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1.
Univ. salud ; 25(2): 27-32, mayo-ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1510602

ABSTRACT

Introducción:El trastorno bipolar (TB) es una condición psiquiátrica grave caracterizada por alteraciones progresivas en las funciones sociales y cognitivas. Objetivo:Determinar cuáles son los medicamentos con que se está tratando a un grupo de pacientes con diagnóstico de TB, afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia.Materiales y métodos:Estudio de corte para identificar prescripciones de medicamentos de pacientes ambulatorios de cualquier edad y sexo con TB, a partir de una base de datos poblacional de dispensaciones. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y farmacológicas buscando medicamentos en indicaciones aprobadas y no aprobadas por agencias reguladoras.Resultados:Se identificaron 1334 pacientes, con edad media de 40,2±18,5 años y 50% eran mujeres. Un total de 809 (60,6%) pacientes eran tratados en monoterapia principalmente con ácido valproico (286/615 pacientes, 46,4%), quetiapina (259/525, 49,3%) y Carbonato de Litio (98/275, 35,6%). Las combinaciones más comunes de fármacos para su tratamiento fueron ácido valproico más quetiapina (n=162, 12,1%), ácido valproico más risperidona (n=73, 5,5%) y carbonato de litio más quetiapina (n=62, 4,6%). El 57,4% (n=766) tenían prescripciones de fármacos con indicaciones no aprobadas.Conclusiones:Los pacientes con TB son tratados principalmente en monoterapia y más de la mitad estaba recibiendo fármacos en indicaciones no aprobadas.


Introduction:Bipolar disorder (BP) is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by progressive changes in social and cognitive functions. Objective: To determine which medications are being used to treat a group of patients diagnosed with BP who receive treatment from the Colombian Health System. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study to identify medication prescriptions of outpatients (regardless of their age) using a population database. Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were considered, searching for medications that are both approved and not approved by regulatory agencies. Results: 1,334 patients were identified, who had a mean age of 40.2±18.5 years, 50% of which were women. A total of 809 (60.6%) patients followed monotherapy, mainly using valproic acid (286/615 patients, 46.4%), quetiapine (259/525, 49.3%), and lithium carbonate (98/275, 35.6%). The most common combination of medications to treat these patients were valproic acid combined withquetiapine (n=162, 12.1%), valproic acid combined withrisperidone (n=73, 5.5%), and lithium carbonate combined withquetiapine (n=62, 4,6%). 57.4% (n=766) of patients had prescriptions with non-approved medications. Conclusions: BPpatients are mostly treated with monotherapy and more than half of them received drugs that are not approved.


Introdução:O transtorno bipolar (TB) é uma condição psiquiátrica grave caracterizada por alterações progressivas nas funções sociais e cognitivas. Objetivo:Determinar quais medicamentos estão sendo usados para tratar um grupo de pacientes diagnosticados com TB, vinculados ao Sistema de Saúde da Colômbia. Materiais e métodos:Estudo transversal para identificação de prescrições de medicamentos para pacientes ambulatoriais de qualquer idade e sexo com TB, a partir de um banco de dados populacional de dispensações. Foram consideradas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e farmacológicas, buscando medicamentos em indicações aprovadas e não aprovadas pelos órgãos reguladores. Resultados:Foram identificados 1.334 pacientes, com média de idade de 40,2 ± 18,5 anos, sendo 50% mulheres. Um total de 809 (60,6%) pacientes foram tratados em monoterapia principalmente com ácido valpróico (286/615 pacientes, 46,4%), quetiapina (259/525, 49,3%) e carbonato de lítio (98/275, 35,6%). As combinações medicamentosas mais comuns paraseu tratamento foram ácido valpróico mais quetiapina (n=162, 12,1%), ácido valpróico mais risperidona (n=73, 5,5%) e carbonato de lítio mais quetiapina (n=62, 5,5%).4,6 %). 57,4% (n=766) tinham prescrições de medicamentos com indicações não aprovadas. Conclusões:Os pacientes com TB são tratados principalmente com monoterapia e mais da metade estava recebendo medicamentos em indicações não aprovadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Mental Disorders , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Lithium Carbonate
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433908

ABSTRACT

El uso de clozapina (CZP) en niños/as y adolescentes ha estado históricamente limitado, debido a los efectos adversos y riesgos médicos asociados al fármaco, a pesar de ser una herramienta farmacológica de gran efectividad en la psiquiatría general. A continuación, se presenta una guía clínica con los siguientes objetivos: 1) identificar los criterios de indicación de CZP en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) según la evidencia disponible; 2) entregar algunas directrices a los clínicos y profesionales de salud respecto a la prescripción de CZP y precauciones a tener en consideración en esta población y; 3) entregar algunos datos comparativos del uso de CZP entre población infantojuvenil y población adulta. Todo lo anterior tiene como finalidad poder entregar la información necesaria para que los clínicos no limiten el uso de este fármaco y puedan prescribirlo de acuerdo con la evidencia científica disponible.


The use of clozapine (CZP) in children and adolescents has historically been limited due to the adverse effects and medical risks commonly associated with the drug, despite being a highly effective pharmacological tool in general psychiatry. Below we developed a clinical guideline with the following objectives: 1) identify the indication criteria for CZP in children and adolescents (NNA) according to the available evidence; 2) provide some guidelines to clinicians and health professionals regarding the prescription of CZP and precautions to be taken into account in this population and; 3) provide some comparative data on the use of CZP between the pediatric and adult population. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the necessary information so that clinicians do not limit the use of CLZ when needed and can prescribe it safely and according to the available scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use
3.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 32(1): e2022556, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421414

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of users of atypical antipsychotics receiving care via the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (Componente Especializado da Assistência Farmacêutica - CEAF), for the treatment of schizophrenia in Brazil, between 2008 and 2017. Methods: this was a retrospective cohort study using records of the authorizations for high complexity procedures retrieved from the Outpatient Information System of the Brazilian National Health System, from all Brazilian states. Results: of the 759,654 users, 50.5% were female, from the Southeast region (60.2%), diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (77.6%); it could be seen a higher prevalence of the use of risperidone (63.3%) among children/adolescents; olanzapine (34.0%) in adults; and quetiapine (47.4%) in older adults; about 40% of children/adolescents were in off-label use of antipsychotics according to age; adherence to CEAF was high (82%), and abandonment within six months was 24%. Conclusion: the findings expand knowledge about the sociodemographic and clinical profile of users and highlight the practice of off-label use.


Objetivo: investigar las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los usuarios de antipsicóticos atípicos, atendidos por el Componente Especializado de Asistencia Farmacéutica (CEAF) para el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia en Brasil, de 2008 a 2017. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo utilizando registros de autorizaciones de trámites de alta complejidad del Sistema de Información Ambulatorio del SUS, de todos los estados brasileños. Resultados: de los 759.654 usuários identificados, el 50,5% era del sexo feminino de la región Sudeste (60,2%), diagnosticadas con esquizofrenia paranoide (77,6%). Hubo una mayor prevalencia de risperidona (63,3%) entre niños y adolescentes; de olanzapina (34,0%) en adultos; y quetiapina (47,4%) en ancianos. Alrededor del 40% de los niños/adolescentes estaba bajo uso no autorizado de antipsicóticos según la edad. La adherencia al CEAF fue alta (82%), y la deserción a los seis meses fue del 24%. Conclusión: los hallazgos amplían el conocimiento sobre el perfil sociodemográfico y clínico de los usuarios y destacan la práctica del uso off-label.


Objetivo: investigar características sociodemográficas e clínicas de usuários de antipsicóticos atípicos assistidos pelo Componente Especializado da Assistência Farmacêutica (CEAF), para tratamento da esquizofrenia no Brasil, de 2008 a 2017. Métodos: estudo de coorte retrospectivo utilizando registros das autorizações de procedimentos de alta complexidade do Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do Sistema Único de Saúde, de todos os estados brasileiros. Resultados: dos 759.654 usuários, 50,5% eram do sexo feminino, da região Sudeste (60,2%), diagnosticados com esquizofrenia paranoide (77,6%); observou-se maior prevalência de uso da risperidona (63,3%) entre crianças/adolescentes; de olanzapina (34,0%), em adultos; e quetiapina (47,4%), nos idosos; cerca de 40% das crianças/ adolescentes estavam sob uso off-label de antipsicóticos segundo a idade; a adesão ao CEAF foi alta (82%), e o abandono em seis meses foi de 24%. Conclusão: os achados ampliam o conhecimento sobre perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos usuários e destacam a prática do uso off-label.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia, Paranoid/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Off-Label Use , Unified Health System , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Risperidone/administration & dosage , Quetiapine Fumarate/administration & dosage , Olanzapine/administration & dosage , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21738, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Schizophrenia is an illness that affects 26 million people worldwide. However, conventional antipsychotics present side effects and toxicity, highlighting the need for new antipsychotics. We aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of haloperidol (HAL), clozapine (CLO), and a new molecule with antipsychotic potential, PT-31, in NIH-3T3 cells. The neutral red uptake assay and the MTT assay were performed to evaluate cell viability and mitochondrial activity, morphological changes were assessed, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection was performed. HAL and CLO (0.1 µM) showed a decrease in cell viability in the neutral red uptake assay and in the MTT assay. In addition, cell detachment, content decrease, rounding and cell death were also observed at 0.1 µM for both antipsychotics. An increase in ROS was observed for HAL (0.001, 0.01 and 1 µM) and CLO (0.01 and 1 µM). PT-31 did not alter cell viability in any of the assays, although it increased ROS at 0.01 and 1 µM. HAL and CLO present cytotoxicity at 0.1 µM, possibly through apoptosis and necrosis. In contrast, PT-31 does not present cytotoxicity to NIH-3T3 cells. Further studies must be performed for a better understanding of these mechanisms and the potential risk of conventional antipsychotics


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia/pathology , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/analysis , Haloperidol/analysis , NIH 3T3 Cells/classification , Neutral Red/pharmacology
5.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 365-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981136

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness that is difficult to treat and has a high degree of recurrence. This article reports general anesthesia for oral surgery in a patient with bipolar disorder complicated with hypothyroidism. It also discusses the rational application of antipsychotic drugs and anesthetics with reference to the literature to improve the understanding of the disease and help patients with mental disorders complete the surgical treatment quietly and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia
6.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 86(2): 76-85, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1412374

ABSTRACT

Los medicamentos en su formulación de depósito son utilizados como una intervención para la adherencia cuando se dificulta el cumplimiento vía oral. Es frecuente la baja adherencia a los tratamientos por vía oral en las personas con enfermedades crónicas. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal, de una muestra aleatorizada de los pacientes que reciben antipsicóticos de depósito, asistidos en la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó en el año 2014. El objetivo fue describir las características de la población que tiene prescripto antipsicótico de depósito en la consulta ambulatoria y conocer los hábitos prescriptivos de estos para favorecer su uso racional. La patología psiquiátrica más prevalente fue la esquizofrenia con 56,4 %, donde se usó con más frecuencia la pipotiazina, siendo este más oneroso que el tratamiento con haloperidol y con un perfil de seguridad y efectividad similar. No se encontraron diferencias entre el uso de anticolinérgicos para los efectos extrapiramidales. Más de dos tercios de los pacientes (69,7 %) estuvieron con polifarmacia antipsicótica y un cuarto de los pacientes (24,7 %) con más de 2 antipsicóticos, a pesar de que en las pautas internacionales no recomiendan tratamientos que justifiquen el uso de más de dos antipsicóticos, dado que no existe evidencia que avale esta práctica, además del riesgo aumentado de reacciones adversas. Un bajo porcentaje (20 %) recibió la medicación de depósito todos los meses del año, resultando de vital importancia evaluar en estudios posteriores las causas intervinientes.


Depot formulation drugs are used as an adherence intervention when oral adherence is difficult to achieve. Low adherence to oral drugs is commonly observed in people with chronic diseases. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomized sample of patients receiving depot antipsychotics, treated at Hospital Vilardebó Outpatient Clinic in 2014. The aim was to describe this population's characteristics and prescription habits at the clinic in order to promote rational use. The most prevalent disorder was Schizophrenia (56.4%); pipothiazine was the most frequently used drug. It is more expensive than haloperidol with similar safety and efficacy profiles. There was no difference in the use of anticholinergic drugs to prevent extrapyramidal side effects. More than two thirds of the patients (69.7%) received antipsychotic polypharmacy and a fourth of the patients (24.7%) received more than two antipsychotics in spite of the fact that international treatment guides do not recommend the use of more than two because of lack of benefit evidence and increased risk of adverse reactions. Only 20 % of the patients received the depot every month of the year, being of vital importance to evaluate in subsequent studies the intervening causes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Uruguay , Simple Random Sampling , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Costs , Sex Distribution , Polypharmacy , Ambulatory Care , Octogenarians
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428415

ABSTRACT

El manejo farmacológico del episodio depresivo en contexto del trastorno bipolar constituye un desafío para el clínico tanto en psiquiatría adultos como infantoadolescente. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo actualizar y sintetizar la evidencia disponible respecto al manejo farmacológico para la depresión bipolar en población pediátrica. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones de los últimos 5 años en bases de datos. Resultados: La evidencia muestra como primera línea el uso de antipsicóticos de segunda generación por sobre los estabilizadores del ánimo en este grupo etario; demostrando lurasidona y lanzapina/fluoxetina eficacia similares. Lurasidona es una opción con mejor perfil de seguridad por asociarse a menos efectos adversos y mejor adherencia. El uso de antidepresivos debe considerarse dentro de los pasos iniciales del manejo, asociado a un antipsicótico de segunda generación. Conclusiones: Se destaca la importancia de la sospecha, evaluación y diagnóstico adecuado para guiar la decisión de manejo integral. A pesar de los riesgos y consideraciones existentes, es importante considerar el uso en primera línea de antipsicóticos de segunda generación y de antidepresivos en el manejo de un cuadro depresivo en contexto de la enfermedad bipolar. La escasez de estudios en el tratamiento farmacológico de la depresión bipolar en general y especialmente en población pediátrica limita la generalización y extrapolación de los resultados a la realidad local.


The pharmacological management of the depressive episode in the context of bipolar disorder constitutes a challenge for the clinician both in adult and child-adolescent population. The objective of this paper is to update and synthesize the available evidence regarding the pharmacological management of bipolar depression in the pediatric population. Methodology: A search of the publications of the last 5 years in databases was carried out. Results: The evidence shows the use of second generation antipsychotics over mood stabilizers as the first line in this age group; demonstrating similar efficacy. Results: The evidence shows the use of second generation antipsychotics over mood stabilizers as the first line in this age group; demonstrating similar efficacy lurasidone and lanzapine/fluoxetine. Lurasidone is an option with a better safety profile as it is associated with fewer adverse effects and better adherence. The use of antidepressants should be considered within the initial steps of management, associated with a second generation antipsychotic. Conclusions: The importance of suspicion, evaluation and adequate diagnosis to guide the decision of comprehensive management is highlighted. Despite the existing risks and considerations, it is important to consider the first-line use of second-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants in the management of a depressive episode in the context of bipolar illness. The scarcity of studies on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression in general and especially in the pediatric population limits the generalization and extrapolation of the results to the local reality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/therapeutic use , Depression/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Lurasidone Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 337-354, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407822

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Introducción: Lograr la recuperación funcional lo más rápido posible en el tratamiento de la depresión unipolar es un reto que la práctica clínica debe tratar de afrontar en la actualidad, ya que cualquier retraso en lograr la remisión de los síntomas es predictivo de un mayor número de recurrencias y mayores tasas de morbimortalidad. En esta revisión comprensiva, nuestro objetivo es guiar a los clínicos en su elección de aumentar con antipsicóticos atípicos o combinar el fármaco de referencia con un segundo antidepresivo, después de que se haya optimizado la dosis del antidepresivo seleccionado inicialmente y/o se haya cambiado el antidepresivo, sin lograr remisión, o bien cuando solo han obtenido una respuesta parcial después de un tiempo suficiente a una dosis apropiada. Estas decisiones surgen con frecuencia en la práctica clínica diaria. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en PubMed bajo varias combinaciones clave de palabras, resultando en 230 informes. Después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y según el título y el resumen, el número final de informes seleccionados para la revisión completa fue de 113. Se respondieron dos preguntas principales con base en estos estudios: 1) ¿Existe evidencia para recomendar claramente la combinación de antidepresivos versus potenciación con antipsicóticos (y el momento correcto para hacerlo) en la depresión unipolar no respondedora, una vez que las estrategias de optimización o de cambio han fallado en obtener la remisión? y 2) ¿Es posible identificar algunas características clínicas para guiar la decisión de combinación de antidepresivos versus potenciación con agentes antipsicóticos? Resultados: Según nuestro análisis, no hay datos disponibles para seleccionar una estrategia de otra de manera clara. Sin embargo, sugerimos favorecer una combinación o estrategia de aumento, basada en un enfoque de "tratamiento contra objetivos dianas" para perfilar al paciente, considerando una o dos características clínicas predominantes que permanecen activas como parte de una depresión mayor con respuesta parcial. Un adecuado análisis de los dominios sintomáticos presentes, una visión crítica de las guías clínicas actuales y de las opciones preferidas, considerar la bipolaridad oculta como uno de los principales diagnósticos diferenciales y adoptar una actitud enérgica pero lúcida en esta etapa del tratamiento son, a nuestro juicio, fundamentales para lograr recuperación ad integrum del paciente.


ABSTRACT Introduction: achieving functional recovery as quickly as possible in the treatment of unipolar depression is a challenge that clinical practice must try to meet nowadays, since any delay in accomplishing remission of the symptoms is predictive of a larger number of recurrences and higher morbidity and mortality rates. In this topical review we aim to guide clinicians in their choice to augment with atypical antipsychotics or to combine the baseline drug with a second antidepressant, after the dose of the antidepressant initially selected has been optimized and/or the antidepressant has been changed, not achieving remission, or resulting only in a partial response after sufficient time at an appropriate dose. These decisions arise frequently in everyday clinical practice. Methodology: a systematic search in PubMed was performed under several key combinations of words, resulting in 230 reports. After applying inclusion criteria and based in title and abstract, the final number of reports selected for full revision were 113. Two main questions were answered based on these studies: 1) Is there evidence to clearly recommend combination of antidepressants vs. augmentation with antipsychotics (and the correct moment to do it) in non-responsive unipolar depression, once optimization or switching strategies have failed to obtain remission? and 2) Is it possible to identify some clinical features to guide the decision of combination of antidepressants vs. augmentation with antipsychotic agents? Results: According to our analysis, there is no data available to select one strategy from another in a clear-cut manner. Nevertheless, we suggest favoring a combination or augmentation strategy, based in a "treating to target" approach to profile the patient, considering one or two predominant clinical features that remain active as part of a major depression with partial response. Proper analysis of the symptomatic domains present, a critical view of current clinical guidelines and preferred options, considering hidden bipolarity as one of the main differential diagnoses and adopting an energetic but lucid attitude at this stage of treatment are, in our view, fundamental for achieving ad integrum patient recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Remission Induction/methods , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination
9.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 66(3): 01022105, jul.-set. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425057

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Análises corporais mais específicas mostram que pacientes com esquizofrenia também apresentam uma porcentagem de gordura mais elevada quando comparado a indivíduos saudáveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os pacientes de acordo com as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas, estado nutricional e risco cardiovascular de pacientes com esquizofrenia. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 26 pacientes com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial das cidades de Criciúma/SC, e de Siderópolis/ SC, e com os pacientes com esquizofrenia da Farmácia Escola da Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense. Verificaram-se variráveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, medidas antropométricas (peso, estatura, circunferência abdominal, razão cintura-quadril, avaliação combinada, percentual de gordura corporal) e a classificação da pressão arterial. A amostra constituiu-se de 26 indivíduos, 50% homens e 50% mulheres, e a idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Cerca de 50% utilizavam antipsicóticos de primeira geração, 23,1%, antipsicóticos de segunda geração e 26,9%, ambos. A maior parte dos indivíduos encontrava-se com estado nutricional alterado, sendo que 42,3% com obesidade pelo Índice de Massa Corporal e 61,5% com a circunferência abdominal acima do desejado. Os resultados da razão cintura-quadril mostraram que 76,9% dos indivíduos estavam com risco aumentado para doenças cardiovasculares e obesidade, e 73,1% apresentaram excesso de gordura corporal. Parâmetros de estado nutricional e risco cardiovascular estiveram associados, indicando a necessidade do uso destes de forma conjunta. Conclusão: Faz-se necessário monitorar a situação nutricional e de saúde desses indivíduos para melhoria dos cuidados prestados, com promoção de atenção nutricional em um contexto multiprofissional.


Introduction: More specific body analyses show that patients with schizophrenia also have a higher fat percentage when compared to healthy individuals. This study aimed to characterize patients according to sociodemographic and clinical variables, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 26 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Psychosocial Care Centers of the cities of Criciúma and Siderópolis and with patients with schizophrenia from the Pharmacy School of the Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense. We verified sociodemographic and clinical variables, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, abdominal circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, combined assessment, body fat percentage), and blood pressure classification. The sample consisted of 26 individuals, 50% male and 50% female, and the mean age was 42.4 years. About 50% used first-generation antipsychotics, 23.1% second-generation antipsychotics, and 26.9% both. Most individuals had altered nutritional status, 42.3% were obese according to the Body Mass Index, and 61.5% had abdominal circumference above the desired range. The results of the waist-to-hip ratio showed that 76.9% of the individuals were at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and 73.1% had excess body fat. Parameters of nutritional status and cardiovascular risk were associated, indicating the need to use them together. Conclusion: It is necessary to monitor the nutritional and health status of these individuals to improve the care provided, promoting nutritional care in a multidisciplinary context,


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents
10.
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 58(2): 17-24, abr.-jun. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and / or vocal tics for more than 12 months. TS affects about 0.8% of pediatric patients and is associated with great functional impairment and psychological distress. The present study aims to list and compare the effectiveness of therapies used in children and young people with TS. METHODS: PubMed / MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Lilacs were used from September 2020 to April 2021 to search for randomized clinical trials with pharmacological, behavioral, physical or alternative interventions for tics in children and young people with ST. RESULTS: 13 clinical trials were included, of which six pharmacological, six behavioral and one of other conformation. The global score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale showed evidence in favor of Habit Reversal Training (HRT) and Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Evidence from two studies suggests that antipsychotic medications improve tic scores. Evidence from other interventions has shown no conclusive benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified benefits with the use of antipsychotics. The study also found that HRT and CBIT showed improvement in reducing the severity of tics, in addition to not having any adverse effects. These therapies showed significant clinical improvement, but there is no comparison between the use of these isolated approaches in relation to their use associated with medications. In view of the different forms of therapy, further studies are needed to identify the effectiveness and the profile of adverse effects of these interventions.


INTRODUÇÃO: A Síndrome de Tourette (ST) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por tiques motores e/ou vocais por mais de 12 meses. A ST afeta cerca de 0,8% dos pacientes pediátricos e associa-se a grande comprometimento funcional e sofrimento psíquico. O presente estudo tem como objetivo listar e comparar a eficácia das terapias utilizadas em crianças e jovens com ST. MÉTODOS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, SciELO e Lilacs foram usados desde setembro de 2020 até abril de 2021 para a busca de ensaios clínicos randomizados com intervenções farmacológicas, comportamentais, físicas ou alternativas para tiques em crianças e jovens com ST. RESULTADOS: 13 ensaios clínicos foram incluídos, dos quais seis farmacológicos, seis comportamentais e um de outra conformação. A pontuação global na Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, apresentou evidências a favor do Treinamento de Reversão de Hábito (TRH) e Intervenção Comportamental Abrangente para Tiques (ICAT). As evidências de dois estudos sugerem que medicamentos antipsicóticos melhoram os escores de tiques. Evidências de outras intervenções não mostraram nenhum benefício conclusivo. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo identificou benefícios com o uso do antipsicóticos. O estudo também identificou que a TRH e a ICAT apresentaram melhora na redução da gravidade dos tiques, além de não apresentarem efeitos adversos. Essas terapias mostraram importante melhora clínica, mas não há comparação entre o uso dessas abordagens isoladas em relação ao seu uso associado com medicamentos. Diante das diferentes formas de terapia, mais estudos são necessários para identificar a eficácia e o perfil de efeitos adversos dessas intervenções.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Tic Disorders/therapy , Behavior Therapy , Tourette Syndrome/diagnosis , Tourette Syndrome/drug therapy , Placebos , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome , Aripiprazole/pharmacology
11.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e27697, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368623

ABSTRACT

Introdução:aanorexia nervosa caracteriza-se por um transtorno alimentar com quadro clínico típico de restrição dietética e desnutrição. Objetivo:verificar a eficácia do uso dos fármacos antipsicóticos olanzapina, quetiapina, risperidonano aumento ponderal de pacientes com tal patologia.Metodologia:utilizou-se de 9 Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados anexados na plataforma Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed, sendo todos analisados a partir de critérios de inclusão e exclusão feitos aos pares para a realização de uma Revisão Sistemática de Literatura.Os artigos foram avaliados através do sistema Grading of Recommendatons AssessmentDevelopment and Evaluaton/GRADE. Resultadose discussão:Percebeu-se a prevalência da olanzapina sobre o aumento do peso entre os pacientes com anorexia comparado ao placebo. Pouca eficácia sobre o ganho ponderal com relação a quetiapina. A risperidona não demonstroualteração do peso ao utilizá-ladurante o tratamento da anorexia nervosa.Conclusões:Os achados sugeriram que aolanzapina, apresentou oefeito mais significativo sobre o ganho de peso em um menor intervalo de tempo (AU).


Introduction:Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an eating disorder with a typical clinical of food restriction and malnutrition. Objective:to verify the effectiveness of the use of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone in the weight gain of patients with this pathology. Methodology:9 Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) were used attached to the Medical Literature Analysis andRetrieval System Online/PubMed/MEDLINE platform, all of which were analyzed based oninclusion and exclusion criteria made in pairs to carry out a Systematic Literature Review. Results and discussion:It was noticed the prevalence of olanzapine on weight gain among patients with anorexia compared to placebo. Little diligence on weight gain with regard to quetiapine. Risperine showed no weight change when used during the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Conclusions:The findings suggest that olanzapine had the most significant effect on weight gain in a short period (AU).


Introducción: La anorexia nerviosa se caracteriza por un trastorno alimentario con un cuadro clínico típico de restricción alimentaria y desnutrición. Objetivo: verificar la efectividad del uso de los medicamentos antipsicóticos olanzapina, quetiapina, risperidonaem el aumento de peso de pacientes con esta patología.Metodología: Se utilizaron 9 Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados (RCT) adjuntos a la plataforma Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online / PubMed (MEDLINE), todos fueron analizados en base a criterios de inclusión y exclusión realizados en pares para realizar una Revisión Sistemática de la Literatura. Resultados y discusión:Se notó la prevalencia de la olanzapina en la ganancia de peso entre pacientes con anorexia en comparación con el placebo. Poca diligencia en la ganancia de peso con respecto a la quetiapina. Risperine no mostró cambios de peso cuando se usó durante el tratamiento de la anorexia nerviosa. Conclusiones:Los hallazgos sugieren que la olanzapina tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el aumento de peso en un lapso de tiempo más corto (AU).


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/drug therapy , Feeding Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Anorexia , Risperidone , Quetiapine Fumarate , Olanzapine/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0070, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chlorpromazine is a medication widely used in psychiatry for the treatment of psychoses, especially schizophrenia. Since 1964, published articles have been correlating this medication with the appearance of ocular alterations. In this paper, we report the case of a 65-year-old patient with ocular effects due to long-term therapy with chlorpromazine. Biomicroscopy of both eyes presented diffuse granular brown deposits, most prominent at the deep stroma and corneal endothelium level. Also showed anterior subcapsular brown deposits with a stellate pattern in the lens. The total amount exceeds 2.000g (significant for the ocular alterations described) considering the patient's daily dosage of chlorpromazine of 300mg for ten years. After performing complete ophthalmic evaluation and discarding other causes for the ocular deposits, we diagnosed a secondary corneal deposit and cataract due to the use of chlorpromazine. This case reinforces the importance of periodic follow-up with an ophthalmologist for chlorpromazine users to trace ocular changes, heeding the exposure time and its dosage.


RESUMO A clorpromazina é uma medicação muito empregada na psiquiatria para tratamento de psicoses, especialmente em casos de esquizofrenia. Desde 1964 existem artigos publicados que correlacionam o uso dessa medicação com o aparecimento de alterações oculares. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de um paciente de 65 anos com efeitos oculares devido à terapia de longo prazo com clorpromazina. A biomicroscopia de ambos os olhos apresentou depósitos granulares difusos e de cor marrom, mais proeminente ao nível do estroma profundo e do endotélio da córnea, além de depósitos castanhos subcapsulares anteriores centrais em um padrão estrelado no cristalino. Considerando a dose diária de clorpromazina de 300mg por 10 anos usada pelo paciente, a quantidade total ultrapassa 2.000g (dose considerada significativa para as alterações oculares descritas). Após avaliação oftalmológica completa e descartado outras causas desses depósitos oculares, foram diagnosticados depósito corneano e catarata secundários ao uso de clorpromazina. O caso apresentado reforça a importância do acompanhamento oftalmolÓgico periÓdico de usuários de clorpromazina para o rastreio de alteraçÕes oculares, atentando-se ao tempo de exposição à droga e à posologia da mesma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Cataract/chemically induced , Chlorpromazine/adverse effects , Chlorpromazine/toxicity , Cornea/drug effects , Corneal Diseases/chemically induced , Corneal Opacity/chemically induced , Pigmentation Disorders/chemically induced , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/toxicity , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Chlorpromazine/administration & dosage , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Opacity/diagnosis , Slit Lamp , Slit Lamp Microscopy
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191134, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394031

ABSTRACT

Abstract Existing medications i.e. the antipsychotic drugs are known to be effective in treating only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, while being ineffective on negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease. In addition, these medications cause extrapyramidal symptoms, forcing many patients towards natural medicine in the hope of minimizing the unwanted adverse effects. Nardostachys jatamansi is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally prescribed for various types of brain disorders. The active constituents of the plant have beneficial effects on the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study was designed to identify the active constituents of Nardostachys jatamansi with the highest binding affinities for the key macromolecular drug targets involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and thereby elucidate the possible mechanism of action. These targets are dopamine receptors, Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and Phosphodiesterase 10A. The results of molecular docking showed that, β-sitosterol, chlorogenic acid, oleanic acid and ursolic acid, displayed high binding affinity toward all the macromolecular drug targets. Ligands with steroid backbone and pentacyclic triterpene structure have been found to possess high binding affinity toward the dopamine receptor and phosphodiesterase 10A. While ligands with carbonyl group form stronger binding interactions with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Research/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Valerianaceae/classification , Nardostachys/adverse effects , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents
15.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 145-148, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935764

ABSTRACT

Quetiapine is a psychotropic drug. Excessive use of quetiapine may lead to drowsiness, blurred vision, respiratory depression, hypotension and extrapyramidal reactions. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is rare due to overdose of quetiapine. On 14 February 2020, a patients with coma, respiratory arrest and hypotension due to overdose of quetiapine were admitted to our hospital. After receiving mechanical ventilation、plasma adsorption and anti-inflammatory treatment, the patient's consciousness turned clear, the machine was successfully removed and extubated, and the patient's condition was improved and discharged from hospital. We analyzed the clinical data of the patient with quetiapine poisoning, and discussed the clinical symptoms and chest CT characteristics of ARDS caused by quetiapine poisoning, in order to improve the understanding of quetiapine poisoning and improve the success rate of rescue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Dibenzothiazepines , Drug Overdose/therapy , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
16.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(4): 330-337, out.-dez.2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350962

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Evidenciar a influência dos aspectos subjetivos na adesão ao tratamento do transtorno bipolar. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática com base nas diretrizes PRISMA. A identificação dos estudos foi realizada por meio da busca nos bancos de dados PubMed, Scopus e SciELO, com base nos descritores "Bipolar Disorder" AND "Treatment Adherence and Compliance" AND "Mental Health". A busca contemplou todos os artigos publicados até o ano 2020, sem restrição de idioma. RESULTADOS: Foram localizados 743 artigos, 714 foram excluídos no processo de seleção, 29 foram lidos na íntegra e 11 foram elegíveis para a composição da amostra. A influência dos aspectos subjetivos na adesão ao tratamento foi associada (1) às atitudes resultantes das percepções do sujeito sobre o transtorno e o tratamento e (2) as atitudes por influência de pessoas próximas. Os estudos apontam para a ocorrência de atitudes negativas em ambas as esferas, tendo a má adesão ao tratamento como desfecho. Na esfera da percepção do sujeito, evidenciam-se: presença de comportamentos intencionais e não intencionais; percepção de consequências; medo dos efeitos colaterais; sentimentos negativos; falta de compreensão sobre o transtorno e negação do diagnóstico. Na esfera da influência das pessoas próximas, destacam-se a baixa qualidade da aliança terapêutica e o suporte ineficaz oferecido pela família. CONCLUSÕES: Para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento do transtorno bipolar, é salutar que os esforços terapêuticos estejam centrados na experiência particular do sujeito, na sua satisfação e na colaboração pactuada com o tratamento.


OBJECTIVE: Evidence the influence of subjective aspects on adherence to the treatment of bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. The identification of studies was performed by searching the PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases based on the descriptors "Bipolar Disorder" AND "Treatment Adherence and Compliance" AND "Mental Health". The selection included all articles published up to the year 2020 and without language restrictions. RESULTS: A total of 743 articles were found, 714 were excluded from the selection process, 29 articles were read in full and 11 were eligible for sample composition. The influence of subjective aspects on treatment adherence was associated (1) with attitudes resulting from the subject's perceptions about the disorder and treatment and (2) attitudes influenced by people close to them. Studies point to the occurrence of negative attitudes in both spheres, with poor adherence to treatment as an outcome. In the sphere of the subject's perception, they show the presence of intentional and unintentional behaviors; perception of consequences; fear of side effects; negative feelings; lack of understanding about the disorder and denial of diagnosis. In the sphere of influence of those close to them, they highlight the low quality of the therapeutic alliance and the ineffective support offered by the family. CONCLUSIONS: To improve adherence to treatment for bipolar disorder, it is beneficial that therapeutic efforts are centered on the individual's particular experience, on their satisfaction and on the agreed collaboration with the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Attitude to Health , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Social Support , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Lithium Carbonate/pharmacology
18.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1343130

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(2): 159-167, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388387

ABSTRACT

Resumen La necrólisis epidérmica tóxica es una enfermedad cutánea severa, la mayoría de las veces desencadenada como reacción adversa a medicamentos, con alta morbilidad y mortalidad. La lamotrigina, junto a otros medicamentos estabilizadores del ánimo, constituye la causa medicamentosa más frecuente de esta complicación, consistente en necrosis y esfacelo de la epidermis y mucosas en más del 30 % de la superficie corporal, con la consecuente pérdida de líquidos y electrolitos, respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, susceptibilidad a infecciones y hasta sepsis, además de posibles secuelas ominosas. En la actualidad, el diagnóstico de trastorno bipolar se hace con mayor frecuencia, incluyendo al grupo etario de niños y adolescentes, pero tal proceso diagnóstico se caracteriza por dificultades y controversias en mayor cuantía que otros diagnósticos psiquiátricos. Ello obliga a una meticulosa elucubración diagnóstica y selección farmacológica, con pleno conocimiento de las moléculas del arsenal medicamentoso para, en caso de prescripción de lamotrigina, establecer una escrupulosa psicoeducación al paciente y sus familiares además de un seguimiento estricto y cercano. A propósito del caso de una adolescente diagnosticada de trastorno bipolar II, que recibió lamotrigina durante un episodio depresivo pero con un esquema posológico inadecuado, y desarrolló necrólisis epidérmica tóxica, revisamos y comentamos la literatura correspondiente. Concluimos en que es preciso extremar las precauciones al decidir el uso de lamotrigina para minimizar el riesgo de este severo efecto adverso.


Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a severe skin disease, most often triggered as an adverse drug reaction, with high morbidity and mortality. Lamotrigine, together with other mood stabilizer drugs, constitutes the most frequent drug that causes this complication, which consists of necrosis and detachment of the epidermis and mucosa in more than 30% of the body surface, with the consequent loss of water and electrolytes, systemic inflammatory response, susceptibility to infections and even sepsis, in addition to other possible ominous sequelae. Currently, the diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made more frequently, including the age group of children and adolescents, but such a diagnostic process is characterized by difficulties and controversies to a greater extent than other psychiatric diagnoses. This requires meticulous diagnostic process and pharmacological selection, with full knowledge of the molecules in the drug arsenal so, in case of lamotrigine prescription, it should be established scrupulous psychoeducation to the patient and their family members, as well as strict and close follow-up. A propos of the case of an adolescent girl diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, who received lamotrigine during a depressive episode but with an inappropriate posology, and developed toxic epidermal necrolysis, we reviewed and commented on the corresponding literature. We conclude that extreme caution is necessary when deciding the use of lamotrigine to minimize the risk of this severe adverse effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Necrosis/chemically induced , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
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