reduced resistance to multiple drugs in tumor cells. We demonstrate the available evidence on the roles of flavonoids and autophagy in cancer progression and inhibition. (Registration No. CRD42021243071 at PROSPERO).


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line, Tumor
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982712

ABSTRACT

Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in various food sources and Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of alkaloid extract from Codonopsis Radix (ACR) in ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). The results revealed that ACR treatment effectively mitigated the abnormal weight gain and hepatic injury associated with HFD. Furthermore, ACR ameliorated the dysregulated lipid metabolism in NAFLD mice, as evidenced by reductions in serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, accompanied by a concomitant increase in the high-density lipoprotein level. ACR treatment also demonstrated a profound anti-oxidative effect, effectively alleviating HFD-induced oxidative stress and promoting ATP production. These effects were achieved through the up-regulation of the activities of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complexes I, II, IV, and V, in addition to the activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α pathway, suggesting that ACR exhibits therapeutic potential in alleviating the HFD-induced dysregulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Moreover, ACR administration mitigated HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and suppressed the overexpression of ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) in NAFLD mice. In summary, the present study provides compelling evidence supporting the hepatoprotective role of ACR in alleviating lipid deposition in NAFLD by improving energy metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and ER stress. These findings warrant further investigation and merit the development of ACR as a potential therapeutic agent for NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Codonopsis , Liver , Lipid Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Energy Metabolism , Lipids , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982099

ABSTRACT

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was revolutionized with the advent of the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but drug resistance developed during treatment, leading to the development of the second-generation (dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib) and third-generation (ponatinib) TKI. Compared with previous treatment regimens, specific TKI can significantly improve the response rate, overall survival rate and prognosis of CML. Only a few patients with BCR-ABL mutation are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, so it is suggested to select the second-generation TKIs for patients with specific mutations. For patients with other mutations and without mutations, the second-generation TKI should be selected according to the patient's medical history, while the third-generation TKIs should be selected for mutations that are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, such as T315I mutation that is sensitive to ponatinib. Due to different BCR-ABL mutations in patients with different sensitivity to the second and third-generation TKIs, this paper will review the latest research progress of the efficacy of the second and third-generation TKIs in CML patients with BCR-ABL mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981574

ABSTRACT

The synergistic effect of drug combinations can solve the problem of acquired resistance to single drug therapy and has great potential for the treatment of complex diseases such as cancer. In this study, to explore the impact of interactions between different drug molecules on the effect of anticancer drugs, we proposed a Transformer-based deep learning prediction model-SMILESynergy. First, the drug text data-simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) were used to represent the drug molecules, and drug molecule isomers were generated through SMILES Enumeration for data augmentation. Then, the attention mechanism in the Transformer was used to encode and decode the drug molecules after data augmentation, and finally, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was connected to obtain the synergy value of the drugs. Experimental results showed that our model had a mean squared error of 51.34 in regression analysis, an accuracy of 0.97 in classification analysis, and better predictive performance than the DeepSynergy and MulinputSynergy models. SMILESynergy offers improved predictive performance to assist researchers in rapidly screening optimal drug combinations to improve cancer treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Electric Power Supplies , Neural Networks, Computer , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
8.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-7, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393174

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved using natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress, detect, or prevent cancer progression. Objectives: In this study, both the antiproliferative effects and luminescent properties of 2'-hydroxychalcones were evaluated. Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, spectroscopy assays, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine the luminescent properties of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones. Results: Cytotoxic effects of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones were observed over the HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Since the chalcone moiety could be used as a fluorescent probe, these compounds may be helpful in cancer diagnosis and tumor localization. They may enable tumor observation and regression through the fluorescence during treatment; therefore, the compounds are a potential candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas. Conclusions: This report describes the chalcones' use as a specific luminescent biomarker in tumor cells. We also report the cellular uptake of 2'-hydroxychalcones, their cellular distribution, and the mechanisms that may be responsible for their cytotoxic effects


ANTECEDENTES: El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) es uno de los cánceres más diagnosticados en todo el mundo. La quimio prevención del CHC se puede lograr utilizando compuestos naturales o sintéticos que reviertan, supriman, detecten o prevengan la progresión del cáncer. OBJETIVOS: En este estudio, se investigó tanto los efectos antiproliferativos como las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2'-hidroxicalconas. MÉTODOS: La viabilidad celular se evaluó usando el ensayo colorimétrico (MTT), los ensayos de espectroscopia y los cálculos DFT se usaron para determinar las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas. RESULTADOS: Se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre las líneas celulares del tipo HepG2 y EA.hy926. Dado que la estructura de la 2 ́-hidroxichalcona puede ser usada como sonda fluorescente, estos compuestos pueden ser útiles en el diagnóstico del cáncer y la localización del tumor, ya que pueden permitir la observación a través de la fluorescencia y la regresión del tumor durante el tratamiento, por lo que son candidatas potenciales como nuevos agentes anticancerígenos que podrían actuar sobre hepatomas humanos. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo describe el uso de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas como un biomarcador luminiscente específico para células tumorales. También informamos la captación celular de 2>-hidroxicalconas, su distribución celular y los mecanismos que pueden ser responsables de sus efectos citotóxicos


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chalcones/pharmacology , Luminescent Agents , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G ­ 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G ­ 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19801, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394060

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the recent past, drug delivery through nanoparticles is considered an effective tool to treat various diseases. Biopolymeric nanoparticles such as protein based nanoparticles have vital role as drug carrier as it is non-antigenic, and easily biodegradable. Curcumin, plant polyphenolic anticancerous compound was loaded into the casein nanoparticles by coacervation method. Particle size and surface charge of spherical casein nanoparticles as observed to be 201.4 nm and -86.9 mV. The loading efficiency of curcumin loaded casein nanoparticles was found to 85.05 %. In vitro drug release was performed at different pH (7.4 and 3.0), and the cumulative release was observed to be 24.8 and 20.13% and at different temperatures (25°C and 37°C), the cumulative release was observed to be 24.8 and 28.60 % respectively in 48 h. Curcumin release from casein nanoparticles was shown to be in a steady, and prolonged rate. The nanoparticles were observed to have an effective antimocrobial activity than curcumin in free form. The drug loaded casein nanoparticles were found to be potent particles to protect cells from hydrogen peroxide and UV light damage. The cytotoxic activity of nanoparticles on MCF7 and A549 cells were assayed and was observed to have an IC50 value of 609 and 825.2µg/ml. Cell death was observed to be through apoptosis, accompanied by DNA fragmentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caseins , Curcumin , Nanoparticles , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Apoptosis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , A549 Cells , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20476, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403722

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melatonin (MLT) reportedly reduces side effects associated with certain antineoplastic agents. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of MLT on cisplatin (CP)-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay. Mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with vehicle (ethanol 5%; control group), MLT (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 150 mg/kg), followed by CP treatment (5 mg/kg). Pharmacological modulation was analyzed using relevant receptor antagonists (luzindole: non-selective MT1/MT2 antagonist; 5 mg/kg or 4-P-PDOT: selective MT2 antagonist; 4 mg/kg) before treatment with MLT plus CP. All treatments were performed once daily for three days. GE was assessed using phenol red. Gut morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Compared with the control, CP decreased GE. Pretreatment with NAC and MLT (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not prevent CP-induced gastric dysmotility; however, pretreatment with 20 mg/kg MLT prevented this effect. In addition, luzindole and 4-P-PDOT suppressed MLT-mediated gastroprotection against cytotoxic effects of CP. CP caused degeneration of the gut mucosa, which was attenuated by MLT treatment. Thus, 20 mg/kg MLT prevented the GE delay and decreased CP-induced adverse effects on the gut mucosa. In addition, the gastroprotective activity was mediated via the MT2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Receptor, Melatonin, MT2/analysis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Melatonin/adverse effects , Acetylcysteine/agonists , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Gastric Emptying , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1108-1116, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405227

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Letrozole is mainly used for the treatment of unexplained infertility, breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome, with secondary use in ovarian stimulation. In cases of unexpected or unknown pregnancy during the use of letrozole, letrozole may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. In this reason, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of letrozole on fetal bone development. In this study, 32 pregnant Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Control (saline) and high; 0.3 mg/kg, medium; 0.03 mg/kg, low; 0.003 mg/ kg letrozole. Saline and letrozole were administered in 100 mL solutions by intraperitonaly from day 11 to day 15 of pregnancy. The skeletal system development of fetuses was examined with double skeletal staining, immunohistochemical staining methods and mineral density scanning electron microscopy. A total of 100 fetuses from female rats, 25 in each group, were included in the study. As a result of that, ossification rates were observed to decrease depending on the dose of letrozole in the forelimb limb (scapula, humerus, radius, ulna) and hindlimb (femur, tibia, fibula) limb bones. As a result of the statistical analysis, a statistically significant decrease was found in the ossification rates of all bones between the control group and low, medium, high letrozole groups (p<0.001). Exposure to letrozole during pregnancy adversely affected ossification and bone growth. However, the teratogenic effects of letrozole are unclear. Therefore, it needs to be investigated more extensively.


RESUMEN: Letrozol se usa principalmente para el tratamiento de la infertilidad inexplicable, el cáncer de mama y el síndrome de ovario poliquístico, con estimulación ovárica de uso secundario. En casos de embarazo inesperado o desconocido durante el uso de letrozol, puede causar un efecto teratogénico en el feto. Por esta razón, en este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue determinar el efecto de letrozol en el desarrollo óseo fetal. Se utilizaron 32 ratas albinas Wistar preñadas las cuales se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: Control (solución salina) y alta; 0,3 mg/kg, medio; 0,03 mg/kg, bajo; 0,003 mg/kg de letrozol. Se administró solución salina y letrozol en soluciones de 100 mL por vía intraperitoneal desde el día 11 hasta el día 15 de la preñez. El desarrollo del sistema esquelético de los fetos se examinó con tinción esquelética doble, métodos de tinción inmunohistoquímica y microscopía electrónica de barrido de densidad mineral. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 100 fetos de ratas hembra, 25 en cada grupo. Como resultado, se observó que las tasas de osificación disminuían dependiendo de la dosis de letrozol en los huesos de los miembros torácicos (escápula, húmero, radio, ulna) y de las miembros pélvicos (fémur, tibia, fíbula). Se encontró una disminución estadísticamente significativa en las tasas de osificación de todos los huesos entre el grupo control y los grupos de letrozol bajo, medio y alto (p<0,001). La exposición a letrozol durante la preñez afectó negativamente la osificación y el crecimiento óseo. Sin embargo, los efectos teratogénicos del letrozol no están claros por lo que debe ser investigado más extensamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Teratogens/pharmacology , Bone Development/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Letrozole/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Staining and Labeling/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Letrozole/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929265

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a complex disease associated with multiple gene mutations and malignant phenotypes, and multi-target drugs provide a promising therapy idea for the treatment of cancer. Natural products with abundant chemical structure types and rich pharmacological characteristics could be ideal sources for screening multi-target antineoplastic drugs. In this paper, 50 tumor-related targets were collected by searching the Therapeutic Target Database and Thomson Reuters Integrity database, and a multi-target anti-cancer prediction system based on mt-QSAR models was constructed by using naïve Bayesian and recursive partitioning algorithm for the first time. Through the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system, some dominant fragments that act on multiple tumor-related targets were analyzed, which could be helpful in designing multi-target anti-cancer drugs. Anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its natural products were collected to form a TCM formula-based natural products library, and the potential targets of the natural products in the library were predicted by multi-target anti-cancer prediction system. As a result, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were predicted to act on multiple tumor-related targets. The predicted targets of some representative compounds were verified according to literature review and most of the selected natural compounds were found to exert certain anti-cancer activity in vitro biological experiments. In conclusion, the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system is very effective and reliable, and it could be further used for elucidating the functional mechanism of anti-cancer TCM formula and screening for multi-target anti-cancer drugs. The anti-cancer natural compounds found in this paper will lay important information for further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929252

ABSTRACT

Two cardenolide glycosides, corotoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and coroglaucigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the seed fairs of Asclepias curassavica. The structures of 1-2 were determined based on the combination of the analysis of their MS, NMR spectroscopic data and acid hydrolysis. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116), non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) and hepatic cancer cells (SMMC-7721) were evaluated. The results showed that both compounds 1 and 2 significantly inhibited the viability, proliferation, and migration of A549, HCT116 and SMMC-7721 cells, suggesting that compounds 1 and 2 can be applied in the treatment of lung, colon and liver cancers in clinical practice. This study may not only provide a scientific basis for clarifying the active ingredients in A. curassavica, but also help to understand its antitumor activity, which can promote the application of A. curassavica in clinical treatment of various cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Asclepias/chemistry , Cardenolides/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Seeds
15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 139-149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929189

ABSTRACT

The CD19-targeting bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab has shown remarkable efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, several studies showed that blinatumomab has a short plasma half-life due to its low molecular weight, and thus its clinical use is limited. Furthermore, multiple trials have shown that approximately 30% of blinatumomab-relapsed cases are characterized by CD19 negative leukemic cells. Here, we design and characterize two novel antibodies, A-319 and A-2019. Blinatumomab and A-319 are CD3/CD19 bispecific antibodies with different molecular sizes and structures, and A-2019 is a novel CD3/CD19/CD20 trispecific antibody with an additional anti-CD20 function. Our in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments demonstrated that A-319 and A-2019 are potent antitumor agents and capable of recruiting CD3 positive T cells, enhancing T-cell function, mediating B-cell depletion, and eventually inhibiting tumor growth in Raji xenograft models. The two molecules are complementary in terms of efficacy and specificity profile. The activity of A-319 demonstrated superior to that of A-2019, whereas A-2019 has an additional capability to target CD20 in cells missing CD19, suggesting its potential function against CD19 weak or negative CD20 positive leukemic cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, CD19/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Immunotherapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928765

ABSTRACT

Follicular lymphoma is an indolent malignant tumor originating from lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues, which may affect the patients' quality of survival due to the recurrence and progression. In recent years, with the deepening understand of the molecular biology and signaling pathways, many new targeted drugs for follicular lymphoma have been discovered, such as monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, epigenetic regulation related targeted therapies and signaling pathway inhibitors. In this review, the new progress of immunotherapy for follicular lymphoma is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of hnRNPK/Beclin1 signaling on the drug resistance of imatinib in Ph+ leukemia.@*METHODS@#Expression level of hnRNPK was verified in the imatinib resistant and sensitive Ph+ leukemia cell lines by using Western blot. hnRNPK expression was down-regulated by using RNAi. Expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were detected by Western blot and the sensitivity of imatinib was analyzed by CCK-8 assay before and after modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*RESULTS@#hnRNPK showed overexpressed in imatinib resistant leukemia cell line. After the expression level of hnRNPK was down-regulated by RNAi, the sensitivity of drug resistance lines to imatinib restored, while the expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were consistant with the modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*CONCLUSION@#hnRNP K/Beclin1 signaling may be involved in the development of imatinib resistance in Ph+ leukemia through the regulation of autophagy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Beclin-1 , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Leukemia
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1346-1359, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878636

ABSTRACT

Different cell lines have different perturbation signals in response to specific compounds, and it is important to predict cell viability based on these perturbation signals and to uncover the drug sensitivity hidden underneath the phenotype. We developed an SAE-XGBoost cell viability prediction algorithm based on the LINCS-L1000 perturbation signal. By matching and screening three major dataset, LINCS-L1000, CTRP and Achilles, a stacked autoencoder deep neural network was used to extract the gene information. These information were combined with the RW-XGBoost algorithm to predict the cell viability under drug induction, and then to complete drug sensitivity inference on the NCI60 and CCLE datasets. The model achieved good results compared to other methods with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.85. It was further validated on an independent dataset, corresponding to a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.68. The results indicate that the proposed method can help discover novel and effective anti-cancer drugs for precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival , Pharmaceutical Preparations
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 408-417, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Bufalin is an effective drug for the treatment of liver cancer. But its high toxicity, poor water-solubility, fast metabolism and short elimination half-life limit its use in tumor treatment. How to make the drug accumulate in the tumor and reduce side effects while maintaining its efficacy are urgent problems to be solved. The goal of this study is to solve these problems.@*METHODS@#A copolymer with tunable poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and polylactic acid was designed and synthesized. The corresponding dual targeting immunomicelles (DTIs) loaded with bufalin (DTIs-BF) were synthesized by copolymer self-assembly in an aqueous solution. The size and structure of DTIs-BF were determined by ZetaSizer Nano-ZS and transmission electron microscopy. Then, its temperature sensitivity, serum stability, critical micelle concentration (CMC), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug release and non-cytotoxicity of blank block copolymer micelles (BCMs) were evaluated. Next, the effects of DTIs-BF on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and tumor cell inhibition were evaluated. Finally, the accumulation of DTIs-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and the in vivo anti-tumor effect were observed using an interactive video information system.@*RESULTS@#DTIs-BF had a small size, spherical shape, good temperature sensitivity, high serum stability, low CMC, high EE, and slow drug release. The blank BCMs had very low cytotoxicity. Compared with free bufalin, the in vitro cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of DTIs-BF against SMMC-7721 cells were significantly enhanced, and the effects were obviously better at 40 °C than 37 °C. In addition, the therapeutic effect on SMMC-7721 cells was further enhanced by the programmed cell death specifically caused by bufalin. When DTIs-FITC were injected intravenously in BALB/c nude mice bearing liver cancer, the accumulation of FITC was significantly increased in tumors.@*CONCLUSION@#DTIs-BF is a potentially effective nano-formulation and has broad prospects in the clinical treatment of liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bufanolides , Cell Line, Tumor , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922770

ABSTRACT

Nine new compounds, including five natural rarely-occurring 2, 3-dihydro-1H-indene derivatives named diaporindenes E-I (1-5), and four new benzophenone analogues named tenellones J-M (6-9) were isolated from the deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Phomopsis lithocarpus FS508. All the structures for these new compounds were fully characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data, NMR spectra, and ECD calculation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The potential anti-tumor activities of compounds 1-9 against four tumor cell lines SF-268, MCF-7, HepG-2, and A549 were evaluated using the SRB method. Compound 7 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the SF-268 cell line with an IC


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Crystallography, X-Ray , Fungi , Molecular Structure , Phomopsis
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