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3.
s.l; s.n; 22 abr. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1096952

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: A COVID-19 é uma pandemia de risco muito alto a nível global pela OMS. Até o momento não existem terapias específicas, embora diferentes tratamentos estejam em investigação. Mais recentemente, tem havido crescente interesse no uso da nitazoxanida no tratamento de COVID-19, dada sua atividade antiviral de amplo espectro. OBJETIVOS: Identificar, avaliar sistematicamente e sumarizar as melhores evidências científicas disponíveis sobre a eficácia e a segurança da nitazoxanida para COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática rápida (rapid review methodology). RESULTADOS: Após o processo de seleção, foram avaliados cinco estudos clínicos em andamento. CONCLUSÃO: Cinco estudos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da nitazoxanida no tratamento de COVID-19 estão em andamento. Devido à ausência de evidência sobre o uso deste medicamento para o tratamento de infecções por coronavírus que causem infecções respiratórias, não é possível recomendar seu uso como terapia para COVID-19.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost Efficiency Analysis
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 185-188, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125064

ABSTRACT

Miasis es la infestación de humanos y animales por larvas de dípteros ciclorrafos con invasión y destrucción tisular. Cochliomyia hominivorax es responsable del 80% de las miasis en la Argentina. Es importante realizar el diagnóstico etiológico específico debido a la agresividad de las larvas de esta especie, las que pueden provocar cuadros clínicos graves. Presentamos cuatro casos de miasis por C. hominivorax. Dos de los pacientes residían en la ciudad de Buenos Aires y trabajan en zona rural, y los otros dos residían en el Gran Buenos Aires.


Miasis is the infestation of man and animals by larvae of flies belonging to the order Diptera, suborder Cyclorrapha. Eighty percent of miasis in Argentina is caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax, a species that induces pronounced tissue invasion and destruction, and results in severe clinical forms. Because of the aggressiveness of its larvae, it is important to reach a specific etiological diagnosis. We present four cases of miasis by C. hominivorax in two patients living in the city of Buenos Aires but working in a rural area and two patients living in the Greater Buenos Aires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myiasis/parasitology , Argentina , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use , Diptera , Larva , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Myiasis/etiology , Myiasis/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 82-84, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092726

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se comunica el caso clínico de un varón, con antecedentes de una cirrosis hepática alcohólica y gota, usuario crónico de antiinflamatorios, incluyendo corticoesteroides. Consultó por una melena secundaria a una úlcera bulbar. Durante su internación presentó fiebre, tratándose con ceftriaxona por un probable foco urinario. Por persistir febril, se realizó una paracentesis diagnóstica. En la muestra de líquido ascítico se observaron larvas de Strongyloides stercoralis. Recibió tratamiento antiparasitario con ivermectina, con buena respuesta clínica. Aunque la infección por S. stercoralis es relativamente frecuente en pacientes con cirrosis hepática alcohólica, la ascitis infectada por Strongyloides corresponde a una forma de presentación infrecuente. Este caso muestra la importancia de la paracentesis diagnóstica en todo paciente con ascitis secundaria a una cirrosis. Es importante considerar la presentación atípica de la infestación por Strongyloides en el contexto del paciente inmunocomprometido, ya que sin tratamiento puede tener una alta mortalidad.


Abstract Male patient, with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis frequent user of anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids. He consulted for digestive bleeding secondary to a bulbar ulcer. During the admission, he had fever and antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone is started, for a urinary infection. Fever persisted for 48 hours, so a diagnostic paracentesis was made: Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were seen in the direct microscopic exam. The patient started antiparasitic treatment with ivermectin. He was discharged and did not returned for follow up. Although infection with S. stercoralis is relatively common in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, ascites infected with Strongyloides corresponds to an infrequent form of presentation. This case shows the importance of diagnostic paracentesis in every cirrhotic patient. It is important to consider atypical presentation of Strongyloides infection in the immunocompromised host, considering it could be fatal without treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Strongyloidiasis/physiopathology , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Ascites/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Ascitic Fluid/parasitology , Treatment Outcome , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 410-418, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Studies related to infectivity status of insect vectors are seen as necessities in understanding the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and planning effective control measures. This study assessed the infectivity ofSimulium damnosum s.l. around Owena River as well as evaluated therapeutic coverage of Ivermectin distribution in the area. Method: Human landing sampling method was used to collect adult flies on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 for two consecutive days a month for three months (July 2016 - September 2016). Parity assessment was conducted to determine the age of fly populations. Parous flies were further dissected to detect the presence or absence ofOnchocerca larvae. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated using standard methods. A quantitative survey was carried out to determine the therapeutic coverage and compliance to ivermectin treatment for the control of Onchocerciasis in the study area using standard household coverage questionnaires. Results: A total of 914 adult female flies were collected during the study period. The daily biting rate (DBR) varied from 146 fly per man day (FMD) in July to 162.5 FMD in August. The monthly biting rate (MBR) was lowest in September (2170 bites per man per month) but highest in August (3358.3 bites per man per month). MBD ranged from 13.23 fly per man hour (FMH) in July to 14.77 FMH in August. The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the sampling points were nulliparous [685 (74.95%)] while others were parous [229 (25.05%)]. The biting activity of the flies showed a marked decrease in population in August compared to July which later increased in September. Infection rates varied from 2 (0.7%) in July to 7 (2.2%) in August while the infectivity rate during the study ranged from zero (July and September) to 3 (1.0%) in August. Conclusion: Despite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Onchocerciasis/drug therapy , Onchocerciasis/transmission , Simuliidae/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Insect Bites and Stings/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Onchocerciasis/parasitology , Rivers , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Nigeria/epidemiology
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 546-550, Sept-Oct. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040097

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a female adolescent with severe acute Chagas myocarditis, acquired by oral transmission in an endemic area in the Brazilian western Amazon, who had electrocardiographic changes normalized after empirical treatment with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole combined with conventional treatment for severe heart failure


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Stroke Volume , Trypanosoma cruzi , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 445-447, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978056

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Strongyloides stercoralis es una parasitosis frecuente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales, incluyendo la Amazonía peruana. En pacientes con inmunocompromiso, las manifestaciones clínicas son variadas y es frecuente la diseminación sistémica de la enfermedad, con compromiso de diversos órganos. Las manifestaciones cutáneas son infrecuentes y se describen en pacientes con algún grado de inmunosupresión. Se presenta el caso de un paciente inmunocompetente que desarrolló una púrpura reactiva por una infección por Strongyloides stercoralis crónica. Ante ello, es posible el compromiso cutáneo en pacientes inmunocompetentes con reagudización sistémica por este parásito.


Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is a common parasitic infection in tropical and subtropical regions, including the Peruvian Amazon. The clinical manifestations are varied in patients with immunocompromised disease, and the systemic spread of the disease is frequent, compromising different organs and systems. Cutaneous manifestations are infrequent, being described in patients with some degree of immunosuppression. We present the case of an immunocompetent patient who developed a reactive purpura due to chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Thus, skin involvement is possible in immunocompetent patients with systemic exacerbation due to this parasite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Purpura/etiology , Purpura/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Purpura/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Chlorpheniramine/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Antiparasitic Agents/classification , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipruritics/therapeutic use
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 277-278, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887187

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Crusted scabies is a less common variant of scabies that is highly contagious, difficult to treat and involves infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The classical clinical presentation includes crusted, scaly and generally non-pruritic lesions usually located on the head, neck, palmar, plantar and periungual region. It was first described in Norway in 1848 in patients with leprosy who presented with crusted lesions. In this study, we report the case of a patient with crusted scabies with florid clinical manifestations and chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and delta virus infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Scabies/pathology , Scabies/drug therapy , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Hepatitis B virus , End Stage Liver Disease/virology , Scabies/immunology , Treatment Outcome , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S49-S52, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117784

ABSTRACT

Amebiasis is the infection by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan capable of invading the colonic mucosa causing a diarrheic syndrome, although most of the time is mild, it can lead to a fulminating colitis. Sometimes it can spread to other organs; among extra-intestinal manifestations of this parasite, the most frequent is the amebic liver abscess. In the next pages, general aspects of this protozoan, its epidemiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed, emphasizing the possibilities of diagnosis and treatment available in Chile.


La amebiasis corresponde a la infección por Entamoeba histolytica, protozoo capaz de invadir la mucosa del colon provocando un cuadro diarréico que, si bien la mayoría de las veces es leve, puede llegar a una colitis fulminante. En algunas oportunidades puede diseminarse a otros órganos; dentro de las manifestaciones extra-intestinales de este parásito, la más frecuente es el absceso hepático amebiano. A continuación se revisan aspectos generales de este protozoo, su epidemiología, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento, destacando las posibilidades de diagnóstico y tratamiento disponibles en Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysentery, Amebic/diagnosis , Dysentery, Amebic/drug therapy , Liver Abscess, Amebic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Amebic/drug therapy , Diarrhea/parasitology , Dysentery, Amebic/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Liver Abscess, Amebic/parasitology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1491-1495, nov.-dez. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-910177

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi relatar a eficácia do fluralaner no tratamento da demodicidose juvenil generalizada canina. Dois caninos, apresentando dois e três meses de idade, com diagnóstico clínico e parasitológico de demodicidose generalizada, foram tratados com administração única de fluralaner, na dose recomendada em bula pelo fabricante. Além disso, foi realizada a terapia adjuvante à base de xampu de peróxido de benzoíla e domperidona. Observou-se uma resposta terapêutica satisfatória, com repilação completa ao 30º dia após a administração do fármaco. Para cada paciente, foi realizado exame parasitológico do raspado cutâneo aos 75 e 90 dias seguintes ao início do tratamento, e todos foram negativos. Tendo em vista a elevada eficácia do tratamento proposto, sugere-se a inclusão do fluralaner nos protocolos terapêuticos destinados à demodicidose canina, particularmente nos pacientes pediátricos e com a forma generalizada da doença.(AU)


The aim of the present study was to report the efficiency of fluralaner on the treatment of two cases of canine generalized juvenile demodicosis. Two puppies, aging two and three months old, with the clinic and parasitological diagnosis of generalized demodicosis were treated with single administration of fluralaner. according to the dose recommended by the responsible laboratory. Additionally, adjuvant therapy was applied using benzoyl peroxide shampoo and domperidone. A satisfactory therapeutic response was observed, and complete repilation was present at the 30th day after drug administration. For each patient, at the 75th and 90th day after the treatment began, skin scrapings were performed in order to investigate the presence of Demodex sp; and all were negative. Considering the high efficiency of the treatment used, we suggest the inclusion of fluralaner on the therapeutic protocol for canine demodicosis, particularly in pediatric patients and with the generalized form of the disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoyl Peroxide/therapeutic use , Domperidone/therapeutic use , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(2): 250-254, feb. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845530

ABSTRACT

Myiasis is an infestation of tissues and organs of humans and animals by Diptera larvae (flies, horseflies, mosquitoes). They are located at different body sites, and classified clinically as cutaneous, visceral and cavitary. We report a 26-year-old woman with a history of seborrheic dermatitis and recent trip to Brazil. She presented with a seven days history of suppurating wounds in the parieto-occipital area of the scalp. At physical examination we found three ulcers of approximately 1.5 cm each, with multiple mobile larvae inside. The obtained larvae were analyzed, identifying Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae at L2 and L3 stages. The patient was managed successfully with oral antimicrobials and local cleansing. The screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax in our country is rare. Known risk factors are wounds, poor personal hygiene, extreme ages, psychiatric disorders, presence of specific dermatosis such as psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/complications , Diptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Myiasis/complications , Myiasis/diagnosis , Travel , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Diptera/classification , Larva/classification , Myiasis/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 47-53, feb. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844444

ABSTRACT

The strongyloidiasis is a parasitic disease that poses as a serious public health problem, mainly in tropical and subtropical countries. Over the years, some conditions, such as advances in corticosteroid treatment and immunosuppressive diseases, have improved not only the increase in cases of strongyloidiasis, but also the emergence of severe forms of the disease and / or deaths. For these reasons, the objective of this study is to make a critical analysis of the occurrence of strongyloidiasis in patients with comorbidities, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with these diseases that can highlight the importance of monitoring this parasitosis in most susceptible groups.


La estrongiloidiasis es una parasitosis que representa un grave problema de salud pública, principalmente en países ubicados en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. A lo largo de los años, algunas condiciones, como por ejemplo, avances en el tratamiento con corticosteroides y enfermedades que evolucionan con inmunosupresión, han favorecido no solamente al aumento de casos de estrongiloidiasis, sino también al surgimiento de formas graves de la enfermedad y/u decesos. Por lo expuesto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un análisis crítico de la ocurrencia de la estrongiloidiasis en portadores de co-morbilidades, describiendo las características clínico-epidemiológicas de esa asociación que puedan resaltar la importancia de vigilar esta parasitosis en grupos considerados más susceptibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Strongyloidiasis/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Thiabendazole/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(1): 47-51, jan. 2017. tab.
Article in English | ID: biblio-837451

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a single oral dose of doramectin in the control of Psoroptes ovis and Leporacarus gibbus in naturally infested rabbits. Sixteen adult rabbits were selected and distributed in two experimental groups. The treated group received 200 µg/Kg of oral doramectin and the control group received the same volume of saline solution. The diagnosis of the mites was made with a stereoscopic microscope. Hairs from the dorsal part of the neck, lumbar right, lumbar left, ventral side of the tail and ventral abdomen were evaluated for L. gibbus, and ear wax evaluated for P. ovis. The evaluation of the efficiency and the clinical assessment of the lesions was made in days 0, +3, +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 after treatment. An efficacy of 75% and 87,5% was observed for L. gibbus in days +3 and +7 after treatment, an efficacy of 100% was observed in days +14, + 21, +28 e +35. An efficacy of 100% for the control of P. ovis was observed following day +7. The clinical lesion score of the control group remained unaltered, except for one animal which conditions worsened during experimentation. In the treated group animals, regression of the lesions was observed following day +3, and on day +21 no signal of infestation by P. ovis was present. None of the animals from the treated group presented secondary collateral effects caused by the doramectin, which proved itself as an optimal alternative for mite control in naturally infested rabbits.(AU)


O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da doramectina administrada por via oral no controle de Psoroptes ovis e Leporacarus gibbus em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram selecionados 16 coelhos adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais, compondo oito animais por grupo. O grupo tratado foi medicado com 200µg/kg de doramectina por via oral, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado o mesmo volume de solução salina. O diagnóstico dos ácaros foi realizado com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foram coletados pelos das regiões do pescoço dorsal, lombar direita, lombar esquerda, cauda ventral e abdômen ventral para avaliação de L. gibbus e para P. ovis foi coletado cerúmen das orelhas com auxílio de zaragatoas. A avaliação da eficácia e a avaliação clínica das lesões, mensuradas em escores (grau 0 a 4), foi realizada nos dias 0, +3, +7, +14, +21, +28 e +35, após o tratamento. Foi observada eficácia de 75% e 87,5% no controle de L. gibbus nos dias +3 e +7 após o tratamento, sendo observada eficácia de 100% nos dias +14, + 21, +28 e +35. Foi observada eficácia de 100% no controle de P. ovis a partir do dia +7, permanecendo até o final do período observacional. O escore das lesões clínicas no grupo controle permaneceu de forma inalterada, exceto em um animal que piorou ao longo dos dias experimentais, enquanto nos animais do grupo tratado regrediu a partir do dia +3 e já no dia +21 após o tratamento, os animais apresentavam-se sem sinais da infestação por P. ovis. Nenhum animal do grupo tratado apresentou quaisquer efeitos colaterais secundários causados pela doramectina, que se mostrou uma ótima alternativa para o controle dos ácaros em coelhos naturalmente parasitados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Acari/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoroptidae , Tick Control/methods , Administration, Oral , Mite Infestations/therapy , Mite Infestations/veterinary
15.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842791

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Most breast cancers originate in the ductal epithelium and are referred to as invasive ductal carcinoma. In this study we report on the clinical procedures adopted to diagnose myiasis in association with infiltrating metastatic breast carcinoma in a female patient. A 41 years old woman came to the Federal Hospital of Andaraí complaining of intense itching, warmth, redness and hardening of the breast, which had acquired the aspect of an orange peel. A lesion in the left breast was cavitated, dimpled, had fetid odor, and had fibrotic and infected air nodules filled with exudate and Dipteran larvae. The tissue was cleaned and 33 larvae were extracted. The patient was hospitalized and received Ivermectin. Eighteen of the larvae extracted from the patient were placed in 70% alcohol, and twelve were placed in a container with sterile wood shavings under controlled conditions until they metamorphosed into adults. The taxonomic identification of the flies revealed that the culprit was Cochliomyia hominivorax. A histopathological exam conducted three months earlier had revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Two months after the myiasis treatment, the breast tissue had healed. The patient had waited ten days from the onset of the myiasis to seek treatment, and that delay interfered negatively in the prognosis of both the neoplasm and the myiasis. This study is relevant to public health in view of the strong social impact of myiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Carcinoma, Ductal/complications , Myiasis/complications , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/parasitology , Carcinoma, Ductal/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Larva , Myiasis/diagnosis , Myiasis/drug therapy
16.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 52(4): 36-39, out.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831708

ABSTRACT

Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of neurologic and psychiatric disorders; it is a frequent etiology for acquired epilepsy worldwide. The parasitic infection of Taenia solium (including larval dissemination to the nervous system) can be avoided by effective means of prevention. Nonetheless, this disease remains endemic in many regions of the world. To demonstrate the importance of prophylaxis this paper reports the case of a patient without spleen, who was treated for neurocysticercosis manifested by epilepsy. In twenty years of follow up, the patient did not experience a repeat occurrence of neurocysticercosis, despite of immunological impairment (absence of spleen) and environmental exposure (living in an endemic area). Prevention was guided by a regular use of anthelmintic (Albendazole) and health education.


Neurocisticercose é uma importante causa de doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas, é uma frequente etiologia de epilepsia adquirida, no mundo. A infecção parasitária da Taenia solium (incluindo a disseminação das larvas para o sistema nervoso) pode ser evitada por meios eficazes de prevenção; no entanto, esta enfermidade ainda é endêmica em muitas regiões do mundo. Para demonstrar a importância da profilaxia relata-se o caso de um paciente sem baço, o qual foi tratado para a neurocisticercose manifestada por epilepsia. Em vinte anos de seguimento, o paciente não repetiu a ocorrência de neurocisticercose, apesar de dano imunológico (ausência de baço) e exposição ambiental (habitação em área endêmica). A prevenção foi guiada pelo uso regular de anti-helmíntico (Albendazole) e medidas educativas em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Young Adult , Neurocysticercosis/complications , Neurocysticercosis/chemically induced , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Splenectomy , Swine , Prevalence , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(4)oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960655

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as Leishmanioses correspondem a um complexo de doenças tropicais causada por mais de vinte diferentes espécies de protozoários intracelulares pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. A Doença de Chagas é uma doença que representa um dos principais problemas de saúde pública em vários países, afetando sobretudo a população carente e rural. Melissa officinalis L., é uma erva perene, uma planta exótica, cuja família é Lamiaceae, que tem sido amplamente utilizada na medicina popular com finalidades terapêuticas. O seu óleo essencial tem sido usado como antioxidante, antimicótica, antifúngica, sedativa e antivirótica. Objetivo: avaliar a citotoxicidade, composição química e atividade antiparasitária do óleo essencial da espécie M. officinalis. Métodos: M. officcinalis foi coletada no município do Crato, CE, Brasil, e foi depositada no herbário da Universidade Regional do Cariri URCA. A análise da composição química do óleo essencial de M. officcinalis, foi realizada através de Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada à Espectrometria de Massas. No estudo da atividade leishmanicida in vitro, utilizou-se formas promastigotas de L. braziliensis e epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. Para a atividade citotóxica utilizou-se a linhagem de fibroblastos de mamífero NCTC clone 929. Resultados: a través da análise do óleo essencial de M. officcinalis feita por CG/EM, foi possível identificar 12 constituintes que totalizavam 99,83 por cento, dentre os quais alguns foram majoritários: Geranial, Z Citral, 1- Limonene e Carvone. Foi verificado baixa toxicidade contra os fibroblastos. M. officcinalis exibiu maior capacidade para impedir a replicação contra a forma promastigota do protozoário, nas concentrações testadas. Conclusão: a espécie pode ser uma fonte importante na busca de agentes novos e seletivos para o tratamento de doenças tropicais causadas por protozoários, cujas propriedades necessitam ser investigadas quanto aso seus mecanismos(AU)


Introducción: Leishmaniasis corresponde a un complejo de enfermedades tropicales causadas por más de veinte especies diferentes de protozoos intracelulares que pertenece al género Leishmania. La enfermedad de Chagas es una enfermedad que es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública en muchos países, que afectan especialmente a la población pobre y rural. Melissa officinalis L., es una hierba perenne, una planta exótica, cuya familia Lamiaceae, ha sido ampliamente utilizado en la medicina popular para fines terapéuticos. Su aceite esencial se ha usado como un antioxidante, antimicótico, antifúngica, antiviral y sedante. Objetivo: evaluar la citotoxicidad, la composición química y la actividad antiparasitaria del aceite esencial de la especie M. officinalis. Métodos: M. officinalis se recogió en el municipio de Crato, CE, Brasil, y fue depositado en el herbario de la Universidad Regional del Cariri URCA. El análisis de la composición química del aceite esencial de M. officcinalis se realizó por espectrometría de masa de cromatografía de gas. En el estudio de la actividad invitro leishmanicida se utilizó promastigotes L. braziliensis y Trypanosoma cruzi. Para la actividad citotóxica se utilizó la cepa de fibroblastos de mamífero NCTC clon 929. Resultados: a través de análisis de aceite esencial de M. officinalis hizo por GC/ EM se identificó un total de 12 constituyentes 99,83 por ciento, entre los cuales algunos eran mayoría: geranial, Z citral, limoneno y carvona 1. Se comprobó una baja toxicidad contra fibroblastos. M. officcinalis exhibió mayor capacidad para evitar la replicación contra la forma promastigote de parásito, a las concentraciones ensayadas. Conclusión: la especie puede ser una fuente importante en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes y selectivos para el tratamiento de enfermedades tropicales causadas por protozoos, cuyas propiedades deben ser investigados con respecto a sus mecanismos(AU)


Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a complex of tropical diseases caused by more than twenty different species of intracellular protozoa from the genus Leishmania. Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in many countries. It mostly affects the poor, rural population. Melissa officinalis L. is a perennial herb, an exotic plant from the family Lamiaceae which has been widely used in folk medicine for therapeutic purposes. Its essential oil has been used as antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral and sedative. Objective: Evaluate the cytotoxicity, chemical composition and antiparasitic activity of essential oil of the species M. officinalis. Methods: M. officinalis specimens were collected from the municipality of Crato, CE, Brazil, and deposited in the herbarium at the Regional University of Cariri (URCA). Analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil of M. officinalis was performed by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. L. braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi promastigotes were used for the study of in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Mammalian fibroblast strain NCTC clone 929 was used to evaluate cytotoxic activity. Results: Analysis of essential oil from M. officinalis by GC / MS led to identification of a total 12 constituents 99.83 percent, among which some were a majority: geranial, Z citral, limonene and 1-carvone. Toxicity against fibroblasts was found to be low. M. officinalis displayed greater capacity to avoid replication against the promastigote form of the parasite at the concentrations assayed. Conclusion: The species may be an important source of new agents and selective media for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by protozoa, whose properties should be studied with respect to their mechanisms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(5): 584-588, oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844410

ABSTRACT

Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.


La estrongiloidosis es una infección causada por el parásito Strongyloides stercoralis, la cual puede cursar con una alta morbi-mortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con desnutrición grave y coinfección con el virus HTLV-1. Se puede desarrollar una hiperinfección, dado que el parásito tiene el potencial de producir una autoinfección interna. Se presenta un caso de infección pulmonar por S. stercoralis que progresó a una falla respiratoria y requirió soporte ventilatorio y hemodinámico en una unidad de cuidados intensivos, suministrándole el tratamiento estándar combinado de ivermectina y albendazol con una respuesta satisfactoria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
19.
RECIIS (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, jan.-mar.2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784671

ABSTRACT

Com o aumento de diagnósticos da doença de Chagas, surge a necessidade de desenvolvimento de fármacos que tenham maior efeito contra os parasitas. O presente artigo objetiva apresentar um mapeamento tecnológico dos documentos de patentes relacionadas a tecnologias que empregam fármacos antiparasitários para tratamento da doença Chagas, por intermédio do banco de patentes do United States Patent andTrademark Office – USPTO. A primeira patente das 117 analisadas foi depositada nessa base em 1976. Os resultados demonstram que os estudos sobre o tratamento da doença de Chagas por meio de fármacos antiparasitários estão em desenvolvimento, focados na prevenção da doença, e são subsidiados em sua maioria por iniciativas particulares. Há pouco interesse da indústria farmacêutica no desenvolvimento de novos fármacos para tratamento e as universidades não têm incentivo para desenvolvimento de pesquisas sobre esse tema...


Con el aumento del diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Chagas, hay una necesidad de desarrollar fármacos quetengan un mayor efecto contra parásitos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar un mapeo tecnológico dedocumentos de patentes relacionadas con las tecnologías que emplean fármacos antiparasitarios para tratarla enfermedad de Chagas, a través del United States Patent and Trademark Office – USPTO. Se analizaron117 patentes; la primera patente había sido presentada en esa base en 1976. Los resultados muestran que losestudios sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas a través de medicamentos antiparasitarios estánen desarrollo, centrados en la prevención de la enfermedad, y la mayoría es subvencionada por iniciativasprivadas. Hay poco interés por parte de la industria farmacéutica para desarrollar nuevos fármacos para eltratamiento y las universidades no tienen incentivos para desarrollar la investigación en esta área...


With increasing diagnostic Chagas disease, it is necessary to develop drugs that have a greater effect againstparasites. This article aims to present a technological mapping of patent documents related to technologiesemploying antiparasitic drugs to treat Chagas disease, through the patent database United States Patentand Trademark Office - USPTO. 117 patents were analyzed, and the first patent was filed on that basis in1976. The results show that studies of the treatment of Chagas disease through antiparasitic drugs are in development,focused on preventing the disease, and most of them are subsidized by private initiatives. Thereis little interest from the pharmaceutical industry to develop new drugs for treatment and universities haveno incentive to develop research in this area...


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Intellectual Property , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Industry , Governmental Research Institutes , Inventors/statistics & numerical data , Pharmaceutical Preparations
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 113-122, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714788

ABSTRACT

Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle.


Carrapatos e as doenças por eles transmitidas causam grandes perdas econômicas ao gado dos países tropicais. Alternativas não-químicas incluem o uso de raças de gado que sejam resistentes, controle biológico e vacinas. No entanto, o método mais utilizado é a aplicação de diferentes classes químicas de acaricidas e lactonas macrocíclicas. Populações de piolhos de gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistentes aos organofosfatos (OP), piretoides sintéticos (SP), amitraz e fipronil, foram descritas no México. Lactonas macrocíclicas são as drogas antiparasitárias mais vendidas no mercado veterinário mexicano. Populações de R. (B.) microplus resistentes à irvemectina foram relatadas no Brasil, Uruguai e especialmente no México (Veracruz e Yucatan). Embora os níveis de resistência à ivermectina no R. (B.) microplus do México tenha sido relativamente baixa, na maioria dos casos, algumas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus mostraram altos níveis de resistência à ivermectina. A população CHPAT mostrou uma razão de resistência de 10,23 e 79,6 na concentração letal de 50% e 99%, respectivamente. Muitas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus são resistentes a múltiplas classes de drogas antiparasitárias, incluindo organofosfatos (clorpirifós, coumafos e diazinon), piretoides (flumetrina, deltametrina e cipermetrina), amitraz e ivermectina. Este artigo relata o estado atual de resistência do R. (B.) microplus aos acaricidas, especialmente ivermectina, no gado mexicano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acaricides/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Agriculture , Acaricides/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lactones/pharmacology , Lactones/therapeutic use , Mexico , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary
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