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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433908

ABSTRACT

El uso de clozapina (CZP) en niños/as y adolescentes ha estado históricamente limitado, debido a los efectos adversos y riesgos médicos asociados al fármaco, a pesar de ser una herramienta farmacológica de gran efectividad en la psiquiatría general. A continuación, se presenta una guía clínica con los siguientes objetivos: 1) identificar los criterios de indicación de CZP en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) según la evidencia disponible; 2) entregar algunas directrices a los clínicos y profesionales de salud respecto a la prescripción de CZP y precauciones a tener en consideración en esta población y; 3) entregar algunos datos comparativos del uso de CZP entre población infantojuvenil y población adulta. Todo lo anterior tiene como finalidad poder entregar la información necesaria para que los clínicos no limiten el uso de este fármaco y puedan prescribirlo de acuerdo con la evidencia científica disponible.


The use of clozapine (CZP) in children and adolescents has historically been limited due to the adverse effects and medical risks commonly associated with the drug, despite being a highly effective pharmacological tool in general psychiatry. Below we developed a clinical guideline with the following objectives: 1) identify the indication criteria for CZP in children and adolescents (NNA) according to the available evidence; 2) provide some guidelines to clinicians and health professionals regarding the prescription of CZP and precautions to be taken into account in this population and; 3) provide some comparative data on the use of CZP between the pediatric and adult population. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the necessary information so that clinicians do not limit the use of CLZ when needed and can prescribe it safely and according to the available scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use
2.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 365-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981136

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness that is difficult to treat and has a high degree of recurrence. This article reports general anesthesia for oral surgery in a patient with bipolar disorder complicated with hypothyroidism. It also discusses the rational application of antipsychotic drugs and anesthetics with reference to the literature to improve the understanding of the disease and help patients with mental disorders complete the surgical treatment quietly and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428415

ABSTRACT

El manejo farmacológico del episodio depresivo en contexto del trastorno bipolar constituye un desafío para el clínico tanto en psiquiatría adultos como infantoadolescente. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo actualizar y sintetizar la evidencia disponible respecto al manejo farmacológico para la depresión bipolar en población pediátrica. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones de los últimos 5 años en bases de datos. Resultados: La evidencia muestra como primera línea el uso de antipsicóticos de segunda generación por sobre los estabilizadores del ánimo en este grupo etario; demostrando lurasidona y lanzapina/fluoxetina eficacia similares. Lurasidona es una opción con mejor perfil de seguridad por asociarse a menos efectos adversos y mejor adherencia. El uso de antidepresivos debe considerarse dentro de los pasos iniciales del manejo, asociado a un antipsicótico de segunda generación. Conclusiones: Se destaca la importancia de la sospecha, evaluación y diagnóstico adecuado para guiar la decisión de manejo integral. A pesar de los riesgos y consideraciones existentes, es importante considerar el uso en primera línea de antipsicóticos de segunda generación y de antidepresivos en el manejo de un cuadro depresivo en contexto de la enfermedad bipolar. La escasez de estudios en el tratamiento farmacológico de la depresión bipolar en general y especialmente en población pediátrica limita la generalización y extrapolación de los resultados a la realidad local.


The pharmacological management of the depressive episode in the context of bipolar disorder constitutes a challenge for the clinician both in adult and child-adolescent population. The objective of this paper is to update and synthesize the available evidence regarding the pharmacological management of bipolar depression in the pediatric population. Methodology: A search of the publications of the last 5 years in databases was carried out. Results: The evidence shows the use of second generation antipsychotics over mood stabilizers as the first line in this age group; demonstrating similar efficacy. Results: The evidence shows the use of second generation antipsychotics over mood stabilizers as the first line in this age group; demonstrating similar efficacy lurasidone and lanzapine/fluoxetine. Lurasidone is an option with a better safety profile as it is associated with fewer adverse effects and better adherence. The use of antidepressants should be considered within the initial steps of management, associated with a second generation antipsychotic. Conclusions: The importance of suspicion, evaluation and adequate diagnosis to guide the decision of comprehensive management is highlighted. Despite the existing risks and considerations, it is important to consider the first-line use of second-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants in the management of a depressive episode in the context of bipolar illness. The scarcity of studies on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression in general and especially in the pediatric population limits the generalization and extrapolation of the results to the local reality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/therapeutic use , Depression/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Lurasidone Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 337-354, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407822

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Introducción: Lograr la recuperación funcional lo más rápido posible en el tratamiento de la depresión unipolar es un reto que la práctica clínica debe tratar de afrontar en la actualidad, ya que cualquier retraso en lograr la remisión de los síntomas es predictivo de un mayor número de recurrencias y mayores tasas de morbimortalidad. En esta revisión comprensiva, nuestro objetivo es guiar a los clínicos en su elección de aumentar con antipsicóticos atípicos o combinar el fármaco de referencia con un segundo antidepresivo, después de que se haya optimizado la dosis del antidepresivo seleccionado inicialmente y/o se haya cambiado el antidepresivo, sin lograr remisión, o bien cuando solo han obtenido una respuesta parcial después de un tiempo suficiente a una dosis apropiada. Estas decisiones surgen con frecuencia en la práctica clínica diaria. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en PubMed bajo varias combinaciones clave de palabras, resultando en 230 informes. Después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y según el título y el resumen, el número final de informes seleccionados para la revisión completa fue de 113. Se respondieron dos preguntas principales con base en estos estudios: 1) ¿Existe evidencia para recomendar claramente la combinación de antidepresivos versus potenciación con antipsicóticos (y el momento correcto para hacerlo) en la depresión unipolar no respondedora, una vez que las estrategias de optimización o de cambio han fallado en obtener la remisión? y 2) ¿Es posible identificar algunas características clínicas para guiar la decisión de combinación de antidepresivos versus potenciación con agentes antipsicóticos? Resultados: Según nuestro análisis, no hay datos disponibles para seleccionar una estrategia de otra de manera clara. Sin embargo, sugerimos favorecer una combinación o estrategia de aumento, basada en un enfoque de "tratamiento contra objetivos dianas" para perfilar al paciente, considerando una o dos características clínicas predominantes que permanecen activas como parte de una depresión mayor con respuesta parcial. Un adecuado análisis de los dominios sintomáticos presentes, una visión crítica de las guías clínicas actuales y de las opciones preferidas, considerar la bipolaridad oculta como uno de los principales diagnósticos diferenciales y adoptar una actitud enérgica pero lúcida en esta etapa del tratamiento son, a nuestro juicio, fundamentales para lograr recuperación ad integrum del paciente.


ABSTRACT Introduction: achieving functional recovery as quickly as possible in the treatment of unipolar depression is a challenge that clinical practice must try to meet nowadays, since any delay in accomplishing remission of the symptoms is predictive of a larger number of recurrences and higher morbidity and mortality rates. In this topical review we aim to guide clinicians in their choice to augment with atypical antipsychotics or to combine the baseline drug with a second antidepressant, after the dose of the antidepressant initially selected has been optimized and/or the antidepressant has been changed, not achieving remission, or resulting only in a partial response after sufficient time at an appropriate dose. These decisions arise frequently in everyday clinical practice. Methodology: a systematic search in PubMed was performed under several key combinations of words, resulting in 230 reports. After applying inclusion criteria and based in title and abstract, the final number of reports selected for full revision were 113. Two main questions were answered based on these studies: 1) Is there evidence to clearly recommend combination of antidepressants vs. augmentation with antipsychotics (and the correct moment to do it) in non-responsive unipolar depression, once optimization or switching strategies have failed to obtain remission? and 2) Is it possible to identify some clinical features to guide the decision of combination of antidepressants vs. augmentation with antipsychotic agents? Results: According to our analysis, there is no data available to select one strategy from another in a clear-cut manner. Nevertheless, we suggest favoring a combination or augmentation strategy, based in a "treating to target" approach to profile the patient, considering one or two predominant clinical features that remain active as part of a major depression with partial response. Proper analysis of the symptomatic domains present, a critical view of current clinical guidelines and preferred options, considering hidden bipolarity as one of the main differential diagnoses and adopting an energetic but lucid attitude at this stage of treatment are, in our view, fundamental for achieving ad integrum patient recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Remission Induction/methods , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e27697, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368623

ABSTRACT

Introdução:aanorexia nervosa caracteriza-se por um transtorno alimentar com quadro clínico típico de restrição dietética e desnutrição. Objetivo:verificar a eficácia do uso dos fármacos antipsicóticos olanzapina, quetiapina, risperidonano aumento ponderal de pacientes com tal patologia.Metodologia:utilizou-se de 9 Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados anexados na plataforma Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed, sendo todos analisados a partir de critérios de inclusão e exclusão feitos aos pares para a realização de uma Revisão Sistemática de Literatura.Os artigos foram avaliados através do sistema Grading of Recommendatons AssessmentDevelopment and Evaluaton/GRADE. Resultadose discussão:Percebeu-se a prevalência da olanzapina sobre o aumento do peso entre os pacientes com anorexia comparado ao placebo. Pouca eficácia sobre o ganho ponderal com relação a quetiapina. A risperidona não demonstroualteração do peso ao utilizá-ladurante o tratamento da anorexia nervosa.Conclusões:Os achados sugeriram que aolanzapina, apresentou oefeito mais significativo sobre o ganho de peso em um menor intervalo de tempo (AU).


Introduction:Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an eating disorder with a typical clinical of food restriction and malnutrition. Objective:to verify the effectiveness of the use of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone in the weight gain of patients with this pathology. Methodology:9 Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) were used attached to the Medical Literature Analysis andRetrieval System Online/PubMed/MEDLINE platform, all of which were analyzed based oninclusion and exclusion criteria made in pairs to carry out a Systematic Literature Review. Results and discussion:It was noticed the prevalence of olanzapine on weight gain among patients with anorexia compared to placebo. Little diligence on weight gain with regard to quetiapine. Risperine showed no weight change when used during the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Conclusions:The findings suggest that olanzapine had the most significant effect on weight gain in a short period (AU).


Introducción: La anorexia nerviosa se caracteriza por un trastorno alimentario con un cuadro clínico típico de restricción alimentaria y desnutrición. Objetivo: verificar la efectividad del uso de los medicamentos antipsicóticos olanzapina, quetiapina, risperidonaem el aumento de peso de pacientes con esta patología.Metodología: Se utilizaron 9 Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados (RCT) adjuntos a la plataforma Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online / PubMed (MEDLINE), todos fueron analizados en base a criterios de inclusión y exclusión realizados en pares para realizar una Revisión Sistemática de la Literatura. Resultados y discusión:Se notó la prevalencia de la olanzapina en la ganancia de peso entre pacientes con anorexia en comparación con el placebo. Poca diligencia en la ganancia de peso con respecto a la quetiapina. Risperine no mostró cambios de peso cuando se usó durante el tratamiento de la anorexia nerviosa. Conclusiones:Los hallazgos sugieren que la olanzapina tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el aumento de peso en un lapso de tiempo más corto (AU).


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/drug therapy , Feeding Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Anorexia , Risperidone , Quetiapine Fumarate , Olanzapine/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0070, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chlorpromazine is a medication widely used in psychiatry for the treatment of psychoses, especially schizophrenia. Since 1964, published articles have been correlating this medication with the appearance of ocular alterations. In this paper, we report the case of a 65-year-old patient with ocular effects due to long-term therapy with chlorpromazine. Biomicroscopy of both eyes presented diffuse granular brown deposits, most prominent at the deep stroma and corneal endothelium level. Also showed anterior subcapsular brown deposits with a stellate pattern in the lens. The total amount exceeds 2.000g (significant for the ocular alterations described) considering the patient's daily dosage of chlorpromazine of 300mg for ten years. After performing complete ophthalmic evaluation and discarding other causes for the ocular deposits, we diagnosed a secondary corneal deposit and cataract due to the use of chlorpromazine. This case reinforces the importance of periodic follow-up with an ophthalmologist for chlorpromazine users to trace ocular changes, heeding the exposure time and its dosage.


RESUMO A clorpromazina é uma medicação muito empregada na psiquiatria para tratamento de psicoses, especialmente em casos de esquizofrenia. Desde 1964 existem artigos publicados que correlacionam o uso dessa medicação com o aparecimento de alterações oculares. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de um paciente de 65 anos com efeitos oculares devido à terapia de longo prazo com clorpromazina. A biomicroscopia de ambos os olhos apresentou depósitos granulares difusos e de cor marrom, mais proeminente ao nível do estroma profundo e do endotélio da córnea, além de depósitos castanhos subcapsulares anteriores centrais em um padrão estrelado no cristalino. Considerando a dose diária de clorpromazina de 300mg por 10 anos usada pelo paciente, a quantidade total ultrapassa 2.000g (dose considerada significativa para as alterações oculares descritas). Após avaliação oftalmológica completa e descartado outras causas desses depósitos oculares, foram diagnosticados depósito corneano e catarata secundários ao uso de clorpromazina. O caso apresentado reforça a importância do acompanhamento oftalmolÓgico periÓdico de usuários de clorpromazina para o rastreio de alteraçÕes oculares, atentando-se ao tempo de exposição à droga e à posologia da mesma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Cataract/chemically induced , Chlorpromazine/adverse effects , Chlorpromazine/toxicity , Cornea/drug effects , Corneal Diseases/chemically induced , Corneal Opacity/chemically induced , Pigmentation Disorders/chemically induced , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/toxicity , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Chlorpromazine/administration & dosage , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Opacity/diagnosis , Slit Lamp , Slit Lamp Microscopy
8.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1343130

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
10.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 39-47, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280639

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: caracterizar os idosos atendidos em um Serviço de Urgência e Emergência Psiquiátrica quanto ao perfil sociodemográfico, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, prescrição de medicamentos e conduta médica e avaliar suas associações com o sexo. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, quantitativo, em que os dados foram obtidos a partir dos prontuários de pacientes atendidos no referido serviço, entre julho/2015 e junho/2016. A variável independente foi o sexo e as dependentes foram: idade; procedência; informante; tratamento psiquiátrico anterior; diagnóstico; medicamentos prescritos e conduta. RESULTADOS: nos 152 prontuários analisados, observam-se idade prevalente entre 60 a 69 anos, maioria de mulheres, procedência do município local e comparecimento com acompanhante. Os diagnósticos prevalentes são a esquizofrenia e os transtornos mentais e comportamentais decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. As medicações prescritas com maior frequência são da classe dos antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos, seguidas dos ansiolíticos/sedativos. O critério de Beers considera a prescrição de medicamentos do grupo dos benzodiazepínicos, antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos inapropriada para idosos. A principal conduta foi a alta, sem encaminhamento a outro serviço. CONCLUSÃO: embora haja incentivo do Ministério da Saúde, com a criação de novas políticas de saúde mental, muitos profissionais mantêm o modelo de atendimento baseado na queixa e conduta, dificultando a reabilitação psicossocial dos pacientes.


OBJECTIVE: characterize the elderly treated in a Psychiatric Emergency and Urgency Service regarding their sociodemographic profile, psychiatric diagnosis, prescription of medication and medical conduct and evaluate their associations with sex. METHOD: a cross-sectional, quantitative study in which data was obtained from the medical records of patients seen in the referred service, between July/2015 and June/2016. The independent variable was gender and dependents were: age; origin; informant; previous psychiatric treatment; diagnosis; prescribed drugs and conduct. RESULTS: in the 152 medical records analyzed, the prevailing age is between 60 and 69 years old, most of them women, coming from the local municipality and attending with a companion. The prevalent diagnoses are schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorders resulting from the use of psychoactive substances. The most frequently prescribed medications are in the class of antipsychotics and antihistamines, followed by anxiolytics/sedatives. Beers' criteria consider the prescription of benzodiazepine, antipsychotic and antihistamine medications inappropriate for the elderly. The main conduct was discharge, without referral to another service. CONCLUSION: although there is encouragement from the Ministry of Health, with the creation of new mental health policies, many professionals maintain the model of care based on complaint and conduct, hindering the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients.


OBJETIVO: caracterizar a los ancianos atendidos en un servicio psiquiátrico de emergencia y urgencia en relación con el perfil sociodemográfico, el diagnóstico psiquiátrico, la prescripción de medicamentos y la conducta médica; y evaluar sus asociaciones con el sexo. MÉTODO: un estudio cuantitativo y transversal en el que se obtuvieron datos de los registros médicos de los pacientes tratados en el citado servicio, del 2015 al 2016 de julio. La variable independiente era el sexo y los dependientes eran: edad, procedencia, informante, tratamiento psiquiátrico previo, diagnóstico, medicamentos recetados y conducta. RESULTADOS: de los 152 registros médicos analizados, se observa que: la edad predominante es de 60 a 69 años, la mayoría de ellos son mujeres, desde el municipio local y atendido a la atención de un acompañante. Los diagnósticos prevalentes son la esquizofrenia y los trastornos mentales y conductuales resultantes del uso de sustancias psicoactivas. Los medicamentos recetados con mayor frecuencia son la clase antipsicótica y anti-histamina, seguida de ansiolíticos/sedantes. El criterio de Beers considera que la prescripción de fármacos del grupo de benzodiazepinas, antipsicóticos y antihistaminas, es inadecuada para los ancianos. La conducta principal era alta, sin remisión a otro servicio. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque hay aliento del Ministerio de salud con la creación de nuevas políticas de salud mental, muchos profesionales mantienen el modelo de cuidado basado en la queja y la conducta, obstaculizando la rehabilitación psicosocial de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Mentally Ill Persons , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Mental Disorders/therapy
11.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(1): 72-83, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388380

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los meningiomas son los tumores primarios más frecuentes del sistema nervioso central, tienden a ser benignos y de lento crecimiento. Pueden ser asintomáticos o incluso manifestarse únicamente con síntomas psiquiátricos, incluyendo un cuadro psicótico. No existen estudios clínicos controlados randomizados que estudien la relación entre meningioma y cuadros psicóticos. La evidencia disponible se basa en series y reportes de casos. Existe una relación entre la magnitud del edema perilesional y la presencia de síntomas psicóticos. Por otra parte, el tamaño de la lesión o su localización neuroanatómica específica tendrían menor relevancia. La resección quirúrgica de la lesión, en conjunto con el manejo psiquiátrico adecuado, usualmente conduce al cese de la sintomatología psicótica. En la evaluación de pacientes con síntomas psicóticos se debe tener un elevado índice de sospecha, en particular en cuadros de reciente inicio, con manifestaciones atípicas o resistentes al tratamiento. En estos casos se recomienda un estudio con neuroimágenes. Este artículo presenta el caso de una paciente evaluada en nuestro hospital diagnosticada con un meningioma frontal izquierdo de gran tamaño, que presentó sintomatología psicótica secundaria, y se expone una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de esta asociación.


Meningiomas are the most frequent central nervous primary tumors, which tend to be benign and present a slow growth. They may be asymptomatic or present clinically just with psychiatric symptoms including a psychotic state. There are no clinical randomized controlled trials that study the relationship between meningioma and a psychotic episode. Available evidence is based on case reports and series. There is a relationship between the magnitude of perilesional edema and the presence of psychotic symptoms. On the other hand, the size of the tumor or its specific neuroanatomic location would have less relevance. Surgical resection of the tumor associated with psychiatric management usually leads to the cessation of psychotic symptoms. In the assessment of patients with psychotic symptoms, there must be a high index of suspicion, particularly in first psychotic episodes, atypical manifestations and resistance to treatment. In these cases, a neuroimaging study is recommended. This article presents the case of a patient evaluated in our hospital and diagnosed with a large left frontal meningioma with secondary psychotic symptoms, and an updated bibliographic review of this association is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Meningeal Neoplasms/complications , Meningioma/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Meningeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-GO, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1344538

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, antipsicóticos atípicos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde, outras classes de potencializadores de tratamento depressivo. Indicação: Depressão refratária. Pergunta: Há diferenças de eficácia e segurança entre o Aripiprazol, Ziprasidona, Olanzapina, Quetiapina e Risperidona como agente potencializador do tratamento de depressão refratária? Há diferenças de eficácia e segurança entre as principais classes de drogas potencializadoras do tratamento de depressão refratária? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado na base de dados PUBMED, seguindo estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita a avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews version 2. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 revisões sistemáticas, que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Na potencialização do tratamento antidepressivo, o Aripiprazol, em dose padrão ou dose diária reduzida, não é superior à Quetiapina, Olanzapina/Fluoxetina ou Risperidona em desfechos de eficácia ou segurança para casos de depressão refratária com pelo menos uma falha terapêutica prévia. As diferentes classes de potencializadores de antidepressivos não diferem entre si nos desfechos de eficácia para casos de depressão refratária com duas ou mais falhas terapêuticas prévias. Ziprasidona e Quetiapina se mostraram mais eficazes que o placebo e seguros para promover remissão sintomática da depressão refratária


Technology: Aripiprazole, atypical antipsychotics available in the Brazilian Public Health System, other classes of augmentative antidepressant agent. Indication: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Question: Are there differences in efficacy and safety between Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, and Risperidone as augmentative agent in the treatment of TRD? Are there differences in efficacy and safety between the main classes of augmentative drugs that enhance the treatment of TRD? Methods: A bibliographic survey was carried out in the PUBMED database, following predefined search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews version 2 tool. Results: 3 systematic reviews were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: In potentiating antidepressant treatment, Aripiprazole, in standard dose or reduced daily dose, is not superior to Quetiapine, Olanzapine/fluoxetine or Risperidone in efficacy or safety outcomes for cases of TRD with at least one previous therapeutic failure. The different classes of antidepressant enhancers do not differ in efficacy outcomes for cases of TRD with two or more prior therapeutic failures. Ziprasidone and Quetiapine were more effective than placebo and safer for the outcome of symptomatic remission of TRD


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Efficacy , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use
13.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(6): 599-607, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132149

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess health-related quality of life and associated factors in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine utility values using the EuroQol-5D-3L instrument. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a state-run pharmacy in the Brazilian National Health System. Individuals were included if they were using a single atypical antipsychotic and completed the EuroQol-5D-3L. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. The dependent variable was the EuroQol-5D-3L utility score. Associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model. Results: A total of 394 patients were included, and their mean utility score was 0.664±0.232. Patients treated with clozapine had the highest mean score (0.762 [0.202]), followed by olanzapine (0.687 [0.230]), risperidone (0.630 [0.252]), ziprasidone (0.622 [0.234]), and quetiapine (0.620 [0.243]). The following variables were related to higher utility scores: income, employment, clozapine use, no illicit psychoactive substance use, no suicide attempts, and no comorbidities. Conclusion: Evaluating health-related quality of life differences in the available atypical antipsychotics can facilitate the choice of treatment, improve health outcomes, and ensure rational prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quetiapine Fumarate
14.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública de Goiás Cândido Santiago ; 6(3): 600009, set. 05, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-GO, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1121615

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, medicamento antipsicótico de segunda geração. Indicação: tratamento da esquizofrenia. Objetivos: Apresentar evidências de análise econômicas em saúde, no cenário do SUS e contextos internacionais, do tratamento com Aripiprazol para esquizofrenia, comparado a outros antipsicóticos de uso oral de primeira e segunda geração utilizados no SUS. Realizar uma análise de impacto orçamentário para o contexto do SUS em Goiás e estimar uma projeção de gastos diretos com aquisição de Aripiprazol pela Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás, em cenário de incorporação do Aripiprazol para tratamento de esquizofrenia, no período de 2021 a 2025. Materiais e Métodos: Levantamentos bibliográficos nas bases de dados PUBMED e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, no mês de junho de 2020. Realizada avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas e dos estudos econômicos com as ferramentas Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), e Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) checklist, respectivamente. Foi calculado o impacto orçamentário, seguindo diretrizes do Ministério da Saúde, e projeção de gastos para a Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás. Resultados: Foram selecionadas e incluídas 1 revisão sistemática e 1 estudo econômico brasileiro no estudo de revisão rápida de evidências. Conclusão: No contexto brasileiro, o Aripiprazol é custo-efetivo, quando comparado a Clorpromazina, Haloperidol, Quetiapina e Ziprasidona. Porém, é menos custo-efetivo que Risperidona e Olanzapina. Caso seja padronizado pela Secretaria de Saúde de Goiás, promoverá economia anual para o SUS de R$ 250.042,05 a R$ 407.418,41, em sua máxima difusão. A projeção de gastos diretos é estimada em R$1.582.115,24 a R$27.960.108,08


Technology: Aripiprazole, second generation antipsychotic medication. Indication: treatment of schizophrenia. Objectives: To show evidence of health economic analysis in the scenario of Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) and international contexts, for schizophrenia treatment with Aripiprazole, compared to other oral antipsychotics used in BPHS. To make a budget impact analysis for the Goias Public Health System perspective and estimate direct expenditures for the acquisition of Aripiprazole by State Department of Health of Goias, in a scenario of technology incorporation of Aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia, in the period from 2021 to 2025. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were done in the PUBMED and Virtual Health Library databases, in 2020 June. An evaluation of the methodological quality of systematic reviews and economic studies was done using the tools AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews), and QHES (Quality of Health Economic Studies) checklist, respectively. Calculation of budget impact, following guidelines of the Brazilian Health Ministry, and projection of expenditures for the State Department of Health of Goias. Results: 1 systematic review and 1 Brazilian economic study were selected and included in the study of rapid evidence review. Conclusion: In the Brazilian context, Aripiprazole is cost-effective when compared to Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, Quetiapine and Ziprasidone. However, it is less cost-effective than Risperidone and Olanzapine. If it is standardized by State Department of Health of Goias, it will promote anual savings for BPHS from R$ 250,042.05 to R$ 407,418.41, in its maximum dissemination. The direct expenses are estimated at R$ 1,582,115.24 to R $ 27,960,108.08


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances , Antipsychotic Agents/economics , Unified Health System/economics , Aripiprazole/economics
15.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(3): 223-229, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The treatment of schizophrenia aims to reduce symptoms, improve quality of life and promote recovery from debilitating effects. Nonadherence to treatment is related to several factors and may lead to persistence of symptoms and relapse. Worldwide, the rate of nonadherence to treatment in individuals with schizophrenia is around 50%. Objectives To compare the clinical profile of nonadherent and adherent patients among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia receiving treatment at psychosocial care centers in a city in southern Brazil. Method The clinical-epidemiological profile of patients with schizophrenia was retrospectively analyzed based on medical records entered into the system between January and December 2016, evaluating data at one-year follow-up. Results 112 patients were included. The disease was more prevalent in men; mean age was 40.5 years, being lower among men. Most of the sample had a low level of education, was unemployed/retired, did not have children and resided with relatives. The highest rate of diagnosis was among young adults. Psychotic symptoms were most frequently described, and the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic was haloperidol. The nonadherence rate was 15.2%; only one patient required admission to a psychiatric hospital. Among nonadherent patients, the mean time of attendance was 6 months; there were more nonadherent women than men. The most prevalent age range of nonadherence was 41-64 years. Psychosocial and clinical data were similar across the whole sample. Conclusion A nonadherence rate of 15.2% was found among individuals receiving treatment for schizophrenia, suggesting that psychosocial care centers were effective in treating and monitoring these patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
17.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 22-26, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055359

ABSTRACT

Objective: German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider proposed the concept of first-rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia in 1959. However, their relevance for diagnosis and prediction of treatment response are still unclear. Most studies have investigated FRS in chronic or medicated patients. The present study sought to evaluate whether FRS predict remission, response, or improvement in functionality in antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis. Methods: Follow-up study of 100 patients at first episode of psychosis (FEP), with no previous treatment, assessed at baseline and after 2 months of treatment. The participants were evaluated with the standardized Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and for presence of FRS. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that, in this sample, up to three individual FRS predicted remission: voices arguing, voices commenting on one's actions, and thought broadcasting. Conclusion: Specific FRS may predict remission after treatment in FEP patients. This finding could give new importance to Kurt Schneider's classic work by contributing to future updates of diagnostic protocols and improving estimation of prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Remission Induction , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública Goiás "Cândido Santiago" ; 6(2): 600008, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | CONASS, SES-GO, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1118711

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Palmitato de Paliperidona (PP) é um antipsicótico injetáveis de efeito prolongado (AIEP). Indicação: Tratamento sintomático da esquizofrenia. Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia, segurança e efetividade terapêutica entre PP e outros AIEP para o tratamento de esquizofrenia em adultos. Pergunta: O PP é mais eficaz e seguro que os outros AIEP (Decanoato de Haloperidol, Enantato de Flufenazina, Decanoato de Zuclopentixol, Risperidona-IEP) para o tratamento sintomático de esquizofrenia em adultos? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico, com estratégias estruturadas de busca, na base de dados PUBMED. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas (RS), ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) e dos estudos observacionais de efetividade no mundo real (EOEMR) com as ferramentas Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), Delphi List e Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), respectivamente. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 RS, 1 ECR e 3 EOEMR. Conclusão: PP (de aplicação mensal) tem similar eficácia e segurança com a Risperidona-IEP para o tratamento de esquizofrenia, exceto que provoca menor incidência de sintomas extrapiramidais. PP e Decanoato de Haloperidol são similares na eficácia e segurança para o tratamento de esquizofrenia, inclusive no risco de sintomas extrapiramidais (discinesias tardias e parkinsonismo), exceto que PP tem menor incidência de acatisia. PP é similar aos outros AIEP nos vários desfechos de eficácia e segurança terapêutica, inclusive mortalidade


Technology: Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics. Indication: Symptomatic treatment of schizophrenia. Objective: To compare the therapeutic efficacy, safety and effectiveness in the real world between PP and other LAI antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Question: Is PP more effective and safer than other LAI antipsychotics (Haloperidol Decanoate, Fluphenazine Enanthate, Zuclopentixol Decanoate, Risperidone-LAI), for the symptomatic treatment of schizophrenia? Methods: Bibliographic survey, with structured search strategies, in the PUBMED database. Na evaluation was made of the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SR), randomized clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies (OS) of effectiveness in the real world with Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), Delphi List and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tools, respectively. Results: 3 SR, 1 RCT and 3 OE were included. Conclusion: PP (monthly dose presentation) has similar efficacy and safety with Risperidone-LAI for the treatment of schizophrenia, except that it causes a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. PP and Haloperidol Decanoate are similar in efficacy and safety for the treatment of schizophrenia, including the risk of extra-pyramidal symptoms (tardive dyskinesias and parkinsonism), except that PP has a lower incidence of akathisia. PP has similar outcomes of efficacy and safety to the other LAI antipsychotics, including mortality risk


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Paliperidone Palmitate/therapeutic use , Clopenthixol/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fluphenazine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use
19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1457-1463, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880607

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic medication is the primary treatment for schizophrenia, which is effective on ameliorating positive symptoms and can reduce the risk of recurrence, but it has limited efficacy for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction seriously affects the life quality and social function for the patients with schizophrenia. Currently, there is plenty evidence that antipsychotic drugs combined with adjuvant therapy drugs can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. These drugs include anti-oxidants, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuro-inflammatory drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs, minocycline), which show potential clinical effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Minocycline/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
20.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1295-1299, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the changes in metabolic markers and clinical outcome after treatment with different drug regimens in children with bipolar affective disorder.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 220 children with bipolar affective disorder who attended the hospital from January 2017 to January 2020. According to the treatment method, 112 children treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs alone were enrolled as the control group, and 108 children treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs combined with mood stabilizer were enrolled as the study group. The two groups were compared in terms of baseline data, changes in related metabolic markers[fasting insulin (FIN), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)] after treatment, incidence rate of metabolic syndrome, and clinical outcome.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the baseline data including age, sex, and course of disease between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Atypical antipsychotic drugs combined with mood stabilizer in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children have little effect on the level of metabolic markers, and the curative effect is significant.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Cholesterol, HDL , Mood Disorders , Retrospective Studies , Triglycerides
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