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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098109

ABSTRACT

The control of dyslipidemia using plants is an important subject of studies since it has numerous benefits in cardiovascular protection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three Camellia sinensis L. teas (green, red, and white) on left ventricular hypertrophy and insulin resistance in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. The LDLr-/- mice were divided into four experimental groups: Group C: standard feed; Group CT: standard feed and three teas, Group HL: high-fat feed; HLT Group: high-fat feed and three teas. The three types of tea (green, red, and white) originated from different processing of the Camellia sinensis L. plant, and were administered associated once a day at a dose of 25 mg/kg by gavage for 60 days. The teas partially prevented hyperlipidemia, the decrease of the serum levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), insulin resistance, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and completely prevented left ventricular hypertrophy in LDLr -/- mice of the HLT group. In conclusion, the three Camellia sinensis L. teas used to control genetic dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet can be used as an auxiliary treatment associated with the control of lipid intake, thus promoting cardiac protection against hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/drug therapy , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Tea , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 127-132, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983990

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A). The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B), which had an inhibitory effect (10.2%) at the end of testing.


Resumo A busca de produtos naturais com atividades antifúngica e antioxidante tem crescido nos últimos anos como alternativa mais sustentável para os produtos químicos atualmente usados para estas funções. O fungo fitopatogênico Alternaria alternata é agente causador de doenças nos citros, levando a grandes perdas econômicas. Substâncias antioxidantes são importantes tanto para a produção de medicamentos para diversas doenças que podem estar relacionadas à presença de radicais livres, como o câncer, bem como para a indústria cosmética, como agentes anti-envelhecimento e para a indústria alimentícia, como conservantes. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial antifúngico dos extratos de folhas maduras de Myrcia splendens , uma espécie arbórea que ocorre no cerrado brasileiro. O potencial antioxidante foi analisado por meio de ensaio da capacidade sequestrante do radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl e o antifúngico, por meio da avaliação do crescimento micelial. A maioria dos extratos apresentou atividade antioxidante muito forte, especialmente o extrato acetônico (4A). A atividade antioxidante pode ser relacionada a presença de compostos fenólicos. Por outro lado, os extratos não apresentaram atividade inibitória do crescimento micelial do fungo testado, com exceção do extrato diclorometânico (2B), que foi o único que teve efeito inibitório (10,2%) ao final do teste.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7552, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951753

ABSTRACT

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is habitually ingested by people in the Amazon region and is a key ingredient in various energy drinks consumed worldwide. Extension in longevity and low prevalence of chronic age-related diseases have been associated to habitual intake of guarana. Anti-aging potential of guarana was also demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the mechanisms involved in its effects are not clear. Herein, we investigated the putative pathways that regulate the effects of guarana ethanolic extract (GEE) on lifespan using C. elegans. The major known longevity pathways were analyzed through mutant worms and RT-qPCR assay (DAF-2, DAF-16, SKN-1, SIR-2.1, HSF-1). The possible involvement of purinergic signaling was also investigated. This study demonstrated that GEE acts through antioxidant activity, DAF-16, HSF-1, and SKN-1 pathways, and human adenosine receptor ortholog (ADOR-1) to extend lifespan. GEE also downregulated skn-1, daf-16, sir-2.1 and hsp-16.2 in 9-day-old C. elegans, which might reflect less need to activate these protective genes due to direct antioxidant effects. Our results contribute to the comprehension of guarana effects in vivo, which might be helpful to prevent or treat aging-associated disorders, and also suggest purinergic signaling as a plausible therapeutic target for longevity studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Paullinia/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Time Factors , Aging/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Longevity/drug effects , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7256, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951731

ABSTRACT

Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cuscuta/chemistry , Melanocytes/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Hydrolysis , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/chemistry
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7118, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889111

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bees/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Colorimetry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1841-1850, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.


Subject(s)
Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Stevia/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Stevia/classification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1907-1915, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus/drug effects , Prevotella/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1565-1578, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims the anatomical description and chemical characterization of aerial parts of Clusia criuva Cambess., Clusiaceae in addition to the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of crude extracts, correlated to the flavonoid content. The morphological characterization was performed using traditional techniques of plant anatomy. For phytochemical studies, crude extracts were obtained by static maceration and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content were determined by colorimetric methods involving, respectively, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and aluminum chloride. C. criuva has uniseriate epidermis, paracytic stomata, hypostomatic leaves, cuticular flanges and cordiform vascular cylinder with accessory bundles. Chemical prospecting confirmed the abundant presence of terpenes and phenols in the extracts of leaves and of fruits. The methanolic extract of seeds showed the lowest EC50 value, but the methanolic extract of pericarps exhibited the highest maximum antioxidant activity. The results suggested a high percentage of flavonoids in the hexanic extract of pericarps, however, this could represent, in fact, the presence of benzophenones. Secretory ducts and the shape of the midrib are diagnostic for C. criuva. The antioxidant activity is not directly related to the flavonoids. The results indicate the importance of future studies with C. criuva chemical constituents.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Clusia/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Colorimetry , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Clusia/classification , Clusia/ultrastructure , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 201-206, jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894458

ABSTRACT

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale, Cruciferae; W. Aiton) is a vegetable widely consumed in our country, with nutritional and potentially chemopreventive properties. Previous reports from our laboratory demonstrated the protective effect of watercress juice against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of cress plant on the oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated by gavage with different doses of watercress juice (0.5 and 1g/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days before intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg body weight). After 24 h, mice were killed by cervical dislocation. The effect of watercress was investigated by assessing the following oxidative stress biomarkers: catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione balance. Intake of watercress prior to cyclophosphamide administration enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes with no effect on catalase activity. In bone marrow and liver tissues, watercress juice counteracted the effect of cyclophosphamide. Glutathione balance rose by watercress supplementation and lipid oxidation diminished in all matrixes when compared to the respective control groups. Our results support the role of watercress as a diet component with promising properties to be used as health promoter or protective agent against oxidative damage.


El berro (Nasturtium officinale, crucíferas; W. Aiton) es una hortaliza ampliamente consumida en nuestro país, con valor nutricional y propiedades potencialmente quimiopreventivas. En trabajos previos demostramos que el jugo de berro tiene efecto protector in vivo contra el daño del ADN inducido por ciclofosfamida en tejidos del ratón. En el presente trabajo evaluamos, también in vivo, los efectos del jugo sobre el estrés oxidativo en diferentes tejidos del ratón. Los siguientes biomarcadores fueron investigados: actividad de superóxido dismutasa, actividad de catalasa, peroxidación lipídica y balance de glutatión. Los animales fueron tratados con diferentes dosis de jugo (0.5 y 1 g/kg de peso corporal) por alimentación forzada durante 15 días consecutivos antes de la inyección intraperitoneal con ciclofosfamida (100 mg/kg). La ingesta de berro antes de la administración de ciclofosfamida mejoró la actividad de superóxido dismutasa en los eritrocitos sin efecto sobre la actividad de la catalasa. En médula ósea e hígado, el jugo de berro contrarrestó el efecto deletéreo de la ciclofosfamida. En todas las matrices, el balance de glutatión fue mayor y la oxidación de lípidos menor que los valores encontrados en los grupos control. Nuestros resultados demuestran que el berro es un componente de la dieta con propiedades prometedoras como promotor de la salud o como agente protector contra el daño oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Nasturtium/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , DNA Damage , Lipid Peroxidation , Plant Leaves , Glutathione , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 577-589, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09) than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively) and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml). Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05) more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88.29 ± 0.25% and 79.46 ± 0.92%, respectively) than tamarind (35.43 ± 0.68% and 57.69 ± 5.97%) or rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%). All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively). Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard). These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Skin Aging/drug effects , Tamarindus/chemistry , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Litchi/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Administration, Cutaneous , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Cosmetics , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 317-331, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. This plant has been locally used as antimicrobial and hypoglycemiant agents, but their action mechanisms and toxicity remain largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and antioxidant, cytoprotective and hypoglycemiant effects of raw extract, fractions and compounds from leaves of M. hirsuta. The cytogenotoxic effects of ursolic and oleanolic acids, the main phytotherapic components of this plant, were assessed. The raw extract and fractions presented steroids, saponins, flavonols, flavanonols, flavanones, xanthones, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited efficiently the cascade of lipid peroxidation while the hydroalcoholic fraction was richer in total phenols and more efficient in capturing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (·DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) radicals. The isolated fraction of M. hirsuta also inhibited the α-amylase activity. Cytotoxic effects were absent in both raw extract and fractions while ursolic+oleanolic acids were efficient in protecting cells after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, this mixture of acid shad no significant interference on the mitotic index and frequency of nuclear and/or chromosomal abnormalities in Allium cepa test. Therefore, M. hirsuta represents a potential source of phytochemicals against inflammatory and oxidative pathologies, including diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Triterpenes/chemistry , Brazil , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Cricetinae , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Onions/drug effects , Cytoprotection , Ethanol/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 139-143, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748240

ABSTRACT

The present investigations were aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacies of budmunchiamine-A (BUA) of Albizia amara. The activity-guided isolation leaded to isolate the bioactive compound budmunchiamine-A from alkaloid extract of A. amara. The budmunchiamine-A showed significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values varied from 7.3 to 24.5 mm, 0.95 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 1.9 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. The budmunchiamine-A exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 400 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and percent inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid was 67.8%. The results suggest the possible use of budmunchiamine-A as a molecular entity for drug development in pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Albizzia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 131-142
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158396

ABSTRACT

Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/economics , Adjuvants, Immunologic/isolation & purification , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/economics , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomass , Carbohydrate Sequence , Chromatography/methods , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Glucuronates/economics , Glucuronates/isolation & purification , Glucuronates/pharmacology , Glucuronates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrolysis , Lignin/analysis , Microbiota/drug effects , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Structure , Oligosaccharides/economics , Oligosaccharides/isolation & purification , Oligosaccharides/pharmacology , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Prebiotics/economics , Waste Products/economics , Xylans/chemistry
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 69-76, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g–1, respectively) and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g–1, respectively) from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 μg mL–1) and calyces (37.15 μg mL–1) demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562), with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL–1 (organosuper®) and 1.16 mg mL–1 (poultry litter), with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante, antitumoral e o conteúdo de fenólicos e flavonoides do extrato metanólico das folhas e cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa (rosela) cultivada com cama de frango e organosuper ® em três modos de aplicação. O conteúdo fenólico total de cada extrato foi determinado utilizando o reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio para flavonoides. Os parâmetros antioxidantes foram avaliados pelo ensaio de seqüestro de radical livre 2, 2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH.). Na avaliação antitumoral utilizou-se o ensaio colorimétrico com sulforrodamina B. Observou-se o maior conteúdo de fenólicos e flavonoides em extratos de folhas (389.98 e 104.52 mg g–1, respectivamente) e extratos de cálice (474.09 e 148.35 mg g–1, respectivamente) de plantas cultivadas com organosuper ®, embora esses valores não diferiram significativamente daqueles observados para os outros tratamentos. O IC50 de folhas (43.48 µg mL–1) e cálices (37.15 µg mL–1) demonstrou que ambos têm substâncias que podem contribuir para a ação seqüestradora de radicais livres. O extrato metanólico dos cálices mostrou seletividade na linhagem de leucemia (K-562), com valores de IC50 de 0,12 mg mL–1 (organosuper®) e 1,16 mg mL–1 (cama-de-frango) com concentração-dependente e efeito citotóxico e citocida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Hibiscus/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Plant Leaves/chemistry
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 125-133, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741616

ABSTRACT

The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Beverages/analysis , Beverages/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/economics , Food, Fortified/economics , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Industrial Waste/economics , Mexico , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/economics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/economics , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Solubility
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 142-144, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741622

ABSTRACT

Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Emulsions , Ethanol/chemistry , Food Storage , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/analysis , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Peru , Principal Component Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spain , Solvents/chemistry , Ultrasonics/methods , Water/chemistry
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 75-85, 03/02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741624

ABSTRACT

In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculation. We found that intraperitoneal treatment with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased macrophage-dependent cell influx to the peritoneum in addition to macrophage functions, such as spreading, zymosan particle phagocytosis and nitric oxide and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production. Treatment with BAY 41-2272 was highly effective in reducing the death rate due to intraperitoneal inoculation of C. albicans, but not S. aureus. However, we found that in vitro stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased microbicidal activities against both pathogens. Our results show that the prevention of death by the treatment of C. albicans-infected mice with BAY 41-2272 might occur primarily by the modulation of the host immune response through macrophage activation. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipocytes, White/metabolism , Ananas/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Fruit/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Industrial Waste/analysis , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes, White/cytology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/economics , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Glycosylation , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/economics , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , India , Industrial Waste/economics , Lipotropic Agents/chemistry , Lipotropic Agents/economics , Lipotropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/economics , Solvents/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Amylases/metabolism
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 1-22, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741625

ABSTRACT

An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Fatty Acids/analysis , Industrial Waste/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/economics , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemical Phenomena , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/economics , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/analysis , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/economics , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/economics , Food Preservatives/adverse effects , Food Preservatives/economics , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/economics , India , Industrial Waste/economics , Linoleic Acid/adverse effects , Linoleic Acid/analysis , Linoleic Acid/economics , Oleic Acid/adverse effects , Oleic Acid/analysis , Oleic Acid/economics , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/economics , Plant Oils/pharmacology
20.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atriplex laciniata L. was investigated for phenolic, flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Plant crude methanolic extract (Al.MeF), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Al.HxF), chloroform (Al.CfF), ethyl acetate (Al.EaF), aqueous (Al.WtF), Saponins (Al.SPF) and Flavonoids (Al.FLVF) were investigated for DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 free radical scavenging activities. Further these extracts were subjected to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's assay. Phenolic and Flavonoid contents were determined and expressed in mg Gallic acid GAE/g and Rutin RTE/g of samples respectively. RESULTS: In DPPH free radicals scavenging assay, Al.FLVF, Al.SPF and Al.MeF showed highest activity causing 89.41 ± 0.55, 83.37 ± 0.34 and 83.37 ± 0.34% inhibition of free radicals respectively at 1 mg/mL concentration. IC50 for these fractions were 33, 83 and 82 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, plant extracts showed high ABTS scavenging potential, i.e. Al.FLVF (90.34 ± 0.55), Al.CfF (83.42 ± 0.57), Al.MeF (81.49 ± 0.60) with IC50 of 30, 190 and 70 µg/ml respectively. further, H2O2 percent scavenging was highly appraised in Al.FLVF (91.29 ±0.53, IC50 75), Al.SPF (85.35 ±0.61, IC50 70) and Al.EaF (83.48 ± 0.67, IC50 270 µg/mL). All fractions exhibited concentration dependent AChE inhibitory activity as; Al.FLVF, 88.31 ± 0.57 (IC50 70 µg/mL), Al.SPF, 84.36 ± 0.64 (IC50 90 µg/mL), Al.MeF, 78.65 ± 0.70 (IC50 280 µg/mL), Al.EaF, 77.45 ± 0.46 (IC50 270 µg/mL) and Al.WtF 72.44 ± 0.58 (IC50 263 µg/mL) at 1 mg/mL. Likewise the percent BChE inhibitory activity was most obvious in Al.FLVF 85.46 ± 0.62 (IC50 100 µg/mL), Al.CfF 83.49 ± 0.46 (IC50 160 µg/mL), Al.MeF 82.68 ± 0.60 (IC50 220 µg/mL) and Al.SPF 80.37 ± 0.54 (IC50 120 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These results stipulate that A. laciniata is enriched with phenolic and flavonoid contents that possess significant antioxidant and anticholinestrase effects. This provide pharmacological basis for the presence of compounds that may be effective in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Saponins/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Atriplex/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Saponins/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
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