Abstract The phenolic compound content, the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potentials of different extracts of the Plectranthus amboinicus, P. barbatus and P. ornatus were evaluated. We also evaluated the influence of plant growth and harvest time on the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of P. amboinicus, its antioxidant and anti-Candida activities and the α-amylase and lipoxygenase inhibitions. The turbo-extract of P. barbatus showed the greatest phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. No α-amylase inhibition activity was observed in the analyzed extracts, but the turbo-extraction and refluxing extracts possessed high antioxidant activities. Protected cultivation and morning harvest conditions gave the best antioxidant activities, which was associated to the highest carvacrol content. P. amboinicus EO antioxidant activity could contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. Causal Candida strains of diabetic foot ulcers showed sensitivity to P. amboinicus EO. C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were the most sensitive of the selected Candida strains. Turbo-extracts or refluxing of the three species extracts and the EO of P. amboinicus should be considered as a potential candidate for the management the complications of type 2 diabetes.
Subject(s)Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Triage/classification , Plectranthus/adverse effects , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Antioxidants/analysis
myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) conhecida popularmente como capororoquinha ou capororoca, é amplamente distribuída nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil. As espécies desse gênero apresentam um potencial antioxidante e anti-inflamatório, que pode ser acessado na busca de novos ativos para o tratamento de desordens pigmentares da pele. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial antitirosinase e antioxidante de extratos e frações de M. coriacea e identificar os possíveis compostos responsáveis por essas atividades. Foram realizados ensaios para avaliar o potencial antioxidante das amostras através do método do DPPH, enquanto a capacidade hipopigmentante das amostras foi avaliado pela inibição da enzima tirosinase. Como complemento, foram determinados os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e flavonoides através dos métodos colorimétricos empregando o reagente Folin-Ciocalteau e AlCl3. Adicionalmente, os extratos de M. coriacea tiveram avaliados seus potenciais citotóxicos utilizando diferentes linhagens tumorais humanas. O perfil fitoquímico de M. coriacea foi analisado por cromatografia a gás acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) com padrões. Nessas análises foram identificados 34 compostos, sendo o ácido palmítico e o palmitato de etila os compostos majoritários nas amostras de M. coriacea. O extrato bruto das folhas apresentou o maior teor de fenólicos totais, enquanto a fração de acetato de etila das folhas teve o maior teor de flavonoides. Contudo, o extrato bruto dos frutos apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante de todas as amostras analisadas, apresentando também a melhor atividade antitirosinase. Dentre os compostos anotados, mandenol, ácido -linoleico e o linolenato de etila foram os compostos considerados como possíveis inibidores da tirosinase, com boa interação molecular com a enzima nas análises de ancoragem molecular in silico. Das amostras analisadas com relação a inibição de crescimento frente as células tumorais, a amostra da fração de clorofórmio das folhas foi a que apresentou potencial antitumoral frente as células de adenocarcinoma de cólon (HCT116)
myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) popularly known as capororoquinha or capororoca, is widely distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Myrsine species have an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which can be accessed in the search for new actives for the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the antityrosinase and antioxidant potential from extracts and fractions of M. coriacea and to identify the probable compounds responsible for these activities. Assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the samples using the DPPH method, while the hypopigmentation capacity of the samples was evaluated by the tyrosinase inhibition. As a complement, the amounts of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined through colorimetric methods using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and AlCl3. Additionally, M. coriacea extracts had their cytotoxic potential evaluated using different human tumor cell lines. M. coriacea phytochemical profile was obtained by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) with standards. In these analyses, 34 compounds were identified, with palmitic acid and ethyl palmitate as the major compounds in M. coriacea samples. The leaf crude extract presented the highest total phenolics contents, while the leaf ethyl acetate fraction had the highest flavonoid amounts. However, the fruit crude extract showed the best antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of all analyzed samples. Among the annotated compounds, mandenol, -linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were the compounds considered as putative tyrosinase inhibitors, presenting good molecular interaction with the enzyme active site in the in silico molecular docking analysis. The leaf chloroform fraction was the only sample that showed an antitumor potential against colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116)
Subject(s)Monophenol Monooxygenase/analysis , Primulaceae/metabolism , Myrsine/classification , Fruit/classification , Antioxidants/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Skin Pigmentation/immunology , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Hypopigmentation/pathology
Abstract In this research, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Justicia pectoralis Jacq and Croton Jacobinensis Baill were characterized. The UPLC-QTOF-MSE analysis was performed on the extracts identified, predominantly, flavonoids, tannins and acids. The extracts did not indicate toxicity in human epithelial cells. C. jacobinensis presented a concentration of phenolics 60.5% higher than J. pectoralis in all scenarios evaluated and, for both samples, the hydroalcoholic extract at 70% exhibited the best efficiency in the extraction (14501.3 and 32521.5 mg GAE 100 g-1 for J. pectoralis and C. jacobinensis, respectively). The antioxidant activity presented a positive correlation with the concentration of phenolics, being 1.186,1 and 1.507,9 µM of Trolox for J. pectoralis and C. jacobinensis at 70% of ethanol; however, it was not verified statistical difference between the ethanolic solutions (p < 0.05). The antimicrobial activity of J. pectoralis extracts was highlighted once was the most effective against gram-positive bacteria. The results suggest that both J. pectoralis and C. jacobinensis extracts present the potential to be applied as natural additives due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and safety. Thus, it is suggesting the development of studies that could investigate the interaction of these plant extracts with food matrices is required
Subject(s)Plant Extracts/analysis , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Social Justice/classification , Croton/classification , Toxicity , Antioxidants/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/metabolism
Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.
Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.
Subject(s)Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
BACKGROUND: The phytochemical content present in blueberries has generated great interest, especially in the nutra-pharmaceutical industry, where it is known as the "super fruit" due to its prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, among others). OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the functional potential of fresh blueberries and dried blueberries using forced convection by measuring phytochemical content to conclude if this drying technology is convenient for prolonging the product's shelf life. METHODS: For this purpose, antioxidant activity, phenolic content, total anthocyanins, and total flavonoids of 'Biloxi' blueberry cultivars were determined. Fresh and dried blueberries' results were studied. Fruit extracts were analyzed to determine antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a free radical, total phenolic content with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, total anthocyanins by pH differential method, and total flavonoids by Aluminum Chloride method. RESULTS: Results for fresh blueberries yielded ranges of antioxidant activity (90.8-93.9% Free radical scavenging rate), total phenolic content (275 to 645mgGAE/100gFW), total anthocyanins content (28.55 to 43.75mgCy3G/100gFW) and total flavonoids content (159.92 to 335.75mgQE/100gFW). For the forced convection oven process, ranges of antioxidant activity (85.5-92.6% Free radical scavenging rate), total phenolic content (261 to 308mgGAE/100gFW), total anthocyanins content (4.74 to 5.12mgCy3G/100gFW) and total flavonoids content (30.66±0.38mgQE/100gFW) were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: In general, blueberries studied proved to have similar concentrations of functional properties compared to a wide variety of cultivars grown around the globe. Furthermore, higher concentrations of phytochemical content than those reported previously for strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries were evidenced. Although dried blueberries studied proved to have diminished phytochemical content, this functional component content stands out among the fruits market and give nutritional value to end consumers. Drying processes could potentially increase the commerce of blueberries by significantly reducing their perishable nature
CONTEXTO: El contenido fitoquímico presente en los arándanos ha generado gran interés, especialmente en la industria nutra-farmacéutica donde es conocido como una "super fruta" debido a su ayuda en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades neurodegenerativas, enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, entre otras. OBJETIVOS: Este estudio evaluó el potencial funcional de arándanos frescos y deshidratados por convección forzada mediante la determinación de su contenido fitoquímico con el objetivo de concluir si esta tecnología de secado es conveniente para aumentar la vida útil del producto. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, se determinó la actividad antioxidante, el contenido fenólico, las antocianinas totales y los flavonoides totales de cultivos de arándanos 'Biloxi' La información recopilada de la literatura fue analizada. Se estudió el contenido en compuestos funcionales en arándanos frescos y deshidratados. Los extractos de fruta fueron analizados para determinar actividad antioxidante por medio de 2,2-Difenil-1-Picrilhidrazilo (DPPH) como radical libre, fenólicos totales con el reactivo Folin-Ciocalteu, antocianinas totales usando el método diferencial de pH y flavonoides totales con el método de Cloruro de Aluminio. RESULTADOS: Para los arándanos frescos se obtuvieron rangos de actividad antioxidante de 90.8-93.9% Tasa de captación de radicales libres, contenido fenólico total de 275-645mgEAG/100gPF, contenido de antocianinas totales de 28.55-43.75mgCy3G/100gPF y contenido total de flavonoides de 159.92-335.75mgEQ/100gPF. Para los arándanos deshidratados por convección forzada, se obtuvieron rangos de actividad antioxidante de 85.5-92.6% Tasa de captación de radicales libres, contenido fenólico total de 261-308mgEAG/100gPF, contenido de antocianinas totales de 4.74-5.12mgCy3G/100gPF y contenido total de flavonoides de 30.24-30.96mgEQ/100gPF. CONCLUSIONES: En general, los arándanos estudiados probaron tener concentraciones similares de propiedades funcionales comparados con una amplia variedad de cultivos alrededor del mundo. Además, fueron evidenciadas concentraciones más altas de contenido fitoquímico comparadas con las reportadas previamente para fresas, moras y frambuesas. Aunque los arándanos secos estudiados demostraron tener menor contenido fitoquímico, la cantidad de estos componentes funcionales destaca dentro del mercado de las frutas y dan valor nutricional a los consumidores. Los procesos de secado pueden potencialmente incrementar el comercio de arándanos derivado de una disminución significativa en su naturaleza perecedera
Subject(s)Flavonoids/analysis , Blueberry Plants/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds , Anthocyanins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Convection
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Reduced antioxidant defenses may reflect a poor protective response against oxidative stress and this may be implicated in progression of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia plays a major role in micro and macrovascular complications, which imply endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between GDM and oxidative stress markers measured in plasma, with regard to revealing changes to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) among mothers showing impairments in oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at a university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 50 mothers with GDM, and 59 healthy mothers served as controls. Umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all mothers during delivery and breast milk samples on the fifth day after delivery. TAC, TOS, thiol and disulfide levels were measured. RESULTS: No statistically significant relationship between the blood and milk samples could be found. An analysis on correlations between TAC, TOS and certain parameters revealed that there were negative correlations between TOS and total thiol (r = -0.386; P < 0.001) and between TOS and disulfide (r = -0.388; P < 0.001) in milk in the control group. However, these findings were not observed in the study group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that a compensatory mechanism of oxidative stress was expected to be present in gestational diabetes mellitus and that this might be ameliorated through good glycemic regulation and antioxidant supplementation.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/chemistry , Disulfides/analysis , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis
Abstract A series of Trolox amide derivatives were synthesized by modifying the carboxyl groups of Trolox. Thirty target compounds were obtained and characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Trolox derivatives were employed to explore the potential structure-antioxidant activity relationships. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical assays. DPPH scavenging activity test results illustrated that compounds exhibited scavenging activities similar to L-ascorbic acid and Trolox, with compounds 14a, 18a, 24a and 26a in particular exhibiting higher scavenging activities than L-ascorbic acid. The results demonstrated that compounds displayed ABTS scavenging activities similar to L-ascorbic acid and Trolox, with compounds 26a and 29a in particular having potency twofold higher. FRAP assay results indicated that compounds 11a, 19a, 25a, 29a and 30a had activity similar to Trolox. The results revealed that compounds 6a and 19a had similarly high hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities as Trolox. The results of α-glucosidase experiments uncovered that compounds 10a, 25a, 28a and 29a had excellent inhibitory activity, which was similar to that of acarbose and different from Trolox. The results of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase experiments demonstrated that some compounds had weak anticholinesterase activities. 26a and 29a are important Trolox derivatives with better biological activity profiles and deserve further study
Subject(s)Biological Products/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Acarbose/adverse effects , Amides/agonists , Antioxidants/analysis
Abstract The present study was conducted to assess the phenolic content, and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Lathyrus L. species. The extraction of phenolic compounds from whole seeds, seed coat and cotyledon of Lathyrus hierosolymitanus Boiss. and Lathyrus annuus L. seeds was performed employing different solvents. Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured by Folin- Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. It was found that TPC of extracts ranged from 0.12 mg to 6.53 mg GAE/gdw. For each solvent, seed coat extracts were generally observed to render higher TPC and antioxidant activities. There was a correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. In addition, all extracts were also examined for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity which is consistent with TPC, but there was no correlation between TPC and antibacterial activity. Solvents were observed to have effects on gallic acid, caffeic acid, and epicatechin extractions. HPLC analysis results of extracts confirmed methanol and ethanol as preferred solvents for phenolic extraction from Lathyrus sp. Phenolic content in the extracts could be suggested to contribute to their antioxidant and antibacterial activity.
Subject(s)Biological Products , Lathyrus/anatomy & histology , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants/analysis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification , Seeds/anatomy & histology , Bacillus cereus/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cotyledon/adverse effects , Escherichia coli/classification
Abstract Several factors contribute to the resistance of some pathogenic microorganisms and this fact requires the search for new therapeutic alternatives. The genus Cyperus (family Cyperaceae) groups species that present chemical compounds of pharmacological interest, mainly with antimicrobial action. Thus, the present work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidants and the phytochemical profile of Cyperus articulatus L. and Cyperus iria L. Hydroalcoholic extracts (1:1, v:v) of the aerial and underground parts of these species were used to analyze the total phenol content and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity against the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The ethyl acetate and chloroform phases resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of C. articulatus and C. iria extracts were evaluated in antimicrobial assays and subject to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The chromatograms obtained by HPLC-DAD allowed us to identify four compounds: chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The hydroalcoholic extracts of C. articulatus and C. iria showed a weak antioxidant activity with IC50 of 395.57 and 321.33 µg/mL (aerial parts), and 1,114.01 and 436.82 µg/mL (underground parts), respectively. Regarding antimicrobial activity, the chloroform phase of C. iria showed the best result at the concentration of only 31.2 µg/mL against the pathogens Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The ethyl acetate phases of the aerial parts of C. articulatus and C. iria did not show antimicrobial activity
Subject(s)Cyperaceae/classification , Cyperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Candida albicans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50
Abstract Licania macrophylla is a medicinal plant from the Amazon. It is mainly used in the form of a decoction and has been reported to contain several phenolic compounds. However, the effect of seasonality on the phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of this plant has not been well studied, especially in the Amazon region, an area affected by the rainy and less-rainy seasons. Therefore, we evaluated the seasonality of these aromatic compounds and the antioxidant potential of the extracts from L. macrophylla stem bark. We also determined the correlation between the extraction methods used and precipitation levels during each period for 1 year. The total flavonoid and phenolic content, DPPH-scavenging potential, percentage of phosphomolybdenum complex reduction, and iron-reducing power were quantified. The levels of phenolic compounds were the highest in June, whereas those of flavonoids were the highest in September and October; however, these differences were not significant. The extracts from April, November, and June showed the best results for DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum reduction, and iron reduction power, respectively. Significant differences in the phenolic content and DPPH-scavenging activity were observed between the more- and less-rainy seasons. The total phenolic content was positively correlated with FRAP and DPPH, whereas flavonoid levels were negatively correlated.
Subject(s)Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Seasons , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chrysobalanaceae/classification , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants/analysis , Risk Measurement Equipment
Fruit ripening is a biochemical process that results in flavor, odor, texture, and color suitable for human consumption, in addition to providing access to important nutrients. Although ripening promotes sensory and nutritional increases in fruits, there is also an increased susceptibility to physical damage, as is the case with papaya. These transformations occur due to changes in gene expression patterns at different stages of maturity, whose control and coordination result from the combined action of plant hormones, especially ethylene. As the action of this hormone in the regulation of gene expression is still elusive, this dissertation sought to address the global analysis of the transcriptome in an overview study of molecular processes involved in the ripening of ethylene-treated and non-treated papaya. Transcription factors related to ethylene synthesis and signaling had increased activity towards exogenous-ethylene treatment. Consequently, ethylene-induced enzymes had their coding genes differentially expressed, like genes related to the synthesis of carotenoids, linalool, and vitamins, which increase color, aroma, and antioxidant activity, respectively. Metabolic pathways related to the synthesis of sugars were suppressed while genes encoding the enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis maintained a basal expression, showing that the accumulation of sugars occurs before the ripening process. The firmness of the peel and pulp of the fruits were strongly influenced by the treatment with ethylene and by the time of the experiment, suffering the action of numerous enzymes related to the degradation of the cell wall. The main enzyme responsible for softening the pulp was polygalacturonase, together with the activity of other pectinases and cellulases. In contrast to the need for the pre-climacteric action of pectate lyase and pectinesterase reported in other fleshy fruits, such as tomatoes and strawberries, papaya did not show a significant difference in their expression. The meta-analysis of several papaya ripening transcriptomes confirmed the expression profile observed in the previous RNA-seq, besides providing statistical enrichment to the biological narratives. Finally, the present study gathered a range of robust information on the gene regulation of the papaya ripening process, which opens possibilities for future approaches to transcriptomic analysis and validates the use of papaya as a model for such studies
O amadurecimento de frutos é um processo bioquímico que resulta em sabor, odor, textura e cor adequados para o consumo humano, além de propiciar o acesso a nutrientes importantes. Apesar do amadurecimento promover incrementos sensoriais e nutricionais nos frutos, ocorre também um aumento da suscetibilidade a danos físicos, como é o caso do mamão. Essas transformações ocorrem devido às alterações nos padrões de expressão gênica nos diferentes estádios de amadurecimento, cujo controle e coordenação decorrem da ação combinada de hormônios vegetais, principalmente do etileno. Como a ação deste hormônio na regulação da expressão gênica ainda é elusiva, a presente dissertação buscou abordar a análise global do transcriptoma em um amplo estudo dos processos moleculares envolvidos no amadurecimento de mamões tratados e não tratados com etileno. Os fatores de transcrição relacionados com a síntese e a sinalização do etileno tiveram sua atividade aumentada perante o tratamento exógeno com etileno. Consequentemente, as enzimas reguladas por esse hormônio tiveram seus genes de codificação expressos diferencialmente, como foi o caso de genes relacionados à síntese de carotenoides, linalool e vitaminas, que atuam no aumento da cor, aroma e atividade antioxidante, respectivamente. Vias metabólicas relacionadas com à síntese de açúcares foram reprimidas enquanto genes codificantes da enzima responsável pela síntese de sacarose mantiveram uma expressão basal, evidenciando que o acúmulo de açúcares ocorre antes do processo de amadurecimento. A firmeza da casca e da polpa dos frutos foram fortemente influenciadas pelo tratamento com etileno e pelo tempo de experimento, sofrendo ação de inúmeras enzimas relacionadas com a degradação da parede celular. A principal enzima responsável pelo amolecimento da polpa foi a poligalacturonase, em conjunto com a atividade de outras pectinases e celulases. Em contraste com a necessidade da ação pré-climatérica da pectato liase e da pectinesterase relatada em outras frutas carnosas, como tomates e morangos, o mamão não apresentou uma diferença significativa na expressão das mesmas. A meta-análise de diversos transcriptomas do amadurecimento do mamão reafirmaram o perfil de expressão observado no RNA-seq, além de prover enriquecimento estatístico às narrativas biológicas. Por fim, o presente estudo reuniu uma gama de informações robustas sobre a regulação gênica do processo de amadurecimento do mamão papaia, o que abrange a possibilidade para futuras abordagens de análise transcriptomica e valida o uso do mamão como modelo para tais estudos
Subject(s)Carica/anatomy & histology , Systems Biology/instrumentation , Ethylenes/adverse effects , Sucrose , Climacteric , Gene Expression , Solanum lycopersicum , Transcriptome/genetics , Fruit , Antioxidants/analysis
Abstract Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in the microorganisms. Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivative-ferulic acid, are phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid possesses antioxidant potential, as well as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. It prevents the harmful effects of radiation both as an ultraviolet absorber and as a free radical scavenger; it is not cytotoxic. Although ferulic acid has beneficial properties, it is hardly used in cosmetic preparations and has been rarely studied in the literature. Herein, we review the literature on ferulic acid, to provide information which can contribute to further research on the compound.
Subject(s)Phenolic Compounds , Literature , Antioxidants/analysis , Acids/administration & dosage , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Free Radical Scavengers/classification , Neoplasms/diagnosis
Abstract The hepatoprotective potential of alcesefoliside (AF) from Astragalus monspessulanus was investigated. Iron sulphate/ascorbic acid (Fe2+/AA) lipid peroxidation was induced in rat liver microsomes and pre-incubated with AF and silybin (100, 10 and 1 µmol). Pronounced effects were observed in 100 µmol. In vivo experiments were carried out on rats, challenged orally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) alone and after pre-treatment and followed by curative treatment with AF (10 mg/kg). The activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes, together with reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and malonedialdehyde (MDA) quantity were measured. Microsomal incubation with Fe2+/AA increased MDA production. The pre-incubation with AF reduced the formation of MDA, comparable to silybin. These findings were supported by the in vivo study where CCl4-induced liver damage was discerned by significant increase in serum enzymes and in MDA production as well as by GSH depletion and reduced antioxidant enzymes activity. The AF pre-treatment and consecutive curative treatment normalizes the activity of the serum and antioxidant enzymes alike, as well as the levels of GSH and MDA. Histological examination of AF-treated livers showed a decrease in the abnormal accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes as well as reduced alterative changes in their structure in a model of CCl4-induced toxicity.
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Rats , Astragalus Plant/adverse effects , Antioxidants/analysis , Microsomes, Liver , Hepatocytes , Enzymes , Liver
O Brasil é o país que possui a maior diversidade de bambus em todo o continente americano, com mais de 200 espécies catalogadas. Devido à alta resistência e durabilidade, essas espécies são muito utilizadas na construção civil e confecção de móveis e utensílios. No entanto, faltam estudos que investiguem a composição química e as atividades biológicas. Neste projeto foram avaliados extratos etanólicos de folhas e colmos de Guadua chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño & P.M. Peterson e frações em hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e n-butanol. Também se obteve o óleo volátil, mas com um rendimento extremamente baixo (0,00079%). As frações dos extratos apresentaram teores de compostos fenólicos variando entre 1,92 e 15,80 µg EAG/mg. Esses compostos mostraram-se mais abundantes nas amostras de colmos. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides, as folhas apresentaram maior quantidade, variando entre 0,39 e 1,18 µg EQ/mg contra 0,17 a 0,34 µg EQ/mg nos colmos. Investigou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos, frações e óleo volátil frente cinco microrganismos: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans e Aspergillus brasiliensis. As amostras demonstraram potencial inibitório moderado a bom contra S. aureus e C. albicans, porém fraca para as demais espécies. Testou-se a capacidade antioxidante frente o radical DPPH e os resultados indicaram atividade antioxidante significativa, especialmente as frações acetato e butanol de colmos. As folhas apresentaram EC50 variando entre 67,5 e 124,0 µg/mL e os colmos entre 40,2 e 124 µg/mL. A inibição da enzima tirosinase, que está associada à produção de melanina, também se mostrou boa a uma concentração de 1 mg/mL, com o extrato bruto de colmos apresentando 43% de inibição, seguido pelas frações acetato (36%) e n-butanol (38%) de folhas. As análises por CG-MS detectaram pelo menos 44 compostos diferentes no óleo volátil, com vários terpenos e sesquiterpenos, e com ß-ionona sendo o componente majoritário (8,75%). As amostras de colmos e folhas apontaram grande diversidade de compostos, cerca de 20 para cada fração, onde os ácidos graxos como ácido palmítico e linoleico e seus ésteres derivados foram os mais abundantes. A análise dos perfis cromatográficos por CCD e CLAE revelaram a presença de ácido p-cumárico nos colmos de G. chacoensis. Esse composto tem relevante atividade antioxidante e de inibição da tirosinase. Também foi possível identificar a quercetagetina-7-O-glicosídeo, uma flavona glicosilada, com propriedades anti-inflamatorias e antidiabéticas. Desta forma, constatou-se que G. chacoensis apresenta grande diversidade de metabólitos secundários com atividades biológicas relevantes, como atividade antioxidante e clareadora, abrindo caminho para investigações mais profundas de suas aplicações, especialmente no segmento de cosméticos e produtos naturais
Brazil is the country with the greatest diversity of bamboo in the entire American continent, with more than 200 species catalogued. Due to their high resistance and durability, they are widely used in home construction and manufacture of furniture and utensils. However, studies investigating chemical composition and biological activities are absent. In this project, ethanol extracts from leaves and stems of Guadua chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño & P.M. Peterson and fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were evaluated. Volatile oil was also obtained, but with an extremely low yield (0.00079%). The fractions of the extracts presented contents of phenolic compounds varying between 1.92 and 15.80 µg GAE/mg. These compounds were more abundant in culm samples. In relation to the flavonoid content, leaves showed a greater amount, varying between 0.39 and 1.18 µg QE/mg against 0.17 to 0.34 µg QE/mg in culms. The antimicrobial activity of extracts, fractions and volatile oil were investigated against five microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The samples showed moderate to good inhibitory potential against S. aureus and C. albicans, but weak for the other species. The antioxidant capacity was tested against the DPPH radical and the results indicated significant antioxidant activity, especially acetate and butanol culm fractions. The leaves presented EC50 varying between 67.5 and 124.0 µg/mL and culms between 40.2 and 124 µg/mL. The inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is associated with the production of melanin, was also shown to be good at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, with the raw culm extract showing 43% inhibition, followed by acetate (36%) and n-butanol (38%) fractions of leaves. CG-MS analysis detected at least 44 different compounds in volatile oil, with several terpenes and sesquiterpenes, and with ß-ionone being the major component (8.75%). Culm and leaf samples showed great diversity of compounds, about 20 for each fraction, where fatty acids such as palmitic and linoleic acid and their derivative esters were the most abundant. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles by TLC and HPLC revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid in culms of G. chacoensis. This compound has relevant antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibiting activity. It was also possible to identify quercetagetine-7-O-glucoside, a glycosylated flavone, with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Thus, it was found that G. chacoensis presents a great diversity of secondary metabolites with relevant biological activities, such as antioxidant and whitening activity, opening ways for deeper investigations of its applications, especially in the segment of cosmetics and natural products
Subject(s)Aspergillus/metabolism , Plant Extracts/agonists , Bambusa/adverse effects , Poaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Monophenol Monooxygenase/classification , 1-Butanol , Bambusa/chemistry
A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.
Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.
Subject(s)Solanum lycopersicum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
Abstract The main purposes of the current study were to formulate o/w nanoemulsions as a carrier for Tamarindus indica (tamarind) fruit pulp extract and to study the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of nanoemulsions containing tamarind extract, focusing on cosmetic/hygiene applications. The o/w nanoemulsions using a mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 as an emulsifier (5%w/w) were prepared by a high pressure homogenization process. Two concentrations of sweet tamarind extract, 3.3 and 6.6%w/w, based on the bioactivity study, were incorporated into the blank nanoemulsions to produce loaded nanoemulsions, F1-3.3TE (3.3%) and F1- 6.6TE (6.6%). As compared with the unloaded nanoemulsion, both tamarind extract loaded nanoemulsions showed reduced pH and significantly increased viscosity. Overall, the loaded nanoemulsions had droplet sizes of approximately 130 nm, zeta potential around -38 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) values less than 0.2. The nanoemulsion F1-3.3TE had better stability (e.g. significantly greater % tartaric acid content and lesser PDI value) than the nanoemulsion F1-6.6TE did. The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay revealed that the nanoemulsions F1-3.3TE and F1-6.6TE had scavenging activities of 81.66 ± 0.77% and 63.80 ± 0.79%, respectively. However, antioxidant activity of these two formulations decreased under stress conditions (heating-cooling cycles). Such incidence did not occur for their antibacterial properties investigated by agar well diffusion technique. The two formulations exhibited inhibition zones of approximately 24.0-27.7 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, responsible for malodor of underarms. The results suggest the potential of using sweet tamarind pulp extract loaded nanoemulsions as hygiene products.
Subject(s)Tamarindus/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , zeta Potential , Heating/instrumentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods
Abstract The aim of this paper is to study the chemical composition of alkaloids present in Haloxylon scoparium Pomel extracts and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. The alkaloids were isolated from two parts of Haloxylon scoparium plant by two extraction protocols. and The quantitative study made it possible to propose the best protocol for the extraction of the alkaloids. Moreover, GC-MS analysis of alkaloid extracts allowed us to determine their chemical composition. Haloxylon scoparium contains four types of alkaloids: tetraisoquinolines, phenylethylamines, tryptolines and tryptamines. The main compounds are the tetraisoquinolines type, the predominant product of which was N-methylsalsoline. These compounds present a great interest for the researchers due to their various pharmacological and biological activities. The antioxidant effect of the different plant extracts was studied by two methods: the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical (DPPH·) scavenging tests. The results show that extracts of root part are more active than those from aerial part; the acetone/water extract is the most powerful. The interesting results obtained in this study will be supplemented by other analyses and biological tests in order to better valorize this plant.
Subject(s)Amaranthaceae/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/chemical synthesis , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching/methods
The objective was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin concentration and reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with orange residue prior to insemination. Fifty-five multiparous ewes were divided into two corrals, and 15 unbred ewes were kept individually to measure feed consumption. Two integral diets were administered; T0: control treatment and T1: with 20% of dry matter of orange residue. Ten days after the start of supplementation, the ewes were synchronized. Supplementation was finalized prior to artificial insemination, then, a blood sample was taken to measure the antioxidant capacity and glucose and insulin concentration. An analysis of variance was made to evaluate the effect of treatment on the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin; and to analyze the response to estrus, percentage of gestation and prolificity a ji squared test was performed. Of 9 antioxidant compounds found in the orange residue, hesperidin (7.44%), chlorogenic acid (0.50%) and protocatechuic acid had the highest concentration. Feed intake, estrus response, percentage of gestation, antioxidant capacity, and glucose and insulin concentration were not affected by the treatment. It is concluded that inclusion of 20% of orange residue in the diet prior to insemination in ewes is possible.(AU)
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e insulina e o comportamento reprodutivo de ovelhas suplementadas com resíduo de laranja antes da inseminação. Cinquenta e cinco ovelhas multíparas foram divididas em dois currais e 15 ovelhas sem raça foram mantidas individualmente para se medir o consumo de ração. Duas dietas integrais foram administradas; T0: tratamento controle e T1: dieta com 20% de resíduo de laranja seco. Dias após o início da suplementação, as ovelhas foram sincronizadas. A suplementação foi finalizada antes da inseminação artificial e, em seguida, foi coletada uma amostra de sangue para medir a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração de glicose e insulina. Uma análise de variância foi feita para avaliar o efeito do tratamento sobre a capacidade antioxidante, a glicose e a insulina, e um teste do ji quadrado foi realizado para analisar a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação e de prolificidade. Dos nove compostos antioxidantes encontrados no resíduo laranja, a hesperidina (7,44%), o ácido clorogênico (0,50%) e o ácido protocatecuico foram os de maior concentração. O consumo alimentar, a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação, a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e a insulina não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Conclui-se que é possível a inclusão de 20% de resíduos de laranja na dieta antes da inseminação em ovelhas.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Female , Blood Glucose/analysis , Sheep/physiology , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Estrus Synchronization/methods , Insulins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Garbage
Se evaluó la composición proximal, el contenido de polifenoles totales y la capacidad antioxidante de un chocolate oscuro formulado a partir de granos de cacao orgánico, seco, y no sometido al proceso fermentativo. Este producto fue elaborado con insumos y procesos desarrollados en la Granja Experimental El Cairo, ubicada en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (GEL-UN), departamento de Arauca, Colombia. El contenido de grasa se encontró entre los rangos conocidos (>50%), siendo una característica ligada al origen genético, y a las condiciones climáticas. El alto contenido de proteínas (16,21%), evidencia que se trata de granos de cacao secos no fermentados. Tal contenido juega un papel importante en la formación de los precursores del sabor y aroma, en chocolates finos y exquisitos. El pH determinado es un indicativo de un chocolate amargo, con bajo índice de fermentación y de baja acidez acética o láctica. El contenido de polifenoles totales se relaciona de manera directa con la alta actividad antioxidante de este chocolate. Se concluye que el tipo de material genético usado como insumo, así como los procesos implementados para la obtención del chocolate, en GEL-UN, contribuyeron para la obtención de un producto tipo comercial, con propiedades funcionales, entre ellas las relacionadas con la capacidad antioxidante(AU)
Thee proximal chemical composition, the content of total polyphenols, and the antioxidant capacity of a dark chocolate formulated from organic, dry cocoa beans and not subjected to the fermentation process were evaluated. This product was made with inputs and processes developed at the El Cairo Experimental Farm, located at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (CEF-UN), Arauca, Colombia. The fat content was found between the known ranges (> 50%), being a characteristic linked to the genetic origin, and to the climatic conditions. The high protein content (16.21%) evidenced that it´s unfermented dry cocoa beans. Such content plays an important role in the formation of precursors of flavor and aroma, in fine and exquisite chocolates. The determined pH is indicative of a dark chocolate, with a low fermentation index and low acetic or lactic acidity. The content of total polyphenols is directly related to the high antioxidant activity of this chocolate. It is concluded that the type of genetic material used as input, as well as the processes implemented to obtain chocolate, in CEF-UN, contributed to obtaining a commercial type product, with functional properties, including those related to antioxidant capacity(AU)
Subject(s)Cacao/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Chocolate/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Fermentation , Food, Organic , Food Handling
Syzygiumcumini(L.) Skeels wasadaptedto the climatic conditionsandsoil typesin Brazil. Its fruits, leaves andinner barkare usedin folk medicinedue to their highantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenicandantidiabeticactivities mainlyassociated with the presenceof phenolic compounds. It is estimated thatat least300million peopleworldwide developdiabetesand approximately 11million peopleare carriersof the disease in Brazil.The objectiveof this workwas to evaluate thein vitro antioxidant activity, as well as thehypoglycemic actionofhydroethanolic extract(HEE), the ethyl acetate(EAF) andhydromethanolic(HMF) fractions from leavesofS.cumini(L.) Skeels in rats. All assays werecarried out in three replications. Data wereexpressed as meanï±SDand significance was evaluated by ANOVAand Bonferronitest (p < 0.05). The results indicatea significant(p < 0.05) total phenolcontent (207 ± 2.3GAE mg g-1) andantioxidant activity(EC50=9.05±0.170 µg mL-1) for EAF. HEE and its fractions showed no significant (p > 0.05) actionto modulateglucosebytheOGTT assayinnondiabetic micecompared to control. Thus the use of the plant against diabetes in individuals is not proven.