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Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 32-44, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414229


Background: With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of HIV-infected persons had increased and the disease is now managed as a chronic one, but the quality of life (QOL) of the patients is now a concern. Social support enhances QOL of patients with chronic illnesses. However, no study has been done to determine the QOL of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in our environment. This study therefore assessed the QOL of PLWHA attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Edo State of Nigeria Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Two hundred and thirty PLWHA attending the ART clinic of ISTH, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria, were systematically selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to collect data on sociodemographic and clinical profiles of selected participants, and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF questionnaire was used to collect data the QOL of each participant. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 20.0. Results: The overall mean QOL score for the participants was 89.13±1.18 (95% CI=87.95-90.31). The scores in three of the six life domains in the WHOQOL-HIV BREF instrument were similar and high; spirituality/ religion/personal beliefs (16.33±0.36), physical health (15.83±0.28) and psychological health (15.07±0.24). Lower mean QOL scores were observed in the social relationships (13.49±0.28) and environment (13.45±0.20) domains. Clinical HIV stage, marital status, educational status and gender were significantly associated with mean QOL scores in bivariate analysis while only HIV stage 1 and 2 were significantly associated with good QOL in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: It is pertinent that PLWHA are kept in early stages of HIV disease through combination of efforts such as prompt enrolment, commencement and monitoring compliance of HAART, and treatment of opportunistic infections, as well as public health measures including education, de-stigmatization, early diagnosis by extensive accessible screening/testing of at-risk population, social supports and economic empowerment, psychotherapy and social integration of affected individuals especially in a functional home.

Social Support , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Compliance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Diagnosis , Social Integration , Quality of Life , Stereotyping , Therapeutics , Public Health , Hospitals, Teaching , Nigeria
PAMJ One Health ; 10(4)2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425373


Introduction: as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are distributed and administered globally, hesitancy towards the vaccine hinders the immunisation of a significant number of vulnerable populations, such as people living with HIV/AIDS. Hence, this study aims to assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) attending clinicaloutpatient follow-up at State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri (SSHM), Borno State, Nigeria. Methods: a hospital-based cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among 344 PLHIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the United States President´s Emergency Plan for AIDS (PEPFAR) clinic in SSHM from 4 th January to 25th February 2022. Data were collected using a structured and pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. The results were presented using frequencies and percentages. The factors that are associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were identified using the Chi-square statistical test. Results: among the 344 respondents of the study, only 88 (26.6%) received the COVID-19 vaccine. Out of the 256 respondents that did not receive the vaccine, only 10.5% (27/256) are willing to be vaccinated, while the majority; 57.8% (148/256) are not willing to be vaccinated and 31.7% (81/256) of the respondents are uncertain, thus resulting in a hesitation rate of 89.45%. There was no statistically significant association between COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the study´s independent variables; where p-value is greater than 0.05. Conclusion: hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccine is high among PLHIV and there is no any statistically significant association between COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the independent variables of the study where p-value is greater than 0.05. Hence, it is necessary to develop targeted strategies to boost vaccine uptake among this vulnerable population.

HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
PAMJ One Health ; 10(4): 1-14, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425381


Introduction: as Zambia moves towards attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control, it is clear significant efforts are required to facilitate achievement of UNAIDS treatment targets by 2030. To accelerate progress towards global target of 95% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) knowing their status, country is promoting community-based HIV testing and same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, there are uncertainties of how this strategy affects immediate and early engagement in program settings. To address this research gap, we analysed a programme data of PLHIV newly diagnosed and initiated on ART in community and health facility settings. Study objectives were to estimate the proportion of immediate engagement, to estimate early engagement among newly diagnosed PLHIV and, to examine factors independently associated with immediate and early engagement in care among newly diagnosed PLHIV offered same-day ART initiation. Methods: we included all newly diagnosed PLHIV aged 18 years or older and provided same-day ART initiation between October 2018 and January 2019 in Lusaka District. Immediate engagement was estimated as proportion of newly diagnosed PLHIV who visited the health facility at least once within 14 days after same-day ART initiation, whereas early engagement as proportion of newly diagnosed PLHIV active 6 months after same-day ART initiation. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to assess association of outcomes with key background characteristics. Results: of 12,777 newly diagnosed PLHIV who initiated same day ART 7,943 (62%) were tested and initiated in the community. Overall, 6,257 (49%) engaged within 14 days (median 15, IQR: 13-37). Older individuals (36-49 years) were more likely to be engaged at 14 days (aRR 1.29; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.18; p<0.001) and retained at 6 months (aRR1.27;95%CI 1.21-1.34P<0.001) whilst risk of attrition at 6 months was highest in younger ages (18-24 years) (aRR 0.79;95 %CI 0.76-0.82; p<0.001). Conclusion: to adequately address the HIV epidemic targeted engagement approaches are required particularly in the younger ages.

Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(110): 10-19, 20220000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1414132


Desde principios de la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 se ha debatido el curso de la enfermedad COVID-19 en personas con VIH. Por un lado, la inmunodeficiencia derivada de la infección por VIH y la mayor prevalencia de comorbilidades estarían asociadas al desarrollo de enfermedad grave. Por otro lado, la disfunción inmunológica podría evitar una respuesta inflamatoria exacerbada. En este trabajo de revisión analizamos la evidencia disponible en cuanto a la relación entre la manifestación clínica de COVID-19 y la respuesta inmune humoral y celular contra SARS-CoV-2 en el contexto de la coinfección con VIH. La bibliografía sugiere que las personas con VIH que reciben tratamiento antirretroviral logran respuestas eficaces contra SARS-CoV-2, a pesar de presentar algunas de las funciones celulares alteradas. Esto sugiere un impacto significativo de la terapia antirretroviral, no solo en el control del VIH sino en potenciar la inmunidad para restringir otras infecciones.

Since the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the course of COVID-19 in people with HIV has been debated. On the one hand, the immunodeficiency derived from HIV infec-tion and the higher prevalence of comorbidities would be associated with severe disease. On the other hand, due to its immunological dysfunction, an exacerbated inflam-matory response might be avoided.In this review, we analyzed the evidence regarding the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 and the humoral and cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 during HIV coinfection. The literature suggests that people with HIV on antiretroviral treatment achieved effective responses against SARS-CoV-2, despite having altered cell func-tions. This indicates a remarkable impact of antiretroviral therapy, not only in controlling HIV but also in boosting immunity to restrict other infections

Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(3): 307-313, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404986


ABSTRACT Introduction: Hematologic abnormalities are common in HIV and involve all blood cell lineages. A study on cytopenias, as correlated with disease progression, can be valuable in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to determine the hematologic profile of HIV patients and its association with CD4 count and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study involving adult Filipino HIV patients with complete blood count (CBC) and CD4 count determinations prior to the initiation of ARV treatment and after ≥6 months of ARV treatment. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association between cytopenias and a CD4 count <200 cells/μL. Results: The study included 302 patients. Anemia was the most common cytopenia. Anemia and leukopenia were associated with an increased likelihood of having a CD4 count <200 cells/μL in ARV-naïve patients. In ARV-treated patients, leukopenia was associated with an increased probability of having a CD4 count <200 cells/μL. An increase in hemoglobin, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts was observed after ≥6 months of ARV treatment. Conclusion: Anemia and leukopenia can be used as markers of immune status in HIV-infected individuals and improvement in the CBC parameters can be used to assess response to ARV treatment. Routine monitoring of hematologic parameters is recommended.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HIV Infections , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Leukopenia , CD4 Antigens , Anemia
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977


O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.

The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.

Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Toxoplasmosis/virology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Viral Load , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Anemia/virology , Meningitis/virology
Psico USF ; 27(1): 45-60, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376048


Dentre os fatores associados à adesão à Terapia Antirretroviral (TARV) em pessoas vivendo com HIV, destaca-se a religiosidade/espiritualidade (R/E). O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar as evidências disponíveis sobre a relação entre a dimensão da R/E e a adesão aos antirretrovirais. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas nas bases/bibliotecas CINAHL, LILACS, PePSIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus e Web of Science. Foram selecionados artigos empíricos publicados entre janeiro de 2008 e junho de 2019, sendo recuperados 49 estudos após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão/exclusão. Encontraram-se associações positivas, negativas e neutras entre R/E e adesão à TARV, evidenciando que a R/E é uma dimensão psicossocial que pode ser preditora da adesão aos antirretrovirais. O sentido dessa influência, no entanto, ainda não é um consenso na literatura científica. Recomenda-se que essas influências sejam compreendidas a partir de elementos contextuais dessa população e não apenas de marcadores pessoais (AU).

Religiosity and spirituality (R/S) have stood out among factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people living with HIV. This study aimed to identify evidence on the relationship between R/S and adherence to ART. An integrative literature review was conducted within the CINAHL, LILACS, PePSIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Empirical articles published between January 2008 and June 2019 were selected, and 49 studies were retrieved after applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Positive, negative, and neutral associations were found between R/S and adherence to ART, showing that R/S is a psychosocial dimension that can be a predictor of adherence to antiretrovirals. The meaning of this influence, however, is not yet a consensus in the scientific literature. It is recommended that these influences be understood from the contextual elements of this population and not just from personal markers (AU).

Entre los factores asociados a la adherencia a la Terapia Antirretroviral (TARV) en personas diagnosticadas con VIH, destaca la religiosidad/espiritualidad (R/E). El objetivo de este estudio fue presentar las evidencias disponibles sobre la relación entre la dimensión de la R/E y la adherencia a los antirretrovirales. Se realizó una revisión integradora de la literatura con búsquedas en las bases de datos/bibliotecas CINAHL, LILACS, PePSIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus y Web of Science. Se seleccionaron artículos empíricos publicados entre enero de 2008 y junio de 2019, y se recuperaron 49 estudios tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Fueron encontradas asociaciones positivas, negativas y neutras entre la R/E y la adherencia al TARV, lo que demuestra que la R/E es una dimensión psicosocial que puede ser un predictor de la adherencia a los medicamentos antirretrovirales. Sin embargo, el significado de esta influencia aún no está consensuado en la literatura científica. Se recomienda que estas influencias se entiendan a partir de los elementos contextuales de esta población y no solo de los marcadores personales (AU).

HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Medication Adherence , Religion , Religion and Medicine , Spirituality
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 59, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390028


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HIV/syphilis co-infection in people initiating antiretroviral therapy in Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais. METHODS A sectional section of a prospective cohort study was carried out with people living with HIV, treatment-naive, initiating antiretroviral therapy, older than 16 years, and in follow-up treatment at specialized HIV/Aids care services in Belo Horizonte. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, laboratory and pharmacological treatment-related data were obtained through interviews, medical records, and information systems for logistical control of antiretroviral medications and laboratory tests. The dependent variable was the first episode of active syphilis, recorded by the physician in clinical records, within 12 months after beginning of the antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with HIV/syphilis co-infection were assessed using binary multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Among the 459 individuals included, a prevalence of 19.5% (n = 90) of sexually transmitted infections (STI) was observed, with syphilis (n = 49) being the most frequent STI in these individuals. The prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 10.6% (n = 49), and the associated independent factors were alcohol use (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.01-5.26), and having a diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections (OR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.24-8.95). CONCLUSIONS There was a high prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection in people living with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy in Belo Horizonte. HIV/syphilis co-infection was associated with behavioral and clinical factors, such as alcohol use and diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections. Prior knowledge about the factors associated with this co-infection may support the decisions of health professionals engaged in the care to people living with HIV, with regard to timely diagnosis, guidance, follow-up and adequate treatment, both for syphilis and HIV.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à coinfecção HIV/sífilis em pessoas no início da terapia antirretroviral no município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS Foi realizado um corte seccional de um estudo de coorte prospectivo, com pessoas vivendo com HIV, sem tratamento prévio da infecção, em início da terapia antirretroviral, maiores de 16 anos e em acompanhamento em serviços de assistência especializada em HIV/aids de Belo Horizonte. Dados sociodemográficos, comportamentais, clínicos, laboratoriais e relacionados ao tratamento farmacológico foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas, coleta em prontuários clínicos e nos sistemas de informação de controle de medicamentos antirretrovirais e exames laboratoriais. A variável dependente foi o primeiro episódio de sífilis ativa, registrado pelo médico em prontuário clínico, em um período de 12 meses após início da terapia antirretroviral. Os fatores associados à coinfecção HIV/sífilis foram avaliados por meio de regressão logística binária múltipla. RESULTADOS Dentre os 459 indivíduos avaliados, observou-se uma prevalência de 19,5% (n = 90) de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, sendo a sífilis (n = 49) a infecção sexualmente transmissível mais frequente nesses indivíduos. A prevalência da coinfecção HIV/sífilis foi de 10,6% (n = 49) e os fatores independentes associados foram o uso de álcool (OR = 2,30; IC95% 1,01-5,26) e ter diagnóstico de outras infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (OR = 3,33; IC95% 1,24-8,95). CONCLUSÕES Houve alta prevalência de coinfecção HIV/sífilis em pessoas vivendo com HIV em início de terapia antirretroviral em Belo Horizonte. A coinfecção HIV/sífilis foi associada a fatores comportamentais e clínicos, como uso de álcool e diagnóstico de outras infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. O conhecimento prévio sobre os fatores associados à essa coinfecção pode subsidiar as decisões dos profissionais de saúde inseridos no cuidado às pessoas vivendo com HIV, no que diz respeito ao diagnóstico oportuno, orientações, acompanhamento e tratamento adequado, tanto da sífilis quanto do HIV.

Syphilis , HIV Infections , Risk Factors , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection/epidemiology
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 186-189, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391649


O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia maligna associada à infecção pelo herpes vírus humano 8 em doentes imunossupressos. O sarcoma de Kaposi Epidêmico é o tipo epidemiológico mais frequente e afeta indivíduos VIH-positivos. A região anoperineal é raramente envolvida e as lesões suspeitas devem ser biopsiadas para confirmação histológica. A base do tratamento é a restauração imune do doente. Relatamos o caso de um jovem, com diagnóstico recente de infeção pelo VIH, sem tratamento, que foi admitido no serviço de infectologia apresentando sintomas constitucionais, adenomegalias inguinais e extensa lesão verrucosa e ulcerada na região anoperineal. As biópsias confirmaram o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi e o doente iniciou terapia antirretroviral e quimioterapia. Houve recuperação clínica, regressão das lesões e desaparecimento das adenomegalias. Este relato objetiva alertar as equipes médicas no sentido de se incluir o sarcoma de Kaposi no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões que afetam a região anoperineal.

Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection in immunocompromised patients. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common epidemiological type and affects HIV-positive patients. Perineal involvement is rare, and suspicious lesions should be biopsied to confirm histological diagnosis. Treatment consists of restoring the patient's immune system. We report the case of a young patient recently diagnosed with HIV, without treatment, who was admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases with nonspecific symptoms, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and an extensive verrucous ulcerated lesion in the perineal region. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, and the patient was started on antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy. Clinical recovery was achieved, with lesion reduction and inguinal adenopathy resolution. This case report aims to encourage physicians to include Kaposi's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of perineal lesions.

Humans , Male , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
J. health inform ; 14(1): 19-25, 20220000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370254


Objetivo: Investigar dados dos sistemas de informação em saúde do HIV e sua relação com o conjunto mínimo de dados da atenção à saúde (CMD) brasileiro. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo descritivo e transversal em janeiro/2019, a partir dos dados coletados nos formulários dos sistemas que registram o tratamento antirretroviral e exames laboratoriais. Resultados: Foram analisados 282 campos dos formulários. Após agregação dos campos comuns, restaram 83 variáveis, 17 (20,5%) consideradas aplicáveis ao CMD. Conclusão: O CMD coleta dados sobre consultas e exames de seguimento dos contatos assistenciais do HIV, porém não registra tratamento antirretroviral. A maioria das variáveis coletadas nos sistemas do HIV poderão compor o modelo de informação clínica do HIV para Registro Eletrônico de Saúde.

Objective: It was to investigate data of the health information systems of HIV and its relationship with Brazilian minimum data set of health care (MDS). Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in January/2019, based on data collected in the forms of the systems that register the antiretroviral treatment and laboratory tests. Results: Were analyze 282 fields of the forms, after aggregation of the common ones, 83 variables remained, 17 (20.5%) considered applicable to MDS. Conclusion: The MDS collects data on consultations and follow-up examinations of HIV care, does not register antiretroviral treatment. Most of the variables collected in HIV systems may be part of the HIV clinical information model for the Electronic Health Record.

Objetivo: Investigar datos de los sistemas de información en salud del VIH y su relación con el conjunto mínimo de datos de la atención a la salud (CMD) brasileño. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo y transversal en enero/2019, a partir de los formularios de los sistemas del tratamiento antirretroviral y exámenes de laboratorio. Resultados: Se analizaron 282 campos de los formularios, después de la agregación de los comunes, quedaron 83 variables, 17 (20,5%) consideradas aplicables al CMD. Conclusión: El CMD recoge datos sobre consultas y exámenes de seguimiento de la asistencia del VIH, no registra tratamiento antirretroviral. La mayoría de las variables del VIH podrán componer modelo de información clínica del Registro Electrónico de Salud.

Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Electronic Health Records , Health Information Systems , Datasets as Topic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 111 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425825


Introdução: As terapias antirretrovirais (TARV) foram imprescindíveis para o aumento da expectativa de vida das pessoas que vivem com o HIV (PVHIV). Entretanto, ações residuais do vírus, combinadas com efeitos colaterais da TARV, mantêm um estado de imunoativação e, consequentemente, um quadro de inflamação sistêmica de baixo grau nessas pessoas. Nesse contexto, comprometimentos cognitivos são ainda presentes e podem evoluir para demências e incapacidades. Em 2007 foi estabelecida a denominação de HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) às alterações cerebrais decorrentes da infecção pelo HIV. Essas desordens são categorizadas em: Comprometimento Neurocognitivo Assintomático (ANI), Comprometimento Neurocognitivo Leve/moderado (MND) e Demência Associada ao HIV (HAD). O atendimento clínico das PVHIV por profissionais de saúde, e particularmente pelo nutricionista, demanda o rastreio desses comprometimentos, uma vez que a presença deles pode contribuir com uma baixa compreensão ou não adesão ao plano dietético, o que aumenta o risco nutricional dessas pessoas. Desta forma, estudos que indiquem as ferramentas mais adequadas para rastreio dos HAND contribui para o trabalho da equipe multiprofissional. Objetivos: o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar estudos que compararam diferentes ferramentas utilizadas para rastreio do HAND com o procedimento considerado "padrão-ouro", a bateria de testes neuropsicológicos. Métodos: Este estudo consiste em uma revisão sistemática (RS) com registro no PROSPERO CRD42021227122. Foram incluídos estudos epidemiológicos ou clínicos com adultos PVHIV, publicados a partir de 2007, que tenham estudado a validação de ferramentas de rastreio para HAND frente a uma bateria neuropsicológica. As buscas foram realizadas em seis bases de dados (LILACS, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus e Scielo). Resultados: a busca gerou 1.505 artigos. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 15 estudos, em sua maioria classificados como de boa qualidade metodológica, fizeram parte da RS. Dentre esses estudos, cinco testaram a validação para a pontuação geral do HAND, e outros 10 testaram a validação de acordo com as três categorias do HAND. As ferramentas testadas pelos estudos foram: Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV (IHDS) , Escala de Demência do HIV (HDS) , Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA), Questões de sintomas de Simioni (SSQ), Quatro perguntas-chave propostas pelo Conselho Consultivo HAND da Ásia, Austrália, África e Oriente Médio (AAAME), Questionário de sintomas cognitivos do HIV (HCSQ). Além disso, dois estudos dois estudos utilizaram como rastreio um teste integrante da bateria neurocognitiva, o Trail making Test A. As melhores combinações entre sensibilidade (Se) e especificidade (Sp) foram atribuídas às seguintes ferramentas de rastreio: HDS isoladamente (ponto de corte=14: Se= 88% e SP= 67%); IHDS+ Trail making test A (ponto de corte 10: Se= 86% e Sp =79%); MoCA (ponto de corte 26: Se=66% e Sp= 55%). Com relação ao MEEM, nenhuma combinação adequada de sensibilidade e especificidade foi indicada pelos estudos. Nenhum desses resultados foram considerados suficientemente sensíveis e específicos para rastreio das formas leves do HAND. Conclusão: Os resultados desta RS apontam que ainda é necessário o desenvolvimento de ferramentas mais apropriadas para o rastreio do HAND, principalmente das formas leve e moderada. Das ferramentas existentes, o HDS a que mostrou os resultados mais próximos de adequação.

Introduction: Antiretroviral therapies (ART) have been essential for increasing the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, residual effects of the virus, combined with the side effects of ART, provoke a state of immune activation and, consequently, a low-grade and systemic inflammation status. In this context, cognitive disorders are present and can progress to dementia and disabilities. In 2007, the nomenclature "HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND)" was established for these HIV-related consequences. These disorders are categorized as follows: Symptomatic Neurocognitive Disorders (ANI), Mild/Moderate Neurocognitive Disorders (MND), and HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD). The clinical care of PLHIV by health professionals, including nutritionists, demands identifying these disorders since they can contribute to poor adherence to dietary plans. Poor adherence increases the nutritional risk of these people. Therefore, studies searching for most the appropriate tools for screening HAND can contribute to the work of the multidisciplinary team. Objectives: This study aimed to identify different HAND screening tools, and their comparison with the "gold standard" method", the neuropsychological battery. Methods: This study consists of a systematic review (SR) registered in PROSPERO CRD42021227122. We included epidemiological or clinical studies with PLHIV adults, published from 2007 onwards, which have studied the validation of screening tools for HAND against a neuropsychological battery. Studies were searched in six databases (LILACS, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo). Main Results: The search generated 1,505 articles; after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies, mostly classified as having good methodological quality, took part in the RS. Five studies performed the validation for the overall HAND score and another 10 tested the validation according to the three HAND categories. The tools tested were: the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), HIV Dementia Scale (HDS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Simioni Symptom Questions (SSQ), Four key questions proposed by the HAND Advisory Council of Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East (AAAME), HIV Cognitive Symptoms Questionnaire (HCSQ). In addition, two studies tested as a screening tool, a test which is part of the neurocognitive battery (Trail making Test A). From these tools, the best combinations between sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were attributed to: HDS alone (cut-off point=14: Se=88% and SP=67%); IHDS+ Trail making test A (cut-off 10: Se=86%, and Sp=79%); and MoCA (cut-off point 26: Se=66% and Sp=55%). For the MMSE, no suitable combination of sensitivity was found according to the studies. None of these tools were considered sensitive enough for screening mild forms of HAND. Conclusion: The results of this SR indicate that it is still necessary to develop more appropriate tools for adequate HAND screening, especially in mild and moderate forms. Of the existing tools, HDS showed slightly satisfactory results.

Patient Care Team , HIV , Cognition , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cognitive Dysfunction , Systematic Review , Nutritional Sciences
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03661, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364242


Resumo Objetivo Analisar aspectos relacionados à adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose em pessoas que vivem com coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, do tipo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa sobre a adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose entre pessoas que apresentam a coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O cenário do estudo foi um centro de referência para vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida do estado de São Paulo, localizado na capital. O instrumento de coleta de dados continha questões relacionadas ao perfil sóciodemográfico e de saúde. Para a análise do material empírico foi utilizado o método de análise de discurso que permitiu a depreensão de frases temáticas. Resultados Foram entrevistadas 16 pessoas, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino, da cor parda, na faixa etária entre 30 a 39 anos, com 9 a 12 anos de estudo, que moravam sozinhos, solteiros e que se declararam homossexuais. Da análise dos depoimentos emergiram três categorias de análise: Processo saúde doença: o impacto do diagnóstico e os significados de viver a coinfecção; Tratamento medicamentoso: motivos para o seguimento, facilidades e dificuldades envolvidas; e Cuidado no serviço de saúde: acolhimento e redes de apoio que favorecem a adesão ao tratamento. Conclusão A adesão ao tratamento na coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana mostrou-se relacionada à forma como a pessoa está inserida na sociedade, suas condições de vida e trabalho. Ressalta-se também que o cuidado nos serviços de saúde interfere na adesão, dada a importância do vínculo entre o profissional de saúde e o usuário.

Resumen Objetivo Analizar los aspectos relacionados con la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que viven con la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Métodos Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, tipo descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo, sobre la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que presentan la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El escenario de estudio fue un centro de referencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida del estado de São Paulo, ubicado en la capital. El instrumento de recopilación de datos contenía preguntas relacionadas con el perfil sociodemográfico y de salud. Para analizar el material empírico se utilizó el método de análisis de discurso que permitió extraer frases temáticas. Resultados Se entrevistaron 16 personas, de las cuales la mayoría era de sexo masculino, de color pardo, del grupo de edad entre 30 y 39 años, con 9 a 12 años de estudios, que vivían solos, solteros y que se declararon homosexuales. Del análisis de los relatos surgieron tres categorías de análisis: Proceso de salud y enfermedad: el impacto del diagnóstico y los significados de vivir la coinfección; Tratamiento farmacológico: motivos para el acompañamiento, facilidades y dificultades relacionadas, y Cuidado en el servicio sanitario: contención y redes de apoyo que favorecen la adherencia al tratamiento. Conclusión La adherencia al tratamiento de la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana demostró estar relacionada con la forma como la persona está insertada en la sociedad, su condición de vida y trabajo. También se observó que el cuidado en los servicios de salud interfiere en la adherencia, debido a la importancia del vínculo entre los profesionales de la salud y los usuarios.

Abstract Objective To analyze aspects related to adherence to tuberculosis treatment in people living with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Methods This is an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study on adherence to tuberculosis treatment among people with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. The study setting was a reference center for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome located in the capital of the state of São Paulo. The data collection instrument contained socio-demographic and health profile related questions. The discourse analysis method was used for the analysis of the empirical material, which allowed the comprehension of thematic phrases. Results Sixteen people were interviewed. Most were male, mixed race, in the age group of 30-39 years, with 9-12 years of study, living alone, single and declared themselves homosexuals. Three categories of analysis emerged from the analysis of testimonies: Health-disease process: the impact of the diagnosis and the meanings of living with coinfection; Drug treatment: reasons for follow-up, facilities and difficulties involved; and Care in the health service: embracement and support networks that favor treatment adherence. Conclusion Adherence to treatment in the tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection has shown a relation to the way people are inserted in society, their living and working conditions. The fact that care in health services interferes with adherence is also noteworthy, given the importance of the bond between the health professional and the user.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Perception , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Quality of Life , Health-Disease Process , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Niger. j. clin. pract. (Online) ; 25(1): 49-54, 2022. Tableaux
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1357859


Background: As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to ravage the world, its impact on the health systems and survival of people with chronic diseases especially People living with HIV [PLWH] could be undermined. It becomes relevant to assess the challenges PLWH face during this period to institute measures towards combating the negative effects of the pandemic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the challenges faced by PLWH in accessing care during the lockdown period in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional one involving PLWH aged 18 years and above who presented for care. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic characteristics, their knowledge about COVID-19 disease, and challenges experienced in accessing care during the COVID-19-induced lockdown. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution Research Ethics Board (IRB) of NIMR. Patients and Methods: Data generated from the survey was exported to Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Results: The mean age of PLWH who participated in the study was 42.2 (±12.2) years. The majority were female (74.3%), married (66.3%), employed (58.9%), and on less than $100 monthly income (80.5%). The commonest challenges experienced were psychological (78.5%), financial (68%) and food (40.7%). There were significant association among the income status, lack of food (OR: 2.5, CI: 1.4-4.5, P = 0.002), financial challenges (OR: 1.7, CI: 1.0­3.0, P = 0.048) and psychological challenges (OR; 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.5, P = 0.05). Ninety­five percent of participants believed SARS-COV-2 infection is a viral infection. Conclusions: PLWH faces a myriad of challenges that would have a significant impact on their overall well-being and the gains of HIV care.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , HIV Infections , Ambulatory Care Facilities , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-7, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378853


Background: Early diagnosis and confirmation of HIV infection in newborns is crucial for expedited initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Confirmatory testing must be done for all children with a reactive HIV PCR result. There is no comprehensive data on confirmatory testing and HIV PCR test request rejections at National Health Laboratory Service laboratories in South Africa.Objective: This study assessed the metrics of routine infant HIV PCR testing at the Tygerberg Hospital Virology Laboratory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, including the proportion of rejected test requests, turn-around time (TAT), and rate of confirmatory testing.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory-based data on all HIV PCR tests performed on children ≤ 24 months old (n = 43346) and data on rejected HIV PCR requests (n = 1479) at the Tygerberg virology laboratory over two years (2017­2019). Data from sample collection to release of results were analysed to assess the TAT and follow-up patterns.Results: The proportion of rejected HIV PCR requests was 3.3%; 83.9% of these were rejected for various pre-analytical reasons. Most of the test results (89.2%) met the required 96-h TAT. Of the reactive initial test results, 53.5% had a follow-up sample tested, of which 93.1% were positive. Of the initial indeterminate results, 74.7% were negative on follow-up testing.Conclusion: A high proportion of HIV PCR requests were rejected for pre-analytical reasons. The high number of initial reactive tests without evidence of follow-up suggests that a shorter TAT is required to allow confirmatory testing before children are discharged.

Early Diagnosis , Infant , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV , Aftercare , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 860-865, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399216


Despite South Africa's substantial reduction in vertical HIV transmission (VHT), national paediatric HIV elimination is not yet attained. National and Western Cape Province (WC) HIV guidelines recommend enhanced postnatal prophylaxis for infants at high risk for VHT, identified in the WC 2015/2016 guidelines by any single high-risk criterion (maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) <12 weeks, absent/ unsuppressed maternal HIV viral load (HIV-VL) <12 weeks before/including delivery, spontaneous preterm labour, prolonged rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis). Accuracy of high-risk infant identification is unknown. Objectives. Primarily, to determine the proportion of infants at high risk for VHT, the accuracy of labour-ward risk classification, the criteria determining high-risk statuses and the criteria missed among unrecognised high-risk infants; secondarily, to determine maternal factors associated with high-risk infants. Methods. Infants born to women living with HIV at a rural regional hospital (May 2016 - April 2017) were retrospectively evaluated using data from the labour ward VHT register, standardised maternity case records, National Health Laboratory Service database and WC Provincial Health Data Centre. The study-derived risk status for each infant was determined using documented presence/absence of risk criteria and compared with labour ward assigned risk to determine accuracy. Proportions of high-risk and unrecognised high-risk infants with each high-risk criterion were determined. Maternal characteristics associated with having a high-risk infant were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. For liveborn infants, labour ward assigned risk classifications were 40% (n=75/188) high risk, 50% (n=94/188) low risk and 10% (n=19/188) unclassified. Study-derived risk was high risk for 69% (n=129/188) and low risk for 31% (n=59/188), yielding a high-risk classification sensitivity of 51% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42 - 60) and specificity of 69% (95% CI 56 - 80). Absent/unsuppressed HIVVL <12 weeks before delivery accounted for 83% (n=119/143) of study-derived high-risk exposures and 81% (n=60/74) of missed high-risk exposures. Fewer mothers of high-risk infants had >4 antenatal visits (38% v. 81%, p<0.01) and first antenatal visit <20 weeks' gestation (57% v. 77%, p=0.01). Only the number of antenatal visits remained associated with having a high-risk infant after adjusting for gestation at first visit and timing of HIV diagnosis and ART initiation: each additional antenatal visit conferred a 39% (95% CI 25 - 50) reduction in the odds of having a high-risk infant. Conclusion. Labour ward risk classification failed to recognise half of high-risk infants. Infant high-risk status as well as non-detection thereof were driven by suboptimal maternal HIV-VL monitoring. Reinforcing visit frequency later in pregnancy may improve antenatal HIV-VL monitoring, and point-of-care HIV-VL monitoring at delivery could improve recognition of virally unsuppressed mothers and their high-risk infants

Humans , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Integrative Pediatrics , Infant , Postnatal Care , Recognition, Psychology , Social Vulnerability
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 410-417, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400643


Background: Although an increasing access to ART in sub-Saharan Africa has made it possible for HIV/AIDS patients to live longer, clinicians managing such patients are faced with the challenge of drug-related metabolic complications. Methods: A cross -sectional study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, on three groups of participants; namely HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and HIV negative subjects (n =75). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire while biochemical parameters were measured using colorimetric methods. Results: The highest prevalence of MS was associated with the HIV/AIDS patients on ART (i.e. 32.0 %, and 50.3% for NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively). Patients on ART had significant increases (p< 0.05) in waist to hip ratio, FPG, serum TG and LDL-c; and a significantly higher (p< 0.05) prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia compared to the ART-naïve patients. Low serum HDL-c was the most prevalent form of dyslipidemia in all three groups and the most prevalent component of MS in HIV patients. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of MS and CVD. HIV/AIDS patients on ART should be advised on lifestyle modifications and undertake regular assessment of their cardiovascular risk factors

Patients , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Activation, Metabolic , Africa South of the Sahara , Physostigma , Nigeria
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 436-441, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401445


Background: World Health Organization (WHO) advocates use of weight bands in antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines. Allometric scaling could be a more reliable method because it uses a non-linear approach in relating dose to body weight. This study evaluates performance of the allometric ¾ power model in comparison to WHO weight band method in children receiving ART. Methods: Records of children receiving (ABC/3TC) + DTG were reviewed. Paediatric ABC/3TC dose was calculated from the adult dose using the allometric ¾ power model and compared to WHO weight band dose. Results: WHO weight band strategy grouped 50.6% of the children in the 25 kg category and therefore received the adult dose of ABC/3TC (600 mg/300 mg); only 1.1% received this dose with allometric scaling. Mean dose (3.8 tablets) for the WHO weight band dosing method was found to be significantly higher (p<0.0001) than for allometric scaling (1.5 tablets). Conclusions: WHO weight bands may result in the 25 kg weight category receiving a much higher dose leading to ADRs. Using allometric scaling, we recommend a weight band strategy that could improve paediatric ABC/3TC dosing

Body Weight , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Dosage , Multidimensional Scaling Analysis , World Health Organization , Child
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19613, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383958


Abstract Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) depends on optimal adherence to be effective. Pharmacotherapeutic follow-up can be used as a strategy for treatment fidelity. To provide pharmaceutical care for HAART patients, to assess adherence, to identify and resolve drug related problems (DRP). This is a prospective, interventional study aimed at people on HAART. Data was collected using the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up form and CEAT-VIH. There was a predominance of women (59%), older than 33 years (75%), mostly single (43%). Regarding adherence, 64% had insufficient adherence at the start of the study, while 36% had strict/adequate adherence. After the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, 70% presented strict/adequate adherence. Regarding HAART, the relationship between adhesion versus time of HAART and adherence versus regimen used was significant, considering that less time of therapy and regimen containing protease inhibitors are predictors for insufficient adherence. Regarding the DRP identified (f=77), missed pills (32%), untreated disease, incorrect management frequency, and undue self-medication (12%) were the most frequent. Pharmaceutical interventions (f=137) were predominantly advising related to specific pharmacological treatment (32%), non-pharmacological measures (20%), and medication suspension (9%). Pharmaceutical care was shown to be animportant strategy, within the multi professional team, to improve adherence, besides identifying and resolving DRP.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pharmaceutical Services/classification , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , HIV/pathogenicity , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/instrumentation , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage