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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200208, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143878


Abstract Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is a skin disorder occurring in 5-10% of visceral leishmaniasis patients after treatment with miltefosine,the first-line drug for this skin disorder. We reported a case of acute anterior uveitis,a rare adverse effect, experienced by a patient treated with miltefosine for post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. This adverse effect developed after 15 days of miltefosine consumption, and the patient himself discontinued the treatment. The ophthalmic complication was completely resolved with antibiotics and steroid eye drops. After recovery from the ophthalmic complication, the patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B for the skin lesions.

Humans , Uveitis/chemically induced , Uveitis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 355-357, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011111


Abstract: Pentavalent antimonials are the first-line drug treatment for American tegumentary leishmaniasis. We report on a patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis who presented with cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis for four months. The patient was treated with intravenous meglumine under strict nephrological surveillance, but cardiotoxicity, acute pancreatitis, pancytopenia, and cardiogenic shock developed rapidly. Deficient renal clearance of meglumine antimoniate can result in severe toxicity, as observed in this case. These side effects are related to cumulative plasma levels of the drug. Therefore, second-line drugs like amphotericin B are a better choice for patients on dialysis.

Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , /adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 347-355, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949892


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pentavalent antimonials remain as the standard drugs in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniosis. The high cost, difficult administration, long treatment time, toxicity and increasing morbidity are factors that limit the use of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To describe the response to radiofrequency thermotherapy in the treatment of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, and to evaluate its safety and tolerability. METHODS: We conducted a non-comparative open trial with a total of 15 patients confirmed to have cutaneous leishmaniasis on parasitological examination. A single radiofrequency thermotherapy session at 50ºC for 30 seconds was applied to the lesion and its edges. In patients with more than one lesion, only the largest one was treated initially. If after 30 days there was no evidence of healing, the smaller lesion was also treated with thermotherapy. Clinical cure was defined as visible healing for three months after treatment. The patients were followed-up for six months and there was no follow-up loss. RESULTS: Of all 23 lesions, only two evolved to complete healing without the need of treatment. Of 21 lesions, 18 (85.7%) achieved full healing. The main observed side effects were itching, burning sensation, pain and blisters. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Sample with a small number of patients and short follow-up. CONCLUSION: Thermotherapy can be considered a therapeutic alternative in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially in cases of single cutaneous lesions and with formal contraindications to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/therapy , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Radio Waves , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Confidence Intervals , Treatment Outcome , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Controlled Before-After Studies , Hyperthermia, Induced/adverse effects , Hyperthermia, Induced/standards , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 68-83, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915131


Los aceites esenciales (AEs), pertenecientes al género Lippia, son candidatos interesantes de formulaciones tópicas en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea (LC). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el perfil toxicológico y la actividad anti-Leishmania de AEs obtenidos de plantas colombianas del género Lippia. Ratones BALB/c fueron tratados tópica u oralmente con AEs obtenidos de L. alba quimiotipo citral (AE1) y de L. origanoides quimiotipos timol (AE2), carvacrol (AE3) y felandreno (AE4). El efecto del tratamiento en la irritación de la piel, la toxicidad aguda oral, la genotoxicidad (prueba cometa y micronúcleos), los cambios en la función hepática y renal, la inducción de reacción de hipersensibilidad de contacto y en la actividad contra L. (V) panamensis y L. (V.) braziliensis fueron determinados. Todos los AEs presentaron un perfil toxicológico similar a los parámetros normales, exceptuando los aceites AE2 y AE3 los cuales fueron irritantes y presentaron algunos signos de toxicidad aguda oral al ser utilizados en altas concentraciones (concentraciones bajas no fueron tóxicas). El AE2 mostró actividad antiparasitaria en las formas parasitarias evaluadas. Concentraciones bajas de los AEs podrían utilizarse de forma segura como componentes de formulaciones farmacológicas en LC.

Essential oils (EOs) belonging to the genus Lippia are interesting candidates in pharmaceutical systems for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this work was to determine both toxicological and antileishmanial activities of EOs obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed Colombian plants. BALB/c mice were treated topically or orally with EOs obtained from L. alba citral chemotype (EO1) and L. origanoides thymol (EO2), carvacrol (EO3) and phellandrene (EO4) chemotypes. The skin irritation, oral acute toxicity, genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test), liver and renal adverse effects, All the EOs showed a toxicological profile similar to the normal parameters, except for oils EO2 and EO3 which were irritant and showed some signs of acute oral toxicity at high concentrations (low concentration were safe). The EO2 showed antiparasitic activity. Low concentrations of the EO could be used safely as components of pharmacological formulations in CL.

Animals , Female , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Lippia/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Colombia , Comet Assay , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Genotoxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180200, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955123


BACKGROUND Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a world-wide health problem which currently lacks effective, affordable and easy to use therapy. Recently, the meglumine antimoniate (MA) intralesional infiltration was included among the acceptable therapies for New World leishmaniasis. While this approach is attractive, there is currently little evidence to support its use in Americas. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to provide information about effectiveness and safety of a standardised MA intralesional infiltration technique for the treatment of CL. METHODS It is a single-arm phase II clinical trial conducted at a Brazilian referral centre. CL cases with parasitological confirmation presenting a maximum of three CL-compatible skin lesions were treated with weekly MA intralesional infiltration by using a validated technique, up to a maximum of eight infiltrations. RESULTS A total of 53 patients (62 lesions) were included. Overall, patients received a median of seven infiltrations (IQR25-75% 5-8) over a median treatment period of 43 days (IQR25-75% 28-52 days). The definitive cure rate at D180 was 87% (95% CI:77-96%). The majority of adverse events were local, with mild or moderate intensity. Bacterial secondary infection of the lesion site was observed in 13% of the treated patients, beside two intensity-three adverse events (hypersensitivity reactions).

Humans , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Injections, Intralesional , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(12): 1509-1513, dez. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895387


Aceturato de diminazeno é um fármaco quimioterápico sintético comumente usado na medicina veterinária para o tratamento de doenças causadas por parasitos hematozoários. Entretanto, seu uso pode levar a efeitos colaterais, como alterações neurológicas graves e morte. A criação de camelídeos é uma atividade recente no Brasil, fazendo-se necessário conhecer mais sobre as doenças que acometem essas espécies. De dez camelídeos (seis lhamas e quatro alpacas) da propriedade, seis tiveram sinais clínicos e, destes, apenas uma lhama com manifestações leves recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, andar cambaleante, fraqueza, sialorreia, cabeça baixa e pendida lateralmente, dificuldade em levantar e dispneia, observados a partir de 18 horas após o uso do medicamento. À necropsia e ao exame histopatológico foram observadas alterações de encefalopatia hemorrágica bilateral e simétrica, mais graves em tronco encefálico e tálamo. Este trabalho descreve as principais lesões observadas em um surto de intoxicação por diminazeno em alpacas (Lama pacos) e lhamas (Lama glama) e alerta criadores e veterinários sobre o risco de intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em camelídeos sul americanos.(AU)

Diminazene aceturate is a synthetic chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by hematozoan parasites. However, side effects as severe neurological disorders and death can occur. The raising of american camelids is a recent activity in Brazil, requiring knowledge about diseases that affect these species, in order to avoid misguided conducts. In a herd of ten camelids (six llamas and four alpacas) six showed clinical signs and five died; only a llama with mild signs recovered. The clinical signs included apathy, difficulty to stand up, staggering gait, weakness, down head and drooping the head laterally, dyspnea and drooling of saliva, observed from 18 hours after use of the drug. At necropsy and histopathological examination was found bilateral and symmetrical hemorrhagic encephalopathy, more severe in brainstem and thalamus. This paper describes the main lesions observed in an outbreak of diminazene aceturate poisoning in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) and alert breeders and veterinarians about the risk of poisoning by this drug in american camelids.(AU)

Animals , Camelids, New World , Diminazene/adverse effects , Diminazene/toxicity , Nervous System Diseases/veterinary , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 67-74, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842815


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Despite their high toxicity, antimonials and amphotericin B deoxycholate are commonly used for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Few studies showing conflictive data about their efficacy and adverse events in pediatric population are available. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate vs. that of N-methylglucamine antimoniate in treating pediatric VL in Brazil. METHODS This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm and controlled pilot clinical trial. Treatment naïve children and adolescents with VL without signs of severe illness were treated with N-methylglucamine antimoniate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days) or amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days). All patients were diagnosed with positive direct examination and/or positive PCR for Leishmania spp. performed in bone marrow samples. The primary efficacy end-point was VL cure determined after 180 days of completion of treatment. The analysis was performed using intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS In total, 101 volunteers were assessed. Efficacy was similar for both groups. The antimonial (n=51) and amphotericin B groups (n=50) had a cure rate of 94.1% and 100%, and 94% and 97.9% according to ITT and PP analyses, respectively. All patients reported adverse events (AE). Serious AE incidence was similar in both groups. Five individuals were excluded from the study because of severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS N-methylglucamine antimoniate and amphotericin B deoxycholate have similar efficacy and adverse events rate in pediatric patients with VL.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Meglumine/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 512-516, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789001


Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(3): 192-194, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787327


ABSTRACT Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome.

RESUMO Síndrome DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) é uma reação adversa a medicamentos rara e potencialmente fatal, associada à rash cutâneo, febre, eosinofilia e lesão de múltiplos órgãos. Algumas drogas podem desencadeá-la, como: alopurinol, anticonvulsivantes, vancomicina, sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, sulfadiazina-pirimetamina, entre outras. Descrevemos dois casos que desenvolverem DRESS síndrome durante tratamento ocular. O primeiro caso apresentou os sintomas durante tratamento para endoftalmite pós-operatória tardia com antibióticos tópicos, cefalotina e meropenem intravenosos e injeção intravítrea de vancomicina e ceftazidima; não podemos identificar a droga causadora, pois múltiplas medicações foram utilizadas. O segundo caso desenvolveu os sintomas durante tratamento clássico para toxoplasmose ocular, então a associação com sulfadiazina-pirimetamina foi mais clara. Como muitos oftalmologistas prescrevem regularmente drogas que podem desencadear a síndrome DRESS, esse diagnóstico deve ser lembrado já que pode levar a sérias complicações.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Fever/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 807-813, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769514


Abstract: BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS: there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Benzamidines/administration & dosage , Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pilot Projects , Phenyl Ethers/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(1): 33-38, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736362


Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoan found in Brazil. It is characterized by fever, pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and progressive weakness in the patient. It may lead to death if untreated. The drug of choice for treatment is meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with visceral leishmaniasis according to criteria used for diagnosis, possible reactions to Glucantime® and blood pressure measured before and after treatment. Methods: 89 patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital Dr. Hélvio Auto (HEHA) in Maceió-AL, in the period from May 2006 to December 2009 were evaluated. Data were collected on age, sex, origin, method of diagnosis, adverse effects of drugs, duration of hospitalization, duration of treatment and dosage up to the onset of adverse effects. Results: There was a predominance of child male patients, aged between one and five years old, from the interior of the State of Alagoas. Parasitological diagnosis was made by bone marrow aspirate; three (3.37%) patients died, 12 (13.48%) had adverse reactions and treatment was changed to amphotericin B, and 74 (83.14%) were cured. Changes that led to replacing Glucantime® were persistent fever, jaundice, rash, bleeding and cyanosis. Conclusion: During the study, 89 patients hospitalized for VL were analyzed: 74 were healed, 12 were replaced by amphotericin B treatment and three died. Most of them were under five years old, male and came from the interior. The dosage and duration of treatment with Glucantime® were consistent with that advocated by the Ministry of Health. Persistence of fever, jaundice, rash, cyanosis and bleeding were the reactions that led the physician to modify treatment. No change was observed in blood pressure before and after treatment. This study demonstrated the work of a hospital, a reference in the treatment of leishmaniasis, which has many patients demanding its services in this area. It demonstrates that this disease is still important today, and needs to be addressed properly to prevent injury and death due to the disease.

A Leishmaniose visceral é doença infecciosa causada por protozoários das espécies chagasi e donovani sendo transmitida pela picada de insetos fêmea dos gêneros Lutzomyia e Phlebotomos. Constitui doença febril, determinando amplo aspecto de manifestações clínicas e prognóstico variável, que pode levar à morte se não for tratada. É doença endêmica encontrada no Brasil e nos últimos anos verificou-se intenso processo de urbanização da endemia e aumento da letalidade por leishmaniose visceral. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar pacientes com leishmaniose visceral de acordo com os critérios utilizados para o diagnóstico, possíveis reações ao Glucantime® e pressão arterial, medidos antes e após o tratamento. Métodos: Foram avaliados 89 pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Dr. Hélvio Auto (HEHA), em Maceió-AL, no período de maio de 2006 a dezembro de 2009. Foram coletados dados sobre idade, sexo, origem, método de diagnóstico, efeitos adversos da droga, duração da hospitalização, duração do tratamento e dose até o aparecimento de efeitos adversos. Resultados: Houve predomínio de crianças do sexo masculino, com idade entre um e cinco anos, a partir do interior do Estado de Alagoas. O diagnóstico parasitológico foi feito pelo aspirado de medula óssea, três (3,37%) pacientes morreram, 12 (13,48 %) apresentaram reações adversas e o tratamento foi alterado para anfotericina B, e 74 (83,14 %) foram curados. As alterações que levaram à substituição de Glucantime® foi febre persistente. A dosagem e duração do tratamento com Glucantime® foi seguido como preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. A persistência de febre, icterícia, prurido, cianose e sangramento foram as reações que levaram o médico a modificar o tratamento. Nenhuma mudança foi observada na pressão arterial antes e após o tratamento. O estudo realizado demonstrou o perfil de um Hospital, que recebe grande demanda de casos de leishmaniose visceral. Isso demonstra que essa doença continua sendo importante na atualidade, precisando ser abordada de maneira adequada, evitando assim agravos e mortes pela doença.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(5): 439-442, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722321


Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

Introdução: Antimoniais pentavalentes são os fármacos de primeira escolha no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar. Dados de ototoxicidade relacionados a tais fármacos são escassos na literatura, o que nos levou a desenvolver um estudo de funções cócleo-vestibulares. Relato de caso: Relatamos caso de paciente masculino de 78 anos com leishmaniose tegumentar, que apresentou aumento significativo dos limiares auditivos com zumbido e tontura rotatória grave durante o tratamento com antimoniato de meglumina. Os sintomas pioraram até duas semanas após a interrupção do tratamento. Conclusão: Tontura e zumbido já tinham sido associados ao antimoniato de meglumina. Entretanto, este é o primeiro caso bem documentado de toxicidade cócleo-vestibular relacionado ao antimoniato de meglumina.

Aged , Humans , Male , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Dizziness/chemically induced , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Tinnitus/chemically induced , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(5): 375-380, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722324


A case-control study was conducted to examine the association among the Montenegro skin test (MST), age of skin lesion and therapeutic response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treated at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For each treatment failure (case), two controls showing skin lesion healing following treatment, paired by sex and age, were randomly selected. All patients were treated with 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day of intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (Sb5+) for 30 successive days. Patients with CL were approximately five times more likely to fail when lesions were less than two months old at the first appointment. Patients with treatment failure showed less intense MST reactions than patients progressing to clinical cure. For each 10 mm of increase in MST response, there was a 26% reduction in the chance of treatment failure. An early treatment - defined as a treatment applied for skin lesions, which starts when they are less than two months old at the first appointment -, as well as a poor cellular immune response, reflected by lower reactivity in MST, were associated with treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Conduzimos estudo caso-controle que verificou a associação entre a intradermorreação de Montenegro (IDRM), o tempo de evolução da lesão e a resposta terapêutica em pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea (LC) atendidos no Instituto de Infectologia Evandro Chagas (INI), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Para cada caso com má resposta à terapêutica foram selecionados aleatoriamente dois controles que evoluíram com cicatrização das lesões após o tratamento, pareados por sexo e idade. Todos os pacientes realizaram tratamento com antimoniato de meglumina (Sb5+) IM, na dose de 5 mg Sb5+/kg/dia, continuamente, por 30 dias. Pacientes com LC apresentaram aproximadamente cinco vezes mais chance de falhar quando as lesões apresentavam menos de dois meses de evolução no primeiro dia de atendimento. Pacientes com falha terapêutica apresentaram reações de IDRM menos intensas que pacientes que evoluíram para a cura clínica. A cada 10 milímetros de aumento na resposta à IDRM, houve uma redução de 26% na chance de ocorrência de falha. O tratamento precoce, traduzido pelo tempo de evolução da lesão menor que dois meses no primeiro dia de atendimento, e resposta de imunidade celular deficiente, traduzida por IDRM menos intensa, demonstraram contribuir para a ocorrência de falha terapêutica na leishmaniose cutânea.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Intradermal Tests/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 499-501, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716309


Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year). The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimony/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/etiology , /physiology , Antimony/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Herpes Zoster/virology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Virus Activation
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(4): 361-362, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716423


We report a case of a 42 year-old female, who came to a leishmaniasis reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presenting a cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion in the right forearm. Treatment with low-dose intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (MA) (5 mg Sb5+/kg/day) was initiated, with improvement after 28 days, although with the development of generalized eczema. After 87 days, the lesion worsened. Patient refused treatment with amphotericin B. MA was then infiltrated in the lesion, in two sessions, resulting in local eczema, with bullae formation; however, twenty days after, both the ulcer and eczema receded. Intralesional administration of MA should be used carefully when previous cutaneous hypersensitivity is detected.

Relatamos caso de paciente de 42 anos atendida em centro de referência em leishmanioses no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, apresentando lesão de leishmaniose cutânea no antebraço direito. Iniciado tratamento com baixa dose de antimoniato de meglumina (AM) intramuscular (5 mg Sb5+/kg/dia), houve melhora após 28 dias, porém com desenvolvimento de eczema generalizado. Após 87 dias, notou-se piora da lesão. A paciente recusou o tratamento com anfotericina B. Infiltrou-se AM na lesão em duas sessões, resultando em eczema local com bolhas. Entretanto, 20 dias depois, tanto a úlcera quanto o eczema regrediram. A administração intralesional do AM deve ser utilizada com cautela em pacientes com hipersensibilidade cutânea a este fármaco.

Adult , Female , Humans , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/drug therapy , Eczema/chemically induced , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Eczema/drug therapy , Injections, Intralesional , Injections, Intramuscular , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(3): 386-390, mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714364


Metronidazole can cause adverse effects both in the central and peripheral nervous system. We report a 34-year-old female who presented a reversible cerebellar syndrome and peripheral neuropathy as an adverse effect associated with the use of metronidazole. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense T2 and FLAIR bilateral symmetrical cerebellar lesions, without contrast enhancement or mass effect, isointense in diffusion-weighted imaging and hypointense in apparent diffusion coefficient sequences. Also, electrophysiological evaluation was consistent with axonal polyneuropathy. She had received metronidazole for a liver abscess during 49 days. After discontinuation of metronidazole, she had rapid regression of cerebellar symptoms and normalization of MRI, with subsequent disappearance of peripheral symptoms. The brain MRI, electromyography and nerve conduction studies performed at 35 months later showed complete resolution of the lesions. Although metronidazole neurotoxicity is a rare event, it must be borne in mind because the prognosis is usually favorable after stopping the drug.

Adult , Female , Humans , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Cerebellar Diseases/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Liver Abscess/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(3): 197-204, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674678


In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems), cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145) or a thermotherapy (Thermomed®) application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149). Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients) and 69% (85/145 patients), respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol) between the two treatments. NCT00471705.

En Colombia antimoniales pentavalentes y miltefosina son los medicamentos de primera elección para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea; sin embargo, su toxicidad, duración (que lleva a problemas de adherencia), costo y la disminución de la sensibilidad de los parásitos a los mismos, hacen necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas de tratamiento para la leishmaniosis cutánea americana. A partir de resultados derivados de un ensayo clínico controlado abierto, aleatorizado, fase III, se comparó la eficacia y seguridad de la miltefosina con la de la termoterapia, para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea en Colombia. Adultos pertenecientes al Ejército de Colombia participaron el estudio. Miltefosina, una cápsula de 50 mg tres veces día durante 28 días, vía oral (n = 145). Termoterapia (Thermomed®) aplicación de 50 °C/30" sobre la lesión y el área circundante (n = 149). Ambos grupos fueron comparables en características sociodemográficas, clínicas y parasitológicas. Eficacia de la miltefosina por protocolo 70% (85/122 pacientes) y 69% (85/145 pacientes) por intención a tratar. Termoterapia eficacia por protocolo 64% (86/134 pacientes) y 58% (86/149 pacientes) por intención a tratar. En miltefosina los eventos adversos fueron principalmente de tipo gastrointestinal y en termoterapia se encontró dolor en el sitio de la lesión luego del tratamiento. En el análisis de eficacia (intención a tratar y protocolo) no se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los tratamientos evaluados. NCT00471705.

Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/therapy , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Colombia , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperthermia, Induced/adverse effects , Military Personnel , Phosphorylcholine/adverse effects , Phosphorylcholine/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 597-600, Sept.-Oct. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656215


INTRODUCTION: Governador Valadares is an endemic area of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The detection rate was 15.36 per 100,000 habitants from 2001 to 2006 (Miranda, 2008). This study aimed to analyze the effects of age on the frequency of adverse reactions caused by antimony in the treatment of ATL in the City of Governador Valadares, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during 2009. METHODS: Data were collected from the forms of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, and from charts, questionnaires, and home visits to patients. RESULTS: The study included 40 patients, 26 (65%) of whom were males. Individuals over the age of 50 had a 66% higher rate of adverse effects than subjects who were 50 years old or less (CI 95%, 1.14-2.41). The average age of individuals who reported some type of adverse effect was 44.11 years (SD = 20.14), while the average age of the group that did not report any adverse effect was of 25.46 years (SD = 18.37; p < 0.01). Clinical healing was 67.5%, and 10% of patients discontinued the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In the treatment of ATL, the age of patients should be considered, because most adverse reactions occur in individuals over 50 years of age. For this reason, the drug should be used with restriction in these cases.

INTRODUÇÃO: Governador Valadares constitui uma área endêmica de leshmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) e o coeficiente de detecção foi de 15,36/100.000 habitantes no período de 2001 a 2006 (Miranda, 2008). Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o efeito da idade na frequência das reações adversas provocadas pelo antimônio no tratamento de pacientes com LTA, em Governador Valadares, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2009. MÉTODOS: Para coleta de dados foram utilizados: ficha de notificação do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), prontuários, questionário e visitas domiciliares aos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 40 pacientes, sendo 26 (65%) do sexo masculino. Os indivíduos acima de 50 anos de idade tiveram prevalência 66% maior de reações adversas que as pessoas com idade de 50 ou menos (IC 95% -1,14-2,41). A média de idade dos indivíduos que relataram algum tipo de reação adversa foi de 44,11 anos (DP=20,14), enquanto no grupo que não relatou reação adversa, a média de idade foi de 25,46 anos (DP=18,37) e p < 0,01. A cura clínica foi de 67,5% e 10% dos pacientes abandonaram o tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: No tratamento da LTA, a idade do paciente deve ser considerada; pois ocorrem mais reações adversas em indivíduos acima de 50 anos de idade, que nesses casos o medicamento deve ser utilizado com restrição.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antimony/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wound Healing/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(2): 188-193, Mar.-Apr. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545785


INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral é uma doença infecciosa sistêmica de ampla distribuição geográfica, caracterizada pelo alto potencial de letalidade. Visando contribuir com a redução da mortalidade, bem como auxiliar profissionais da saúde no manejo clínico dos pacientes portadores desse agravo, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar as características clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos que evoluíram para o êxito letal em hospitais de Campo Grande, MS, nos anos de 2003 a 2008. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 55 prontuários de pacientes que tiveram a leishmaniose visceral como causa de óbito. RESULTADOS: Dos 55 pacientes estudados, 37 eram procedentes do município de Campo Grande, sendo 41 (74,5 por cento) do sexo masculino, com predominância da faixa etária acima dos 40 anos. Quanto ao quadro clínico, a febre esteve presente em 89,1 por cento dos casos. A duração da doença desde o início dos sintomas até a hospitalização variou em média 78,2 dias. A leucopenia ocorreu em 85,5 por cento dos pacientes. Comorbidades estiveram presentes em 39 (70,9 por cento) pacientes, sendo a desnutrição e o etilismo as mais frequentes. A confirmação do diagnóstico ocorreu em média 6,7 dias após a internação. O antimoniato pentavalente foi a droga mais utilizada, com 87,5 por cento dos pacientes apresentando algum tipo de reação adversa. Infecções bacterianas ocorreram em 36 pacientes e, em 27 (49 por cento), foram uma das causas do óbito. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados indicam que a identificação precoce dessas características clínicas e laboratoriais no primeiro atendimento ao paciente é de fundamental importância para se reduzir a mortalidade por meio da instituição de medidas terapêuticas e profiláticas eficazes.

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic infectious disease of broad geographical distribution, characterized by high potential for lethality. With the purpose of contributing towards reducing mortality and helping healthcare professionals in clinical management of patients with this disease, this paper aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases with a fatal outcome in hospitals in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2003 and 2008. METHODS: Fifty-five medical files on patients who died due to visceral leishmaniasis were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients studied, 37 were from the municipality of Campo Grande; 41 (74.5 percent) were males; and age over 40 years predominated. The patients presented with fever in 89.1 percent of the cases. The duration of the illness from the onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 78.2 days on average. Leukopenia was seen in 85.5 percent of the patients. Comorbidities were present in 39 (70.9 percent) patients; malnutrition and alcoholism were the most frequent of these. Confirmation of the diagnosis occurred on average 6.7 days after admission. Pentavalent antimoniate was the drug most used, and 87.5 percent of the patients presented some type of adverse reaction. Bacterial infections occurred in 36 patients and were one of the causes of death in 27 (49 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that early identification of these clinical and laboratory characteristics, at the time when patients are first attended, is extremely important for reducing mortality through instituting efficient therapeutic and prophylactic measures.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult