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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18902, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364424

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hepatoprotective potential of alcesefoliside (AF) from Astragalus monspessulanus was investigated. Iron sulphate/ascorbic acid (Fe2+/AA) lipid peroxidation was induced in rat liver microsomes and pre-incubated with AF and silybin (100, 10 and 1 µmol). Pronounced effects were observed in 100 µmol. In vivo experiments were carried out on rats, challenged orally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) alone and after pre-treatment and followed by curative treatment with AF (10 mg/kg). The activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes, together with reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and malonedialdehyde (MDA) quantity were measured. Microsomal incubation with Fe2+/AA increased MDA production. The pre-incubation with AF reduced the formation of MDA, comparable to silybin. These findings were supported by the in vivo study where CCl4-induced liver damage was discerned by significant increase in serum enzymes and in MDA production as well as by GSH depletion and reduced antioxidant enzymes activity. The AF pre-treatment and consecutive curative treatment normalizes the activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes alike, as well as the levels of GSH and MDA. Histological examination of AF-treated livers showed a decrease in the abnormal accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes as well as reduced alterative changes in their structure in a model of CCl4-induced toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Astragalus Plant/adverse effects , Antioxidants/analysis , Microsomes, Liver , Hepatocytes , Enzymes , Liver
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286055

ABSTRACT

A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.


Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1301-1308, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355670

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin concentration and reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with orange residue prior to insemination. Fifty-five multiparous ewes were divided into two corrals, and 15 unbred ewes were kept individually to measure feed consumption. Two integral diets were administered; T0: control treatment and T1: with 20% of dry matter of orange residue. Ten days after the start of supplementation, the ewes were synchronized. Supplementation was finalized prior to artificial insemination, then, a blood sample was taken to measure the antioxidant capacity and glucose and insulin concentration. An analysis of variance was made to evaluate the effect of treatment on the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin; and to analyze the response to estrus, percentage of gestation and prolificity a ji squared test was performed. Of 9 antioxidant compounds found in the orange residue, hesperidin (7.44%), chlorogenic acid (0.50%) and protocatechuic acid had the highest concentration. Feed intake, estrus response, percentage of gestation, antioxidant capacity, and glucose and insulin concentration were not affected by the treatment. It is concluded that inclusion of 20% of orange residue in the diet prior to insemination in ewes is possible.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e insulina e o comportamento reprodutivo de ovelhas suplementadas com resíduo de laranja antes da inseminação. Cinquenta e cinco ovelhas multíparas foram divididas em dois currais e 15 ovelhas sem raça foram mantidas individualmente para se medir o consumo de ração. Duas dietas integrais foram administradas; T0: tratamento controle e T1: dieta com 20% de resíduo de laranja seco. Dias após o início da suplementação, as ovelhas foram sincronizadas. A suplementação foi finalizada antes da inseminação artificial e, em seguida, foi coletada uma amostra de sangue para medir a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração de glicose e insulina. Uma análise de variância foi feita para avaliar o efeito do tratamento sobre a capacidade antioxidante, a glicose e a insulina, e um teste do ji quadrado foi realizado para analisar a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação e de prolificidade. Dos nove compostos antioxidantes encontrados no resíduo laranja, a hesperidina (7,44%), o ácido clorogênico (0,50%) e o ácido protocatecuico foram os de maior concentração. O consumo alimentar, a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação, a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e a insulina não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Conclui-se que é possível a inclusão de 20% de resíduos de laranja na dieta antes da inseminação em ovelhas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Blood Glucose/analysis , Sheep/physiology , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Estrus Synchronization/methods , Insulins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Garbage
5.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 280, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147585

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la composición proximal, el contenido de polifenoles totales y la capacidad antioxidante de un chocolate oscuro formulado a partir de granos de cacao orgánico, seco, y no sometido al proceso fermentativo. Este producto fue elaborado con insumos y procesos desarrollados en la Granja Experimental El Cairo, ubicada en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (GEL-UN), departamento de Arauca, Colombia. El contenido de grasa se encontró entre los rangos conocidos (>50%), siendo una característica ligada al origen genético, y a las condiciones climáticas. El alto contenido de proteínas (16,21%), evidencia que se trata de granos de cacao secos no fermentados. Tal contenido juega un papel importante en la formación de los precursores del sabor y aroma, en chocolates finos y exquisitos. El pH determinado es un indicativo de un chocolate amargo, con bajo índice de fermentación y de baja acidez acética o láctica. El contenido de polifenoles totales se relaciona de manera directa con la alta actividad antioxidante de este chocolate. Se concluye que el tipo de material genético usado como insumo, así como los procesos implementados para la obtención del chocolate, en GEL-UN, contribuyeron para la obtención de un producto tipo comercial, con propiedades funcionales, entre ellas las relacionadas con la capacidad antioxidante(AU)


Thee proximal chemical composition, the content of total polyphenols, and the antioxidant capacity of a dark chocolate formulated from organic, dry cocoa beans and not subjected to the fermentation process were evaluated. This product was made with inputs and processes developed at the El Cairo Experimental Farm, located at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (CEF-UN), Arauca, Colombia. The fat content was found between the known ranges (> 50%), being a characteristic linked to the genetic origin, and to the climatic conditions. The high protein content (16.21%) evidenced that it´s unfermented dry cocoa beans. Such content plays an important role in the formation of precursors of flavor and aroma, in fine and exquisite chocolates. The determined pH is indicative of a dark chocolate, with a low fermentation index and low acetic or lactic acidity. The content of total polyphenols is directly related to the high antioxidant activity of this chocolate. It is concluded that the type of genetic material used as input, as well as the processes implemented to obtain chocolate, in CEF-UN, contributed to obtaining a commercial type product, with functional properties, including those related to antioxidant capacity(AU)


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Chocolate/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Fermentation , Food, Organic , Food Handling
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 145-152, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088907

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the addition of Vitamin C, reduced Glutathione and trolox on sperm characteristics of pork refrigerated semen. Six pigs were collected through the technique of gloved hand (10 ejaculates/animals). The semen was diluted in MR-A®. After the previous evaluations, the treatments were added: Control group: diluent only; Vitamin C Group: 200µM/mL Vitamin C; Trolox Group: 200µM/mL Trolox; Glutathione group: 2.5mM/ml Reduced glutathione. The semen was stored in thermal boxes and placed inside the refrigerator at 15oC and evaluated at D0, 12, 48, 72 hours. After 30 hours of incubation, each treatment was divided into two equal fractions and the same concentration of antioxidants was added in one of the parts. The results show that reduced glutathione supplementation preserves sperm motility after 24 hours but also has a higher percentage of acrosome intact in the presence of this antioxidant. There was no effect of adding a second dose of the antioxidants. In conclusion, the addition of reduced Glutathione to the swine semen diluent is a promising alternative for better preservation of sperm characteristics and the addition of the second dose of antioxidants during storage is detrimental to semen.(AU)


Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a adição da vitamina C, da glutationa reduzida e do trolox sobre características espermáticas do sêmen refrigerado de suínos. Seis cachaços foram coletados pela técnica de mão enluvada (10 coletas/animal). O sêmen foi diluído em MR-A®. Após as avaliações prévias, os tratamentos foram adicionados: grupo controle: apenas diluidor; grupo vitamina C: 200µM/mL de vitamina C; grupo trolox: 200µM/mL de trolox; grupo glutationa: 2.5mM/mL de glutationa reduzida. O sêmen foi armazenado em caixas térmicas e alocado dentro do refrigerador a 15oC e avaliado nos tempos zero, 12, 48 e 72 horas . Após 30 horas de incubação, cada tratamento foi dividido em duas frações iguais e adicionou-se a mesma concentração de antioxidantes em uma das partes. Os resultados demonstram que a suplementação de glutationa reduzida preserva a motilidade espermática após 24 horas, bem como tem maior percentual de acrossoma intacto na presença desse antioxidante. Não houve efeito ao se adicionar uma segunda dose dos antioxidantes. Em conclusão, o acréscimo da glutationa reduzida ao diluidor de sêmen suíno é uma alternativa promissora para melhor preservação das características espermáticas, e a adição da segunda dose dos antioxidantes durante o armazenamento é prejudicial ao sêmen.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/methods , Spermatozoa , Swine , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Antioxidants/analysis
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190142, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenolic compounds are one of the main groups of secondary metabolites in plants and are known for their antioxidant activity. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) contains different phenolic compounds including carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid. In Cuba, rosemary cultivation is limited because it is difficult to propagate and has a low yield. As a result, it was removed from the Herbal Medicine National Formulary. However, the National Public Health System has a strong interest in rosemary because of its value as a natural antioxidant medicine. Irrigation with water treated with a static magnetic field (SMF) is a possible strategy to increase rosemary yield. This technology has been applied to accelerate plant growth and increase crop quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in aqueous leaf extracts from plants irrigated with SMF-treated water in comparison to control plants. Significant differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity were observed between aqueous extracts of control plants and plants irrigated with SMF-treated water. Therefore, irrigation with SMF-treated water is a promising technology to improve the cultivation of rosemary as a raw material to obtain pharmaceutical products with high antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Rosmarinus/chemistry , Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Magnetic Fields , Antioxidants/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190702, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Texture is an important parameter which influences on the quality and acceptability of yoghurts. The utilize of stabilizers in yoghurt manufacturing has become a prevalent application to improve the textural properties of yoghurts. In this context, guar gum obtained from Cyamopsis tetragonolobus is generally used as a natural stabilizer for its thickening and gelling properties. Accordingly, this study evaluated the use of chia seed mucilage as an alternative to guar gum to improve the textural properties of yoghurt. This study focused on the effect of using chia seed mucilage (CSM) and guar gum (GG) at 1, 2, and 3% concentrations on the textural and microstructural characteristics of yoghurts. The results of fortifications with CSM and GG on the physicochemical, sensory, and antioxidative properties of yoghurts were also evaluated. Compared to GG, CSM provided higher antioxidant activity which improved with increasing concentrations of CSM. An enhancement was observed in textural properties of yoghurts containing CSM and GG, but CSM concentrations up to 2% gave better effect on firmness. Besides, the microstructure of yoghurt was enhanced depending on the increase in CSM and GG amounts. No negative effect was determined on the sensory properties of the samples by CSM and GG additions. The results showed that CSM can be used in set-type yoghurt production as an alternative stabilizer by improving firmness and consistency and reducing syneresis. Furthermore, its use is suitable for industrial yoghurt production with regards to sensorial properties.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Sensation , Yogurt/analysis , Salvia , Plant Mucilage , Food Technology , Antioxidants/analysis , Cyamopsis
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(4): e249, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093419

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus de papiloma humano per se no es capaz de desarrollar todas las transformaciones neoplásicas en el cérvix uterino, de manera que factores de riesgo como los genéticos, ambientales, estilo de vida sexual y el desbalance oxidativo podrían contribuir a la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento del sistema enzimático antioxidante en mujeres con atipia de células escamosas de significado indeterminado y neoplasia intraepitelial cervical grado I. Métodos: Se conformaron tres grupos de estudio: el primero incluyó 30 mujeres con diagnóstico de atipias, el segundo se constituyó con 40 mujeres con neoplasia intraepitelial grado I y el tercero consistió en 30 mujeres con citología negativa tomadas como control, provenientes de la consulta de Patología de Cuello del Agustín Gómez Lubián de Santa Clara. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se determinaron los niveles de actividad enzimática superóxido dismutasa y catalasa así, como las concentraciones de glutatión reducido. Las comparaciones se realizaron con el programa SPSS, versión 18. Resultados: En el grupo de atipias aunque los tres parámetros tuvieron una tendencia a la disminución no hubo diferencias significativas con respecto al control. Mientras que el grupo de neoplasia grado I evidenció disminución significativa de los tres indicadores estudiados al ser comparados con el grupo control. Conclusiones: Se constató afectación del sistema antioxidante enzimático en el grupo de neoplasia grado I, lo cual podría considerarse un cofactor importante en la progresión de las lesiones en el cérvix uterino(AU)


Introduction: Human papillomavirus per se can not carry out all the neoplastic transformations occurring in the uterine cervix. Genetic and environmental risk factors as well as sexual behavior and oxidative imbalance may also play a role. Objective: Determine the behavior of the enzymatic antioxidant system in women with squamous cell atypia of indeterminate significance and grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods: Three study groups were formed. The first group included 30 women diagnosed with atypia, the second group was made up of 40 women with grade I intraepithelial neoplasia, and the third or control group consisted of 30 women with negative cytology from Agustín Gómez Lubián Cervical Pathology service in Santa Clara. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activity, as well as the concentrations of reduced glutathione. Comparisons were made with the SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the atypia group the three parameters showed a decreasing tendency, but differences with respect to the control group were not significant. In the grade I neoplasia group, however, a significant reduction was found of the three study indicators when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Damage to the enzymatic antioxidant system was observed in the grade I neoplasia group. This could be considered to be an important cofactor in the progress of uterine cervix lesions(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Papilloma , Carcinoma in Situ/prevention & control , Cervix Uteri , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Cell Biology , Life Style , Antioxidants/analysis , Sexual Behavior , Case-Control Studies , Indicators and Reagents
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 881-887, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) increases the storage capacity of synapses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Irisin is a myokine generated from FNDC5 (a gene precursor) during exercise. Although intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of irisin fortifies LTP in mice with Alzheimer's disease, the effects of intra-DG injection of irisin on the LTP in rats remains to be elucidated in vivo. In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (saline), irisin (0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/rat), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). After treatment, the population spike (PS) amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were measured in the DG of rats in vivo. Moreover, following completion of the experiments, the stimulating and recording sites in the hippocampus were confirmed histologically from brain sections. Furthermore, biochemical assays like malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were evaluated (the antioxidant markers were analyzed in the plasma). Our results suggest that all doses of irisin (0.5, 1, 1.5 μg/rat) caused an increase in the EPSP slope and PS amplitude when compared with the control group. In addition, the results obtained showed that irisin decreased TOS and MDA levels while increasing TAC levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in plasma. The present report provides direct evidence that irisin affects the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus.


RESUMO A indução de potenciação de longo prazo (LTP) aumenta a capacidade de armazenamento das sinapses no giro denteado (DG) do hipocampo. A irisina é uma miocina gerada a partir do FNDC5 (um precursor genético) durante o exercício. Embora a administração intra-Cornu Ammonis1 de irisina fortaleça a LTP em camundongos com doença de Alzheimer, os efeitos da injeção intra-denteada de irisina sobre a LTP em ratos ainda precisam ser elucidados in vivo. Neste estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em um grupo controle (solução salina), irisina (0,5, 1 e 1,5 μg / rato) e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO). Após o tratamento, a amplitude do pico populacional (PS) e a variação dos potenciais pós-sinápticos excitatórios (EPSP) foram medidos no DG de ratos in vivo. Além disso, após a conclusão das experiências, os locais de estimulação e registro no hipocampo foram confirmados histologicamente a partir de secções do cérebro. Adicionalmente, ensaios bioquímicos como malondialdeído (MDA), capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e status oxidante total (TOS) foram avaliados (os marcadores antioxidantes foram analisados no plasma). Nossos resultados sugerem que todas as doses de irisina (0,5, 1, 1,5 μg / rato) causaram um aumento na variação da EPSP e na amplitude da PS quando comparadas com o grupo controle. Além disso, os resultados obtidos mostraram que a irisina diminuiu os níveis de TOS e MDA, enquanto aumentou os níveis de TAC como um marcador da peroxidação lipídica no plasma. O presente estudo fornece evidências diretas de que a irisina afeta a plasticidade sináptica dependente de atividade no DG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Neuropeptides/administration & dosage , Fibronectins/administration & dosage , Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Microinjections/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antioxidants/analysis
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/virology , Closterovirus/physiology , Citrus sinensis/enzymology , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catalase/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 561-566, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054858

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Rubeosis faciei diabeticorum is a persistent facial erythema in patients with diabetes mellitus. The actual pathogenesis has not been studied. However, it is speculated to be a cutaneous diabetic microangiopathy. Objective Examine the correlation between the severity of facial erythema and the possible causes of microvascular diabetic complications, namely oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and cutaneous accumulation of advanced glycation end-products . Methods Patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 32) were enrolled in the study. The facial erythema index was measured using the Mexameter MX18; cutaneous accumulation of advanced glycation end-products was estimated by measuring skin auto fluorescence with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies B.V. - Groningen, Netherlands). Glycated haemoglobin, total antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde were measured in blood by TBARS assay. The correlation between the selected variables was assessed by Spearman's rank test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between total antioxidant status and the facial erythema index (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.024). Malondialdehyde, skin autofluorescence, glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, duration of diabetes, and age did not demonstrate statistically significant correlation with the facial erythema index. Study limitations This is an observational study. Elevation of total antioxidant status could have been caused by several factors that might have also influenced the development of rubeosis faciei, including hyperbilirubinemia and hyperuricemia. Conclusions The results contradicted expectations. Total antioxidant status correlated positively with facial erythema index; however, there was no correlation with oxidative stress and skin autofluorescence. Further investigations should be conducted to reveal the cause of total antioxidant status elevation in patients with rubeosis faciei.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Oxidative Stress , Diabetic Angiopathies/metabolism , Erythema/metabolism , Facial Dermatoses/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Erythema/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Fluorescence , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antioxidants/analysis
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1207-1216, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038614

ABSTRACT

Aims to investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on production performance, metabolism, and anti-oxidative status of Holstein dairy cattle in early lactation. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein dairy cattle were assigned to four groups (CON, G20, G40 and G80) and supplied with 0, 20, 40, and 80mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day. G20 significantly increased milk yield compared with other groups. Milk protein and non-fat-solids were increased in G20, G40 and G80 groups compared with the control group only at the 7th day during the experiment. No significant difference was observed in milk fat and somatic cell count, nor on parameters of energy metabolism in blood, liver function and kidney function between the four groups. There was no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and hydrogen peroxide between the groups; but the malondialdehyde content of G20 significantly increased at day 14 in comparison with CON, and tended to increase at the 28th day. In conclusion, feeding 20mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day was associated with a significant increase in milk yield without detrimental effects on liver or kidney function and with substantial energy metabolism and antioxidant parameters improvement in early lactation dairy cattle.(AU)


O presente trabalho visa investigar os efeitos do extrato de semente de uva Proanthocyanidin (GSPE) sobre o desempenho da produção, o metabolismo e o status antioxidante de gado leiteiro Holstein em lactação precoce. Quarenta e oito vacas leiteiras multíparas Holstein foram divididas em quatro grupos (CON, G20, G40 e G80) e receberam 0, 20, 40 e 80mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia, respectivamente. O G20 aumentou significativamente o rendimento do leite em comparação com os outros grupos. A proteína e os sólidos não gordurosos do leite foram aumentados nos grupos G20, G40 e G80 somente no sétimo dia durante a experiência. Não foi observada diferença significativa na gordura do leite e na contagem de células somáticas, bem como nos parâmetros de metabolismo energético no sangue, na função hepática e na função renal entre os grupos em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa na glutationa peroxidase, na dimutase de superóxido, na capacidade antioxidante total e no peróxido de hidrogênio entre os grupos, mas o conteúdo malondialdeído do G20 aumentou significativamente no dia 14 em comparação com o CON, e tendia a aumentar no dia 28. Em conclusão, a alimentação de 20mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia foi associada a um aumento significativo no rendimento do leite, sem efeitos nocivos sobre a função hepática ou a renal, com o metabolismo de energia substancial e a melhoria dos parâmetros antioxidantes de gado leiteiro no início da lactação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins , Milk , Grape Seed Extract/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 136-140, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to compare the aqueous humor total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, and levels of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor between patients with diabetic retinopathy and controls and to correlate these levels with the DR status. Methods: Patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled. The first group (control group) comprised patients without diabetes; the second group comprised diabetic patients without retinopathy; the third group comprised patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; and the fourth group comprised patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. All patients underwent full ophthalmologic examination before cataract surgery. Prior to surgery, samples of aqueous humor sampling were obtained and stored at -80 °C. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and levels interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated in these samples and correlated with diabetic retinopathy status. Results: This study analyzed 86 pairs of eyes of 86 patients. All groups were statistically similar in age and sex, but the total antioxidant capacity was lowest in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, the total oxidant status and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 were found to slightly increase according to the retinopathy status. Conclusion: Oxidative stress, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the aqueous humor seem to play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, especially in the proliferative type.


RESUMO Objetivo: Procurou-se comparar o humor aquoso estado oxidante total, a capacidade antioxidante total, e os níveis de interleucina-6 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular entre pacientes com retinopatia diabética e em indivíduos controles, e correlacionar esses níveis com o status da retinopatia diabética. Métodos: Pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata foram incluídos. O primeiro grupo (grupo controle) foi composto por pacientes sem diabetes; o segundo grupo inclui pacientes dia béticos sem retinopatia; o terceiro grupo inclui pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa; e o quarto grupo inclui pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo antes da cirurgia de catarata. Antes da cirurgia, amostras de humor aquoso foram obtidas e armazenadas a -80oC. A capacidade antioxidante total, o estado oxidante total e os níveis de interleucina-6 e fator de crescimento endotelial vascular foram investigados nessas amostras e correlacionados com o status da retinopatia diabética. Resultados: Este estudo analisou 86 pares de olhos de 86 pacientes. Todos os grupos foram estatisticamente semelhantes em idade e sexo, mas a capacidade antioxidante total foi menor em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Além disso, o estado oxidante total e os níveis de fator de crescimento endotelial vascular e interleucina-6 estavam ligeiramente aumentados de acordo com o status da retinopatia. Conclusão: O estresse oxidativo, a interleucina-6 e o fator de crescimento endotelial vascular no humor aquoso parecem desempenhar papel importante na patogênese da retinopatia diabética, especialmente no tipo proliferativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aqueous Humor/metabolism , Interleukin-6/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Antioxidants/analysis , Reference Values , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Statistics, Nonparametric , Antioxidants/metabolism
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 106-114, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983892

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ducrosia anethifolia has been recommended as a remedy for neurological disorders. However, the anticonvulsant effects of D. anethifolia essential oil (DAEO) and its major constituent α-pinene have not yet been clarified. Methods: A rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions was used. Oxidant and antioxidant parameters were assayed in the temporal lobe. Results: The data showed that DAEO (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and α-pinene (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg i.p.) delayed the initiation time, and reduced the duration of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures following PTZ injection. The PTZ produced oxidative stress so that malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels were increased and catalase and peroxidase activity decreased. Pretreatment with DAEO and α-pinene significantly inhibited the above-mentioned enzymatic changes in PTZ-treated animals. Conclusion: The results suggest that α-pinene, at teast in part, was responsible for the induction of the anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of DAEO in rats.


RESUMO A Ducrosia anethifolia tem sido recomendada como remédio para os distúrbios neurológicos. No entanto, os efeitos anticonvulsivantes do óleo essencial de Ducrosia anethifolia (DAEO) e do seu principal constituinte atfa-pineno (α-pineno) ainda não foram clarificados. Métodos: Foi utilizado um modelo de rato de convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ). Os parâmetros oxidante e antioxidante foram ensaiados no lobo temporal do cérebro. Resultados: Os dados mostraram que DAEO (50, 100 e 200 mg / kg, i.p.) e α-pineno (0,2 e 0,4 mg / kg i.p.) retardaram o tempo de iniciação e reduziram a duração das crises mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas após a injeção de PTZ. O PTZ produziu estresse oxidativo, de modo que os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e de peróxido de hidrogênio aumentaram e a atividade da catalase e da peroxidase diminuiu. O pré-tratamento com DAEO e α-pineno inibiu significativamente as alterações enzimáticas mencionadas em animais tratados com PTZ. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que α-pineno, peto menos em parte, é responsável peta indução dos efeitos anticonvulsivantes e antioxidantes da DAEO em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Seizures/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Apiaceae/chemistry , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Pentylenetetrazole , Seizures/metabolism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Anticonvulsants/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180330, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039121

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was undertaken to evaluate the health-promoting potentials of Isatis aucherii, Isatis buschiana, Isatis candolleana, Isatis tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and Isatis tinctoria. I. aucherii and I. candolleana are endemic, I. buschiana, I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa are native in Turkey. While I. tinctoria is a well studied species, there is insufficient information about other endemic and native species. Therefore, this study is focused to reveal the bioactive compounds of poorly studied endemic and native species. In this context, protein, ash, glucosinolates, fatty acids, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities were determined in leaf extracts. The highest protein and fatty oil contents were observed in I. tinctoria and I. buschiana. Arachidic acid was predominant inI. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa, I. buschiana and I. aucherii, while predominant fatty acids were arachidonic and oleic acids inI. candolleana and I. tinctoria. Glucobrassicin was the main glucosinolate in I. tinctoria, while the others contained gluconapin as the main glucosinolate. Antioxidant activities were correlated with phenolic and flavonoid content, the highest and lowest antioxidant activities were observed in I. buschiana and I. aucherii, respectively. According to results, I. buschiana leaves were high in contents of bioactive compounds; it could be a promising plant with its health- promoting effects.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Isatis/chemistry , Fatty Acids , Glucosinolates , Antioxidants/analysis , Phenolic Compounds
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180108, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aims to evaluate the clinical and biochemical (oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators) effects of the gaseous ozone use accompanied by scaling and root planning (SRP) in periodontal treatment. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) randomly sorted into two groups of 20. The experimental group received SRP plus 3 watts gaseous ozone in two separate applications five days apart, whereas the control group received SRP plus placebo. Clinical periodontal parameters were assayed and saliva samples were taken before the initial and one month after the second treatment. Periodontal examination assessed plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) levels were evaluated from saliva samples. Results: Changes following treatment in PI, GI, probing depth, and CAL scores were similar for both groups (p>0.05). Of note, TGF-β levels were observed to be higher in the treatment group than in controls (p<0.05). Changes in 8-OHdG, TAS, TOS, NO, MPO, GSH and MDA levels, however, were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that SRP plus gaseous ozone versus SRP alone does not correlate to a significant improvement in periodontal recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oxidants, Photochemical/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Root Planing/methods , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Saliva/chemistry , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Oxidants/antagonists & inhibitors , Peroxidase/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Deoxyguanosine/analysis , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18304, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039081

ABSTRACT

Today, consumers are looking for functional foods that promote health and prevent certain diseases in addition to provide nutritional requirements. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Liza klunzingeri protein hydrolysates. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) were prepared from L. klunzingeri muscle using enzymatic hydrolysis with papain at enzyme/substrate ratios of 1:25 and 1:50 for 45, 90 and 180 min. The antioxidant activities of the FPHs were investigated through five antioxidant assays. The cytotoxic effects on 4T1 carcinoma cell line were also evaluated. The amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant activity were determined by HPLC. All six FPHs exhibited good scavenging activity on ABTS (IC50=0.60-0.12 mg/mL), DPPH (IC50= 3.18-2.08 mg/mL), and hydroxyl (IC50=4.13-2.07 mg/mL) radicals. They also showed moderate Fe+2 chelating capacity (IC50=2.12-12.60 mg/mL) and relatively poor ferric reducing activity (absorbance at 70 nm= 0.01-0.15, 5 mg/mL). In addition, all hydrolysates showed cytotoxic activities against the 4T1 cells (IC50=1.62-2.61 mg/mL). 94.6% of peptide in hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant activity had molecular weight less than 1,000 Da. L. klunzingeri protein hydrolysates show significant antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro and are suggested to be used in animal studies.


Subject(s)
Smegmamorpha/anatomy & histology , Cytotoxins/adverse effects , Antioxidants/analysis , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacokinetics , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17695, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039080

ABSTRACT

The influence of common tea preparation procedures (temperature, infusion time, consumption time interval and tea bag/loose-leaf) and the type of water used, on the total phenolic content (TPC), the radical scavenging activity and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were assessed. Higher TPC and antioxidant activity were obtained when using lower mineralized waters. Tea bags also evidenced higher antioxidant activity than loose-leaf samples. Under the same conditions (90 ºC and five minutes of infusion time) green tea contains almost twice the quantity of polyphenols and the free radical scavenging ability of black tea. In the α-glucosidase assay all infusions were active (97-100 %). Furthermore, HPLC allowed to identify some of the polyphenols present in both teas and to monitor their composition change with time. After twenty-four hours, the antioxidant activity was maintained without significant changes, but a small decrease in enzyme inhibition was observed, although this activity was still very high


Subject(s)
Tea/classification , alpha-Glucosidases/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Water/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols
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