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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200040, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is a chronic infection that can affect the skin and mucous membranes. We report a case of oral, nasopharyngeal, and penile lesions in a 35-year-old cocaine user. The patient presented with ulcerated lesions in 2014. Histopathologic analysis revealed amastigotes, and serological test results were positive for leishmaniasis. Systemic therapy with meglumine antimoniate was administered; however, the patient failed to present for follow-up. In 2018, he returned with nasal collapse, and another histopathologic test confirmed MCL. This case illustrates the importance of careful differential diagnosis of skin and mucous ulcers to identify the particular pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Meglumine Antimoniate/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(9): 539-547, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042335

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To describe a population of pregnant women diagnosed with toxoplasmosis and their respective newborns, describing the hospital protocol for treatment and follow-up. Methods Retrospective cohort of pregnant women with acute toxoplasmosis infection and risk of transplacental transmission who were sent to the Fetal Medicine Group of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) between - January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2016. All patients with confirmed disease were included. The diagnostic protocol and treatment were applied; a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid was used to diagnose toxoplasmosis and determine the treatment. The newborns were followed up at the pediatric outpatient clinic specializing in congenital infection. The patients who were not followed up or were not born in the HCPA were excluded. Results A total of 65 patients were confirmed to have gestational toxoplasmosis; 40 performed amniocentesis, and 6 (15%) were identified as having positive PCR in the amniotic fluid. In five of those cases, this result associated with the gestational age defined the triple therapy during pregnancy, and in one case, it defined the monotherapy (advanced gestational age). A total of 4 of these newborns were treated from birth with triple therapy for 10months, 1 was not treated (due to maternal refusal), and 1 progressed to death within the first 54 hours of life due to complications of congenital toxoplasmosis. Of the 34 remaining cases with a negative PCR, 33 were treated with monotherapy and 1 was treated with triple therapy (ultrasound findings); of these children, 9 (26.5%) presented negative immunoglobulin G (IgG), 24 (70.6%) presented positive IgG (but none presented positive immunoglobulin M [IgM]), and 1 (2,9%) presented alterations compatible with congenital disease and started treatment with the triple therapy soon after birth. Out of the total sample of 60 patients, among the 25 who did not perform amniotic fluid PCR, 5 were treated with triple therapy (ultrasound findings/prior treatment) and 20 patients were submitted to monotherapy; only two newborns underwent treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis. Among the 65 cases of gestational toxoplasmosis, 6 (9,2%) children had a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, and 2 patients with triple therapy felt severe adverse effects of the medications. Conclusions The present study suggests that research on PCR screening of the amniotic fluid may be useful to identify patients with a higher potential for fetal complications, who may benefit from the poly-antimicrobial treatment. Patients with negative PCR results must continue to prevent fetal infection with monotherapy, without risk of fetal or maternal impairment.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever uma população de pacientes diagnosticadas com toxoplasmose na gestação e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, relatando o protocolo do hospital durante o tratamento e seguimento. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva de gestantes com infecção aguda por toxoplasmose e risco de transmissão transplacentária, encaminhadas para acompanhamento pelo Grupo deMedicina Fetal doHospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) entre 1o de janeiro de 2006 e 31 de dezembro de 2016. Todas as pacientes comdoença confirmada foram incluídas. O protocolo de diagnóstico e tratamento foi aplicado; uma análise da reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) no líquido amniótico foi utilizada para diagnosticar a toxoplasmose e determinar o tratamento. Os recém-nascidos foram acompanhados no ambulatório de pediatria especializadoeminfecções congênitas. Pacientes que não foramseguidas ou cujo parto não foi feito no hospital foram excluídas. Resultados A toxoplasmose gestacional foi confirmada em 65 pacientes; 40 realizaram amniocentese, e 6 (15%) foram identificadas com RCP positiva no líquido amniótico. Este resultado associado à idade gestacional definiu a terapia tríplice durante a gestação em 5 casos, e a monoterapia em 1 caso (por idade gestacional avançada). Quatro destas crianças foram tratadas desde o nascimento com terapia tríplice por 12 meses, 1 não foi tratada (por recusa materna), e 1 evoluiu com óbito dentro das primeiras 54 horas de vida devido a complicações da toxoplasmose congênita. Dos 34 casos remanescentes com RCP negativa, 33 foram tratados com monoterapia, e 1 foi tratado com terapia tríplice (por achados ultrassonográficos); destes recém-nascidos, 9 (26,5%) tiveram imunoglobulina G (IgG) negativa, 24 (70,6%) tiveram IgG positiva, mas nenhum apresentou imunoglobulina M (IgM) positiva, e 1 (2,9%) apresentou alterações compatíveis comdoença congênita e iniciou a terapia tríplice logo após o nascimento. Entre as 25 pacientes que não fizeram RCP no líquido amniótico, 5 foram tratadas com terapia tríplice (por achados ultrassonográficos/ tratamento prévio) e 20 receberam monoterapia; somente 2 recém-nascidos receberam tratamento para toxoplasmose congênita. Entre os 65 casos de toxoplasmose gestacional, 6 (9,2%) recém-nascidos tiveram o diagnóstico de toxoplasmose congênita. Um total de 2 pacientes submetidas à terapia tríplice apresentaram efeitos adversos severos das medicações utilizadas. Conclusão Este estudo sugere que a triagem da RCP para toxoplasmose do líquido amniótico pode ser útil no rastreamento de pacientes com maior potencial para complicações fetais, que podem se beneficiar do tratamento poli antimicrobiano. Pacientes com RCP negativa devem continuar a prevenir a infecção fetal com monoterapia, sem risco de comprometimento fetal ou materno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Amniocentesis/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003136

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a high-morbidity, vector-borne disease endemic to Colombia. Unlike conventional systemic antileishmanial therapy, intralesional meglumine antimoniate administration has fewer adverse effects and can be as effective and safe. We describe 12 patients treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate: seven with primary and five with recurrent lesions. The majority (11/12) met all cure criteria after 1-7 sessions of meglumine antimoniate administration (1-5 mL). Adverse effects comprised mainly of local pain and edema. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate administration could be an excellent alternative treatment for uncomplicated CL; however, controlled clinical trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety thereof.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine Antimoniate/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Injections, Intralesional , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180292, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990435

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is difficult due to the toxicity and route of administration of standard drugs. Miltefosine is an oral agent used for leishmaniasis treatment; however, no data exist regarding its use for ML in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of miltefosine for ML treatment compared to that of pentavalent antimonial in a pilot study. METHODS: We performed a randomized clinical trial with two parallel groups. The tested intervention consisted of miltefosine 1.3-2 mg/kg/day (two capsules) for 28 days or intravenous 20 mg SbV/kg/day of meglumine antimoniate (N-MA) for 30 days. The final endpoint was defined as complete healing of the lesion four years after treatment. We also analyzed an early endpoint at 90 days after treatment. RESULTS: Forty patients were included in this study: each experimental group comprised 20 patients. Applying a multivariate model in an intention-to-treat analysis, we observed that patients treated with miltefosine had a cure probability 2.08 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-4.18) than those treated with N-MA at 90 days after treatment. At the final endpoint, we observed no differences in cure probability between miltefosine and N-MA (relative risk = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.33-1.32). With respect to adverse reactions, significant differences between groups were related to gastrointestinal effects, which were more frequent in the miltefosine group. CONCLUSIONS: Miltefosine may be an interesting alternative for treating ML because of its oral administration and cure rate after long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine Antimoniate/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Phosphorylcholine/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180272, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041550

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not diagnosed and treated. This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic alternatives for VL in Brazil. METHODS: A decision model estimated the life expectancy and costs of six diagnostic-therapeutic strategies. RESULTS: IT LEISH + liposomal amphotericin B emerged the best option, presenting lower costs and higher effectiveness. DAT-LPC + liposomal amphotericin B showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$ 326.31 per life year. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the feasibility of incorporating DAT and designating liposomal amphotericin B as the first-line drug for VL in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/economics , Meglumine/economics , Antiprotozoal Agents/economics , Brazil , Coombs Test/economics , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/economics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180246, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a global public health concern. Currently available treatments are associated with considerable side effects. The use of nanotechnology has shown promise for improving efficacy and bioavailability and minimizing side effects. METHODS: This study investigated available literature, including patents and scientific articles, to identify advances in the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Our findings revealed a stable number of patents and scientific articles published over the past five years. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to intensify research on the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Nanotechnology/statistics & numerical data , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Bibliometrics
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 393-396, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957422

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease that is potentially severe and endemic in Brazil. It clinically manifests as fever, weight loss, swelling, hepatosplenomegaly, paleness, and edema. In this study, we discuss a case of a 1-year-old child diagnosed with refractory visceral leishmaniasis after being treated with liposomal amphotericin B in two distinct occasions. Considering the persistent clinical features and weak response to conventional treatment, a combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome), n-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime), and pentamidine isethionate was initiated, and response to treatment was good.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Pentamidine/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Meglumine Antimoniate
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 71-79, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Despite its recognised toxicity, antimonial therapy continues to be the first-line drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment. Intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate (MA) represents an alternative that could reduce the systemic absorption of the drug and its side effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to validate the standard operational procedure (SOP) for the intralesional infiltration of MA for CL therapy as the first step before the assessment of efficacy and safety related to the procedure. METHODS The SOP was created based on 21 trials retrieved from the literature, direct monitoring of the procedure and consultation with experts. This script was submitted to a formal computer-aided inspection to identify readability, clarity, omission, redundancy and unnecessary information (content validation). For criterion and construct validations, the influence of critical condition changes (compliance with the instructions and professional experience) on outcome conformity (saturation status achievement), tolerability (pain referred) and safety (bleeding) were assessed. FINDINGS The median procedure length was 12 minutes and in 72% of them, patients classified the pain as mild. The bleeding was also classified as mild in 96.6% of the procedures. Full compliance with the SOP was observed in 66% of infiltrations. Despite this, in 100% of the inspected procedures, lesion saturation was observed at the end of infiltration, which means that it tolerates some degree of modification in its execution (robustness) without prejudice to the result. CONCLUSIONS The procedure is reproducible and can be used by professionals without previous training with high success and safety rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Clinical Protocols/standards , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 269-272, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is not itself a life-threatening disease, its treatment with systemic antimonials can cause toxicity that can be dangerous to some patients. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate provides a viable, less toxic alternative. Herein, we describe an alternative treatment with subcutaneous intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate into large periarticular lesions of three patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and comorbidities. This treatment was safe, successful, and well tolerated. This case series suggests that intralesional meglumine antimoniate is an effective therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis, even with periarticular lesions. This hypothesis should be tested in controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Injections, Intralesional , Treatment Outcome , Meglumine , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 774-776, Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041383

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Intralesional treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis has been applied for over 30 years at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, with good therapeutic results and without relevant systemic toxicity. METHODS Meglumine antimoniate was injected subcutaneously, using a long medium-caliber needle (for example, 30mm × 0.8mm); patients received 1-3 injections, with 15-day intervals. RESULTS The technique is described in detail sufficient to enable replication. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional meglumine antimoniate is a simple, effective, and safe technique, which may be used in basic healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Injections, Intralesional/standards , Meglumine Antimoniate
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 512-516, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789001

ABSTRACT

Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 807-813, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769514

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS: there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Benzamidines/administration & dosage , Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pilot Projects , Phenyl Ethers/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 235-242, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749870

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is one of the six major tropical diseases targeted by the World Health Organization. It is a life-threatening disease of medical, social and economic importance in endemic areas. No vaccine is yet available for human use, and chemotherapy presents several problems. Pentavalent antimonials have been the drugs of choice to treat the disease for more than six decades; however, they exhibit high toxicity and are not indicated for children, for pregnant or breastfeeding women or for chronically ill patients. Amphotericin B (AmpB) is a second-line drug, and although it has been increasingly used to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), its clinical use has been hampered due to its high toxicity. This review focuses on the development and in vivo usage of new delivery systems for AmpB that aim to decrease its toxicity without altering its therapeutic efficacy. These new formulations, when adjusted with regard to their production costs, may be considered new drug delivery systems that promise to improve the treatment of leishmaniasis, by reducing the side effects and the number of doses while permitting a satisfactory cost-benefit ratio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Nanoparticles , Nanotechnology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 756-762, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732985

ABSTRACT

Introduction Parenteral antimony-based compounds are still the standard of care for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment in many countries, despite their high toxicity. Previous studies showed that oral azithromycin could be an option for CL treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin (AZ) for CL treatment compared with injectable meglumine antimoniate (MA). Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm, non-inferiority clinical trial. Treatment-naïve patients with localized CL were treated with MA (15mg/kg/day up to 1,215mg) or AZ (500mg/day) during 20 consecutive days. The primary efficacy end point was a CL cure 90 days after treatment completion. The analysis was performed with intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. After an anticipated interim analysis, the study was interrupted due to the high failure rate in the azithromycin group. Results Twenty-four volunteers were included in each group. The MA group had a higher cure rate than the AZ group with the ITT and PP analyses, which were 54.2% versus 20.8% [relative risk (RR) 1.97; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) 1.13-3.42] and 72.2% versus 23.8% (RR 3.03; 95%CI 1.34-6.87), respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Brazil , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 420-427, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716312

ABSTRACT

Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antimony/analysis , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Meglumine/pharmacokinetics , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Tissue Distribution
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(4): 361-362, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716423

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 42 year-old female, who came to a leishmaniasis reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presenting a cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion in the right forearm. Treatment with low-dose intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (MA) (5 mg Sb5+/kg/day) was initiated, with improvement after 28 days, although with the development of generalized eczema. After 87 days, the lesion worsened. Patient refused treatment with amphotericin B. MA was then infiltrated in the lesion, in two sessions, resulting in local eczema, with bullae formation; however, twenty days after, both the ulcer and eczema receded. Intralesional administration of MA should be used carefully when previous cutaneous hypersensitivity is detected.


Relatamos caso de paciente de 42 anos atendida em centro de referência em leishmanioses no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, apresentando lesão de leishmaniose cutânea no antebraço direito. Iniciado tratamento com baixa dose de antimoniato de meglumina (AM) intramuscular (5 mg Sb5+/kg/dia), houve melhora após 28 dias, porém com desenvolvimento de eczema generalizado. Após 87 dias, notou-se piora da lesão. A paciente recusou o tratamento com anfotericina B. Infiltrou-se AM na lesão em duas sessões, resultando em eczema local com bolhas. Entretanto, 20 dias depois, tanto a úlcera quanto o eczema regrediram. A administração intralesional do AM deve ser utilizada com cautela em pacientes com hipersensibilidade cutânea a este fármaco.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/drug therapy , Eczema/chemically induced , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Eczema/drug therapy , Injections, Intralesional , Injections, Intramuscular , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(4): 291-296, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716424

ABSTRACT

The favorable outcome of the treatment of a disease is influenced by the adherence to therapy. Our objective was to assess factors associated with adherence to treatment of patients included in a clinical trial of equivalence between the standard and alternative treatment schemes with meglumine antimoniate (MA) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Between 2008 and 2011, 57 patients with CL were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data. The following methods were used for adherence monitoring: counting of vial surplus, monitoring card, Morisky test and modified Morisky test (without the question regarding the schedule); we observed 82.1% (vial return), 86.0% (monitoring card), 66.7% (Morisky test) and 86.0% (modified Morisky test) adherence. There was a strong correlation between the method of vial counting and the monitoring card and modified Morisky test. A significant association was observed between greater adherence to treatment and low dose of MA, as well as with a lower number of people sleeping in the same room. We recommend the use of the modified Morisky test to assess adherence to treatment of CL with MA, because it is a simple method and with a good performance, when compared to other methods.


O desfecho favorável ao tratamento de uma enfermidade é influenciado pela adesão à terapia. Objetivamos avaliar fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento dos pacientes incluídos em ensaio clínico de equivalência entre o esquema de tratamento padrão e alternativos com antimoniato de meglumina (AM) no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea (LC) no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Entre 2008 e 2011, 57 pacientes com LC foram entrevistados através de questionário para coleta de dados socioeconômicos. Para monitorização da adesão foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: contagem de ampolas excedentes, cartão de acompanhamento, teste de Morisky e teste de Morisky modificado (sem a pergunta referente ao horário). Observou-se adesão de 82,1% (devolução de ampolas), 86,0% (cartão de acompanhamento), 66,7% (teste de Morisky) e 86,0% (teste de Morisky modificado). Houve forte concordância entre o método contagem de ampolas e cartão de acompanhamento, bem como teste de Morisky modificado. Verificou-se associação significativa entre maior adesão ao tratamento e baixa dose de AM, bem como com menor número de pessoas dormindo no mesmo quarto. Recomendamos a utilização do teste de Morisky modificado na avaliação da adesão ao tratamento da LC com AM por ser método simples e com bom desempenho quando comparado aos outros testes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 669-677, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698068

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess and synthesize the information available in the literature regarding the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and mRCT databases to identify clinical trials and observational studies that assessed the pharmacological treatment of the following groups of patients: pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases and individuals with suppressed immune systems. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. The available evidence suggests that the treatments of choice for each population or disease entity are as follows: nursing mothers and children (meglumine antimoniate or pentamidine), patients with renal disease (amphotericin B or miltefosine), patients with heart disease (amphotericin B, miltefosine or pentamidine), immunosuppressed patients (liposomal amphotericin), the elderly (meglumine antimoniate), pregnant women (amphotericin B) and patients with liver disease (no evidence available). The quality of evidence is low or very low for all groups. Accurate controlled studies are required to fill in the gaps in evidence for treatment in special populations. Post-marketing surveillance programs could also collect relevant information to guide treatment decision-making.


Subject(s)
Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Evidence-Based Medicine , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Immunocompromised Host , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Pentamidine/administration & dosage , Phosphorylcholine/administration & dosage , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Risk Factors
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(3): 462-464, jun. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676239

ABSTRACT

We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment.


Paciente do sexo masculino, 18 anos. Dois anos após tratamento insuficiente para leishmaniose tegumentar americana, apresentou, na mesma localização, lesão formada por cicatriz atrófica central e nódulos verrucosos na periferia. Era imunocompetente, hígido e negava qualquer trauma local. O diagnóstico de leishmaniose recidiva cutis foi feito através de cultura do aspirado da lesão. Realizou tratamento com N-metilglucamina (20mgSbV/kg/dia) associado à pentoxifilina (1200mg/dia) durante 30 dias alcançando cura clínica. Os casos semelhantes requerem atenção diferenciada pela dificuldade ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Pentoxifylline/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
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