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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210246, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360442

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever as necessidades de aprendizagem de familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer quanto ao tratamento com quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método pesquisa qualitativa descritiva desenvolvida em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de julho a setembro de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer em quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Os dados foram processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires pela Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados dentre os temas que demandam aprendizagem pelos familiares estão administração oral, armazenamento e manipulação dos quimioterápicos orais, além dos efeitos adversos e emergências que demandam atendimento hospitalar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática no tratamento com quimioterápicos orais, as necessidades de aprendizagem dos familiares de crianças e adolescentes precisam ser problematizadas em práticas educativas dialógicas para, assim, favorecer a segurança, a adesão e a eficácia do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo describir las necesidades de aprendizaje de familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en cuanto al tratamiento con quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método investigación cualitativa descriptiva desarrollada en un hospital federal de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en los meses de julio a septiembre de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Los datos fueron procesados en el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires por la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados entre los temas que demandan aprendizaje por los familiares están administración oral, almacenamiento y manipulación de los quimioterápicos orales, además de los efectos adversos y emergencias que demandan atención hospitalaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica en el tratamiento con quimioterápicos orales, las necesidades de aprendizaje de los familiares de niños y adolescentes necesitan ser problematizadas en prácticas educativas dialógicas para, así, favorecer la seguridad, la adhesión y la eficacia del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents with cancer regarding treatment with oral antineoplastic chemotherapies. Method a descriptive qualitative research developed in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in the months from July to September 2020 from semi-structured interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents with cancer undergoing oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Data was processed in the software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results among the themes that demand learning by the family members are oral administration, storage and handling of oral antineoplastic drugs, as well as adverse effects and emergencies that require hospital care. Conclusion and implications for practice in oral antineoplastic treatment, the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents need to be problematized in dialogic educational practices in order to favor the safety, adherence, and efficacy of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Education , Caregivers/education , Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child Care , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Qualitative Research , Drug Storage , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341783

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y observacional en pacientes con adenocarcinoma pancreático avanzado, tratados con Nimotuzumab combinado con un esquema de quimioterapia GEMOX, atendidos en el Servicio de Oncología Clínica del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras entre 2013 y 2019 (n=118), cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento y la supervivencia global según variables clínicas, histopatológicas y tratamiento. Se utilizó método chi-cuadrado para la asociación de variables. Se evaluó la supervivencia global por el método de Kaplan Meier y se utilizó la prueba de Log-Rank y Breslow para la comparación de las curvas, con valor p<0.05. La tasa de control de la enfermedad fue 44,9. La mediana de supervivencia fue de 13,8 meses (IC95 por ciento:11,7-15,8). Las variables estadísticamente significativas asociadas con mayor respuesta al tratamiento y supervivencia fueron: no hábitos tabáquicos; índice plaquetas-linfocitos por debajo de 200; tumores primarios T2-T3, de localización predominantemente en cabeza pancreática; no presencia de metástasis al diagnóstico y más de seis dosis de quimioterapia o Nimotuzumab. Los pacientes con clasificación de bajo peso y albúmina sérica baja tuvieron peor supervivencia (p<0.05). En 42 pacientes se realizó una segunda línea de quimioterapia y se obtuvo supervivencia de 17,4 meses (IC95 por ciento:13,5-21,4). Las toxicidades clasificadas como grado 3-4 se reportaron en 27 pacientes (22,9 por ciento), las más frecuentemente observadas fueron: neuropatía (14,4 por ciento), neutropenia (10,2 por ciento) y trombopenia (9,3 por ciento). En condiciones de práctica clínica, con el Nimotuzumab combinado con quimioterapia GEMOX se obtuvieron óptimas tasas de control de la enfermedad y supervivencia con buen perfil de seguridad(AU)


A retrospective and observational study was carried out in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, treated with Nimotuzumab combined with a GEMOX chemotherapy scheme, in the Clinical Oncology Service at the Ameijeiras Hospital, between 2013 and 2019 (n =118), whose objective was to evaluate the response to the treatment and overall survival according to clinical, histopathological and treatment variables. The chi-square method was used for the association of variables. Overall survival was evaluated by the Kaplan Meier method and the Log-Rank and Breslow test for the comparison of the curves, with p <0.05. The disease control rate was 44.9. The median survival was 13.8 months (95 percent CI: 11.7-15.8). The statistically significant variables associated with greater response to treatment and survival were: no smoking habits; platelet-lymphocyte index below 200; T2-T3 primary tumors, predominantly located in the pancreatic head; no presence of metastases at diagnosis and greater than six doses of chemotherapy and Nimotuzumab. Patients classified as underweight and low serum albumin had worse survival (p <0.05). Second-line chemotherapy was performed in 42 patients and it was obtained SV of 17.4 months (95 percent CI: 13.5-21.4). Toxicities classified as grade 3-4 were reported in 27 patients (22.9 percent); the most frequently observed were: neuropathy (14.4 percent), neutropenia (10.2 perrcent) and thrombopenia (9.3 percent). Under clinical practice conditions, Nimotuzumab combined with GEMOX chemotherapy obtained optimal disease control and survival rates with a good safety profile(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reference Drugs , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 229-234, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248790

ABSTRACT

Resumen Hoy una de las principales causas de mortalidad es el cáncer. La supervivencia en pacientes con cáncer ha incrementado de 1970 (25%) a la actualidad (80%). A raíz de la introducción de las antraciclinas como tratamiento de cáncer desde 1960-1970, más del 60% de los pacientes son tratados con estos agentes; sin embargo, la exposición de quimioterápicos conlleva las enfermedades cardiovasculares como la principal causa de mortalidad en enfermos supervivientes de cáncer en el s. XXI. Hay múltiples factores que incrementan la sensibilidad de cardiotoxicidad inducida por antracíclicos. En 1970 el estándar de oro para la detección de disfunción ventricular era la biopsia endomiocárdica, en forma posterior la detección y manejo de la cardiotoxicidad fue guiada por los síntomas, en 1981 la detección de cardiotoxicidad fue reportada con la determinación de la fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) por ecocardiografía 2D. En la actualidad el ecocardiograma 3D para FEVI y volúmenes sistólico y diastólico han presentado una alta correlación de los valores obtenidos por resonancia magnética para la evaluación de la función cardiaca. Hoy en día la ecocardiografía strain, strain-rate y speckle tracking se utilizan para determinar la función miocárdica regional y global. Para una valoración integral estos resultados se pueden complementar con biomarcadores cardiacos (troponinas y propéptido natriurético tipo B) y cambios electrocardiográficos. De esta forma se puede detectar insuficiencia cardiaca subclínica y dar un tratamiento oportuno.


Abstract Today one of the main causes of mortality is cancer. Survival in cancer patients has increased from 1970 (25%) to the present (80%). Following the introduction of anthracyclines as a cancer treatment since 1960-70, more than 60% of patients are treated with these agents, although chemotherapeutic exposure leads to cardiovascular diseases as the main cause of mortality in surviving patients. of cancer in the 21st Century. There are multiple factors that increase the sensitivity of anthracyclic-induced cardiotoxicity. In 1970 the gold standard for the detection of ventricular dysfunction was endomyocardial biopsy, subsequently the detection and management of cardiotoxicity was guided by symptoms, in 1981 the detection of cardiotoxicity was reported with the determination of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LVEF), by 2D echocardiography. Currently, the 3D echocardiogram for LVEF and systolic and diastolic volumes have presented a high correlation of the values obtained by magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of cardiac function. Today strain, strain-rate and speckle tracking echocardiography are used to determine regional and global myocardial function. For a comprehensive assessment, these results can be complemented with cardiac biomarkers (troponins) and electrocardiographic changes. In this way, subclinical heart failure can be detected and timely treatment can be given.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Heart Failure/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Medisur ; 19(3): 503-507, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287331

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los tumores del tracto urinario superior representan menos del 5 % de todas las neoplasias uroteliales, con un porcentaje de recurrencia superior al 90 % y una supervivencia a los 5 años que oscila entre el 30-60 %. Por tales razones se presenta el caso de un paciente de 79 años que fue ingresado en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos, con un cuadro clínico caracterizado por hematuria, sin otra sintomatología. Mediante estudios imagenológicos le fue diagnosticado un tumor en la pelvis del riñón derecho. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico, practicándose una nefrectomía total, cuyo resultado histológico fue un carcinoma de células transicionales grado II con infiltración a planos musculares. La evolución clínica fue favorable luego de un año de la cirugía. Podemos concluir que en el diagnóstico precoz tienen un papel fundamental las imágenes tomográficas, pues permitieron identificar un tumor de las vías excretoras urinarias superiores en pelvis renal derecha. Se trazó una estrategia terapéutica inicialmente quirúrgica y a continuación quimioterapia; se logró una evolución satisfactoria y contribuir a la sobrevida de este paciente.


ABSTRACT Upper urinary tract tumors represent less than 5% of all urothelial neoplasms, with a recurrence rate greater than 90% and a 5-year survival that ranges from 30-60%. Therefore a 79-years-old patient was admitted to the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos, with a medical history characterized by hematuria, without other symptoms. Through imaging studies, he was diagnosed with a tumor in the pelvis of the right kidney. Surgical treatment was performed and a total nephrectomy was performed, the histological result of which was a grade II transitional cell carcinoma with infiltration to the muscular planes. The clinical evolution was favorable one year after surgery. We conclude that tomographic images play a fundamental role in early diagnosis, since they allowed the identification of a tumor of the upper urinary excretory tract in the right renal pelvis. A therapeutic strategy was initially designed for surgery and then chemotherapy; a satisfactory evolution was achieved and contributes to the survival of this patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urologic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Evolution , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery , Survivorship
5.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e1510, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280345

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La desensibilización rápida a medicamentos induce una tolerancia temporal a los quimioterapéuticos que provocan reacciones de hipersensibilidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el protocolo de desensibilización rápida en escenario ambulatorio en pacientes que presentaron reacciones de hipersensibilidad a fármacos citotóxicos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, y retrospectivo, de 30 pacientes con cáncer que desarrollaron reacciones de hipersensibilidad entre los años 2016 y 2018, tratados en el Hospital de Día del Servicio de Oncología del Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras. Se clasificaron según su intensidad, y se analizaron variables demográficas, características clínicas, y síntomas presentados. Se utilizó un protocolo en doce etapas basado en tres diluciones del fármaco. Se administró premedicación en todos los casos. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, y para la asociación entre variables, se utilizó la prueba estadística Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue 54 años (23;77). Predominaron las mujeres; los menores de 60 años; tumor primario de colon; antecedentes de alergia; el oxaliplatino como fármaco más implicado; las RHS durante la infusión; e intensidad moderada. Fueron más frecuentes los síntomas cutáneos y gastrointestinales. Con la aplicación del protocolo se completó la quimioterapia planificada a los 30 pacientes (145 ciclos adicionales). Solo se presentaron ocho desensibilizaciones con reacciones leves de tipo cutáneas. El 94,5 por ciento de las desensibilizaciones no presentaron reacción alguna. Conclusiones: Constituye el primer reporte nacional de la utilización exitosa de un protocolo de desensibilización rápida a citostáticos que demostró ser eficaz y seguro en el escenario ambulatorio, con un manejo multidisciplinario(AU)


Introduction: Rapid desensitization to drugs induces a temporary tolerance to chemotherapeutics causing hypersensitivity reactions. Objective: To evaluate the rapid desensitization protocol in an outpatient setting in patients who had hypersensitivity reactions to cytotoxic drugs. Methods: An observational and retrospective study was carried out in 30 cancer patients, who developed hypersensitivity reactions, from 2016 to 2018. They were treated in the outpatient Oncology service at Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Clinical Hospital. These subjects were classified according to intensity; demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and symptoms were analyzed. A twelve-step protocol based on three dilutions of the drug was used. Premedication was administered in all cases. Descriptive statistics and for the association between variables were performed. Chi-square statistical test was used. Results: The median age was 54 years (23; 77). Predominance was observed in women, those under 60 years of age, primary colon tumor, history of allergy, oxaliplatin as the drug most implicated, HRH during infusion, and moderate intensity. Skin and gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent. The planned chemotherapy was completed with the application of the protocol, in all 30 patients (145 additional cycles). There were only eight desensitization with mild skin-type reactions. 94.5 percent of desensitizations did not show any reaction. Conclusions: It constitutes the first national report of successful use of a rapid desensitization protocol to cytostatics that proved to be effective and safe in the outpatient setting with multidisciplinary management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Desensitization, Immunologic , Oxaliplatin/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e70-e74, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147277

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar de tiroides es el tumor tiroideo más común en la infancia. En estadios avanzados, puede presentarse con cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria. El tratamiento de elección es la tiroidectomía total y iodo radiactivo. En tumores irresecables, se debería considerar terapia con inhibidores multicinasa.Niña de 10 años de edad derivada por insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva. Se realizó el diagnóstico de cáncer papilar de tiroides con metástasis pulmonares. Por presentar un tumor irresecable no pasible de cirugía, se indicó el uso compasivo de lenvatinib, que mostró una rápida y favorable respuesta clínica con resolución de la insuficiencia respiratoria al noveno día del tratamiento.El diagnóstico temprano de cáncer papilar de tiroides previene la grave morbilidad respiratoria ocasionada por diagnósticos tardíos. Podría considerarse el uso de lenvatinib como alternativa previa a las terapias de primera línea (cirugía e iodo radiactivo) en casos de enfermedad con gran compromiso local y a distancia.


Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid tumor in childhood. In advanced stages, it can present with respiratory failure. The treatment of choice is total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. In cases of unresectable tumors, therapy with multikinase inhibitors should be considered. A 10-year-old girl was referred for progressive respiratory failure. A diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer with pulmonary metastases was made. Due to the presence of an unresectable tumor not subject to surgery, the compassionate use of lenvatinib was indicated, showing a rapid and favorable clinical response with resolution of respiratory failure on the ninth day.Early diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer prevents severe respiratory morbidity caused by late diagnoses. The use of lenvatinib should be considered as a previous step towards first-line therapies (surgery and radioactive iodine) in cases with great local and distant involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Combined Modality Therapy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 28-37, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284403

ABSTRACT

Several investigations have demonstrated Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) plant extracts possess numerous health-promoting properties. This review is aimed to summarize and highlight the potential possess by D. linearisto be developed into future pharmacological entity especially as anticancer agent. This study used several electronic search engines to compile and integrate a number of scientific publications related with D. linearis. Scientifically, D. linearishas been reported to have antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, chemopreventive and antioxidant properties which can be linked to its potential to treat various kinds of ailments including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer. A number of scientific evidences related with anticancer studies suggested the ability of D. linearis-based phytochemicals to act as potent anticancer lead compounds. In conclusion, D. linearis has the potential to be developed into potent anticancer agent as depicted by a number of isolated phytochemicals which can work synergistically to contribute to its anticancer properties.


Varias investigaciones han demostrado que los extractos de la planta Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) poseen numerosas propiedades promotoras de la salud. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir y resaltar el potencial que posee D. linearispara convertirse en una entidad farmacológica futura, especialmente como agente anticancerígeno. Este estudio utilizó varios motores de búsqueda electrónicos para compilar e integrar una serie de publicaciones científicas relacionadas con D. linearis. Científicamente, se ha informado que D. linearis tiene propiedades antinociceptivas, antiinflamatorias, antipiréticas, quimiopreventivas y antioxidantes que pueden estar vinculadas a su potencial para tratar varios tipos de dolencias, incluidas las enfermedades asociadas a inflamación y el cáncer. Una serie de evidencias científicas relacionadas con los estudios anticancerosos sugirieron la capacidad de los fitoquímicos basados en D. linearis para actuar como potentes compuestos anticancerígenos. En conclusión, D. linearis tiene el potencial de convertirse en una fuente de potentes agentes anticancerígeno, como se describe en una serie de fitoquímicos aislados que pueden actuar de forma sinérgica para contribuir a sus propiedades anticancerígenas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tracheophyta/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1355-1359, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888566

ABSTRACT

CXCL12/CXCR4 axis composed of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific ligand CXCR4 can regulate and control the adhesion of leukemia cells to protective bone marrow niche, promote cell survival, and resist apoptosis induced by signal transduction inhibitors and chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, CXCL12 /CXCR4 axis has become a new target for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. At present, CXCR4 inhibitors that have been developed are in different clinical trials, showing good anti-leukemia effect. In this review, the research advance of CXCR4 inhibitors in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Bone Marrow , Chemokine CXCL12/pharmacology , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Receptors, CXCR4 , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic imatinib (made in China) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase(CML-CP).@*METHODS@#Fifty-seven newly diagnosed CML-CP patients who did not receive any other anti-CML treatment were treated by domestic imatinib 400 mg once a day. The hematological, cytogenetic and molecular reactions and safety were observed and evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-six patients were treated for ≥3 and 6 months, among which 50 patients were treated for ≥12 months. After 3 months of treatment, 49 patients underwent hematological examination, 47 patients (95.9%) achieved complete hematological response (CHR), 49 patients underwent cytogenetic examination, 39 patients (79.6%) achieved major cytogenetic response (MCyR), and 12 patients (24.5%) achieved complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). 49 patients underwent the level of BCR-ABL test, including 41 patients (83.7%) with BCR-ABL@*CONCLUSION@#In the real world, Domestics imatinib mesylate is effective and safe in the treatment of newly diagnosed CML-CP patients, but long-term follow-up data are still necessary to verify its long-term efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , China , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperazines , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 673-676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922240

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence rate and mortality rate in China and even the whole world, of which non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80%. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation accounts for about 5%. Alectinib, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI), has great performance in clinical. The early detection and treatment of adverse drug reactions can greatly improve clinical benefits. This paper reports a patient of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer was admited to Baotou Central Hospital in April 2020. The diagnosis and treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the literature was reviewed.
.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 78-91, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877499

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a type of targeted biological agent which connect cytotoxic drug to monoclonal antibody by a connector head, which enables monoclonal antibody acted as a carrier to efficiently transport small molecular cytotoxic drugs to target tumor cells. It is very important for clinicians to have an in-depth understanding of the molecular characteristics and mechanism of ADC drugs, rationally choose the appropriate dose, course of treatment and manage adverse reactions according to the indications during the clinical application of ADC drugs, which may even affect the survival of patients. Therefore, the consensus aims to conduct a systematic overview of commercially available ADC drugs, provide effective recommendations and references for clinicians to better apply and manage ADC drugs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921320

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to explore the effects of 2-hexyl-4-pentylenic acid (HPTA) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) on distant unirradiated breast tumors.@*Methods@#Using a rat model of chemical carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene,DMBA)-induced breast cancer, tumor volume was monitored and treatment response was evaluated by performing HE staining, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that HPTA in combination with RT significantly delayed the growth of distant, unirradiated breast tumors. The mechanism of action included tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration into distant tumor tissues, M1 polarization, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by IFN-γ.@*Conclusion@#The results suggest that the combination of HPTA with RT has an abscopal effect on distant tumors


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/radiotherapy , Rats , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/radiation effects
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 261-267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921259

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the high specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high anti-tumor activity of small molecular cytotoxic payloads. The anti-tumor activity of ADCs is mainly achieved by the direct blocking of the receptor by monoclonal antibodies, direct action and bystander effect of cytotoxic drugs, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. ADCs have been used in adjuvant therapy and rescue treatment of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, greatly improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Several ongoing clinical trials of ADC for breast cancer and other solid tumors proved the potential of ADCs will provide more promising treatment options for patients with malignant tumors. This review introduces the mechanism and latest clinical progress of ADC drugs approved for HER2-positive breast cancer to guide clinical practice and conduct research.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887903

ABSTRACT

Multi-drug resistance(MDR)refers to the loss of sensitivity of tumor cells to traditional chemotherapeutics agents under the mediation of various mechanisms,resulting in the reduction of chemotherapy efficacy.Current studies suggest that a variety of factors,including cell membrane transporter-mediated efflux of anti-tumor drugs,special microenvironment in tumor tissue,DNA self-repair and anti-apoptotic process,and epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation,may contribute to the formation of MDR.Cell membrane transporter-mediated drug efflux refers to an increase in the amount of anti-tumor drug pumped out of the cell through the up-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter on tumor cell membrane,which reduces the concentration of the drug in the cell,thus forming MDR.An effective method to inhibit the efflux pump caused by overexpression of membrane transporters plays an important role in overcoming MDR.As a promising drug delivery system,multifunctional nanoparticles have demonstrated many advantages in antitumor therapy.Meanwhile,nanoparticles with tailored design are capable of overcoming MDR when combined with a variety of strategies.This paper described in detail the studies relevant to the use of multifunctional nano-sized drug delivery system combined with different strategies,such as co-delivery of agents,external responsiveness or target modification for intervention with efflux pump in order to reverse MDR.This paper provides reference for the development of nano-sized drug delivery system and the formulation of reversal strategy in the future.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Membrane , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Membrane Transport Proteins/therapeutic use , Multifunctional Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921868

ABSTRACT

The recent spring up of the antineoplastic agents and the prolonged survival bring both challenge and chance to radiological practice. Radiological methods including CT, MRI and PET play an increasingly important role in evaluating the efficacy of these antineoplastic drugs. However, different antineoplastic agents potentially induce different radiological signs, making it a challenge for radiological response evaluation, which depends mainly on one-sided morphological response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) in the status quo of clinical practice. This brings opportunities for the development of radiomics, which is promising to serve as a surrogate for response evaluations of anti-tumor treatments. In this article, we introduce the basic concepts of radiomics, review the state-of-art radiomics researches with highlights of radiomics application in predictions of molecular biomarkers, treatment response, and prognosis. We also provide in-depth analyses on major obstacles and future direction of this new technique in clinical investigations on new antineoplastic agents.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 354-360, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cancer patients may have gastrointestinal changes that influence nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal changes resulting from outpatient chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients. METHODS: In a retrospective longitudinal study, the nutritional status and chemotherapy gastrointestinal changes (nausea, vomit, diarrhea, constipation, mucositis, dysphagia, xerostomia, inappetence, dysgeusia and heartburn) in cancer patients (n=187) were investigated in an outpatient follow-up. For the study of the parameters over time, the generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman coefficient, at a significance level of 5% were also used. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were female (63.64%) and the mean age was 57.5±12.1 years. The most frequent symptoms were nausea (18.54%); inappetence (18.31%); intestinal constipation (11.58%); diarrhea (7.98%); xerostomia (7.59%) and vomiting (7.43%). The nutritional status did not exhibit any relevant changes (P=0.7594). However, a higher prevalence of eutrophy was observed, followed by overweight; vomiting exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0211). The nausea symptom exhibited a significant difference with a higher prevalence of colorectal neoplasia when compared to breast neoplasia (P=0.0062); as well as vomiting in lung and colorectal neoplasias (P=0.0022), and dysphagia, in head and neck neoplasia, when compared to other neoplasms (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the number of medical appointments and gender (P=0.0102) and between dysphagia and gender (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study findings enhance the need for signs and symptoms follow up, as well as nutritional status follow up of patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes oncológicos podem apresentar alterações gastrointestinais que influenciam o estado nutricional. OBJETIVO: Investigar a ocorrência de alterações gastrointestinais decorrentes do tratamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia, em pacientes oncológicos. MÉTODOS: Num estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, investigou-se o estado nutricional e as alterações gastrointestinais (náuseas, vômito, diarreia, constipação, mucosite, disfagia, xerostomia, inapetência, disgeusia e pirose) de pacientes oncológicos (n=187), em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia. Para o estudo dos parâmetros ao longo do tempo, utilizou-se o método das equações de estimação generalizadas (EEG). Também foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e o coeficiente de Spearman, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (63,64%) e a média de idade foi 57,5±12,1 anos. Os sintomas mais frequentes foram náuseas (18,54%); inapetência (18,31%); constipação intestinal (11,58%); diarreia (7,98%); xerostomia (7,59%) e vômito (7,43%). O estado nutricional não apresentou alterações relevantes (P=0,7594). No entanto, observou-se maior prevalência de eutrofia, seguido do sobrepeso e o vômito apresentou diferença significativa (P=0,0211). O sintoma de náusea apresentou diferença significativa com maior prevalência na neoplasia colorretal, quando comparado à neoplasia de mama (P=0,0062); assim como o vômito nas neoplasias de pulmão e colorretal (P=0,0022). E a disfagia, na neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço, quando comparada às demais neoplasias (P<0,001). Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o número de consultas médicas e sexo (P=0,0102) e entre disfagia e sexo (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Os achados encontrados no estudo permitem reforçar a necessidade do acompanhamento de sinais e sintomas, bem como do estado nutricional, de pacientes em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Outpatients , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Constipation/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Middle Aged , Nausea
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 447-453, sep.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249944

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los tumores desmoides, lo cuales afectan los tejidos blandos con un comportamiento localmente agresivo sin capacidad de producir metástasis. Los casos esporádicos se localizan en extremidades y pared torácica; los casos hereditarios tienen predilección intraabdominal y los asociados con el embarazo en la pared abdominal. Las técnicas de imagen evalúan la extensión de la enfermedad. La biopsia con aguja trucut es el estudio de elección para el diagnóstico. Las mutaciones en el gen CTNNB1 o en el gen de APC provocan acumulación anormal de betacatenina en la célula. En esta revisión se hace énfasis en la evolución y cambio de las estrategias terapéuticas y se analizan las actuales herramientas para la toma de decisiones, así como los resultados clínicos. La radioterapia puede tener un papel terapéutico o adyuvante. Los avances en la comprensión de la enfermedad han permitido establecer tratamientos mejor dirigidos y con menor morbilidad; sin embargo, aún existen interrogantes en cuanto a la elección del candidato ideal para la vigilancia o el tratamiento precoz. También se presentan datos relacionados con la calidad de vida y la incertidumbre que genera el diagnóstico en el médico y el paciente.


Abstract A literature review on desmoid tumors was carried out, which are tumors that affect soft tissues with a locally aggressive behavior and are unable to metastasize. Sporadic cases are located on the extremities and chest wall; hereditary cases have an intra-abdominal predilection, and those associated with pregnancy occur on the abdominal wall. Imaging techniques assess disease extension. Trucut biopsy is the study of choice for diagnosis. Mutations in the CTNNB1 or APC genes cause an abnormal accumulation of b-catenin within the cell. In this review, an emphasis is made on therapeutic strategies’ evolution and change, and current tools for decision making are analyzed, as well as clinical outcomes. Radiation therapy can play a therapeutic or adjuvant role. Advances in the understanding of the disease have allowed establishing better targeted treatments with lower morbidity; however, there are still unanswered questions regarding the choice of the ideal candidate for surveillance and/or early treatment. Data related to quality of life are also presented, as well as the uncertainty generated by this diagnosis for both doctor and patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/diagnosis , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/therapy , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Biopsy/methods , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/pathology , Uncertainty , beta Catenin/metabolism , Clinical Decision-Making , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(2): 88-91, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144325

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma de célula pequeña (CPCP) o microcítico de pulmón es un subtipo de cáncer de pulmón que típicamente se ha asociado al tabaquismo y que se caracteriza por su agresividad y mal pronóstico a corto plazo. Como entidad, puede metastatizar en cualquier órgano, siendo las metástasis pancreáticas raras y la mayoría de las veces asintomáticas. Por ello, la presencia de una pancreatitis neoplásica, como en el caso presentado, es excepcional, y aún más cuando presenta refractariedad al tratamiento médico convencional y responde al tratamiento citotóxico sistémico. Por todo ello, se expone esta experiencia clínica y se debate la presencia de esta rara entidad y su manejo.


Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma is a subtype of neoplasm that has been typically associated with smoking; it is characterized by its aggressiveness and poor prognosis in the short term. As an entity, it can metastasize in any organ, but pancreatic metastases are rare and most of the time asymptomatic. Therefore, the presence of neoplastic pancreatitis as in our case is exceptional; even more when it presents refractoriness to conventional medical treatment, responding instead to systemic cytotoxic treatment. Therefore, we expose our clinical experience and discuss the presence of this rare entity and its management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Pancreatitis/etiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Acute Disease , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 172-177, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hospital-based studies recently have shown increases in colorectal cancer survival, and better survival for women, young people, and patients diagnosed at an early disease stage. OBJECTIVE: To describe the overall survival and analyze the prognostic factors of patients treated for colorectal cancer at an oncology center. METHODS: The analysis included patients diagnosed with colon and rectal adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2013 and identified in the Hospital Cancer Registry at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. Overall 5-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were evaluated in a Cox regression model. Hazard ratios (HR) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2,279 colorectal cancer cases analyzed, 58.4% were in the colon. The 5-year overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was 63.5% (65.6% and 60.6% for colonic and rectal malignancies, respectively). The risk of death was elevated for patients in the 50-74-year (HR=1.24, 95%CI =1.02-1.51) and ≥75-year (HR=3.02, 95%CI =2.42-3.78) age groups, for patients with rectal cancer (HR=1.37, 95%CI =1.11-1.69) and for those whose treatment was started >60 days after diagnosis (HR=1.22, 95%CI =1.04-1.43). The risk decreased for patients diagnosed in recent time periods (2005-2009 HR=0.76, 95%CI =0.63-0.91; 2010-2013 HR=0.69, 95%CI =0.57-0.83). CONCLUSION: Better survival of patients with colorectal cancer improves with early stage and started treatment within 60 days of diagnosis. Age over 70 years old was an independent factor predictive of a poor prognosis. The overall survival increased to all patients treated in the period 2000-2004 to 2010-2013.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Estudos hospitalares recentes têm demonstrado aumento da sobrevida do câncer colorretal e melhor sobrevida para mulheres, jovens e pacientes diagnosticados em estágio precoce da doença. OBJETIVO: Descrever a sobrevida global e analisar os fatores prognósticos de pacientes tratados para câncer colorretal em um centro de oncologia. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de cólon e reto entre 2000 e 2013, identificados no Registro Hospitalar de Câncer do A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. A sobrevida global aos 5 anos foi estimada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e os fatores prognósticos foram avaliados pelo modelo de Cox. As razões de risco (HR) são relatadas com intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95%. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.279 casos de câncer colorretal analisados, 58,4% eram de cólon. A taxa de sobrevida global aos 5 anos para pacientes com câncer colorretal foi de 63,5% (65,6% e 60,6% para câncer de cólon e retal, respectivamente). O risco de óbito foi elevado para pacientes na faixa etária de 50-74 anos (HR=1,24; IC95% =1,02-1,51) e ≥75 anos (HR=3,02; IC95% =2,42-3,78), para pacientes com câncer retal (HR=1,37; IC95% =1,11-1,69) e para aqueles cujo tratamento foi iniciado >60 dias após o diagnóstico (HR=1,22; IC95% =1,04-1,43). O risco diminuiu para pacientes diagnosticados em períodos recentes (2005-2009 HR=0,76; IC95% =0,63-0,91; 2010-2013 HR=0,69; IC95% =0,57-0,83). CONCLUSÃO: A sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer colorretal é maior naqueles em estágio inicial e com início do tratamento antes dos 60 dias.. Idade acima de 70 anos foi fator independente preditivo de mau prognóstico. A sobrevida global aumentou para todos os pacientes tratados no período de 2000-2004 a 2010-2013.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Survival , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Survival Analysis , Registries , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
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