Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 227
Filter
1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190207, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057305

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions can develop when using anti-tuberculosis medication, and the effects of the drugs can also significantly hinder the treatment of patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 73 patients using two standardized questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. RESULTS: All patients reported the presence of adverse drug reactions, 71.6% of which are minor and 28.3% both major and minor. The global quality of life analysis showed that patients with tuberculosis have a good average (67.3%). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between quality of life and adverse drug reaction, educational level, and vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/psychology , Tertiary Care Centers , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Medwave ; 19(5): e7655, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005861

ABSTRACT

El quilotórax tuberculoso es una patología infecciosa infrecuente, que se produce como consecuencia del bloqueo del conducto torácico. Su tratamiento está dirigido a combatir la infección tuberculosa. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 55 años de edad, chofer, natural de Trujillo-Perú, que acudió a emergencia por disnea progresiva y tos seca de cinco días de evolución. El examen físico reveló frémito vocal, matidez y murmullo vesicular disminuido en 2/3 inferiores del hemitórax izquierdo. La radiografía y ecografía torácica evidenciaron derrame pleural significativo, y la toracocentesis reveló quilotórax. Posteriormente, se colocó un tubo de drenaje torácico, con disminución progresiva del volumen del líquido pleural y cambios citoquímicos. Se realizó videobroncoscopía diagnóstica con aspirado broncoalveolar, revelando bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. El paciente recibió tratamiento antituberculoso, con evolución favorable. El quilotórax tuberculoso constituye una causa importante de quilotórax a considerar en zonas endémicas de tuberculosis. El tratamiento adecuado de la infección, conlleva a resolución de la enfermedad.


Tuberculous chylothorax is a rare infectious disease that occurs when the thoracic duct is obstructed. Treatment is directed to the tuberculosis infection. A 55-year-old male, driver, born in Trujillo (Peru) is admitted to the emergency department with increasing dyspnea and a 5-day dry cough. The physical examination revealed vocal fremitus, dullness to percussion, and a vesicular murmur that was decreased on the lower 2/3 of the left hemithorax. The X-ray and the thoracic ultrasound revealed significant left pleural effusion. The thoracocentesis drained fluid identified as chylothorax. Subsequently, a thoracic tube was placed, with a decrease in pleural fluid volume and later normalization of the cytochemical changes. Diagnostic video bronchoscopy was performed with a bronchoalveolar aspirate, revealing acid-fast bacilli. The patient received antituberculosis treatment with a favorable outcome. Tuberculous chylothorax is an important cause of chylothorax to be considered in endemic areas of tuberculosis. Proper treatment of the infection leads to resolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Chylothorax/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Peru , Tuberculosis, Pleural/drug therapy , Bronchoscopy , Chylothorax/microbiology , Chylothorax/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4696, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of drug therapy problem in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were obtained through a cross-sectional study conducted between September 2015 and December 2016 at a reference hospital in infectious diseases in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic variables were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug-related problems of pharmaceutical care were classified using the Pharmacotherapy Workup method. Factors associated with indication, effectiveness, safety and compliance drug therapy problem were assessed through multiple logistic regression. Results: We evaluated 81 patients, and 80% presented at least one drug therapy problem, with indication and adherence drug therapy problem being the most frequent. The factors associated with drug therapy problem were age, marital status, new case, ethnicity, time of HIV diagnosis and time to treat tuberculosis. Conclusion: The frequency of drug therapy problem in coinfected patients was high and the identification of the main drug therapy problem and associated factors may lead the multiprofessional health team to ensure the use of the most indicated, effective, safe and convenient medicines for the patients clinical condition. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS coinfected individuals aged over 40 years are more likely to have drug therapy problems during treatment; in that, the most frequente are those that signal toward need of medication for an untreated health condition and non-compliance to treatment. Thus, older patients, unmarried or married, who have treated tuberculosis before, with a shorter time to tuberculosis treatment and longer time to diagnose HIV/AIDS, should receive special attention and be better followed by a multiprofessional health team because they indicate a higher chance of presenting Problems related to the use of non-adherent drugs.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos no tratamento de pacientes com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS. Métodos: Os dados foram obtidos por estudo transversal realizado entre setembro de 2015 e dezembro de 2016 em hospital referência em doenças infectocontagiosas de Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil. As variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, comportamentais e farmacoterapêuticas foram avaliadas por questionário semiestruturado. Classificaram-se os problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamento empregando o método Pharmacotherapy Workup de atenção farmacêutica. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação, efetividade, segurança e adesão foram avaliados pela regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: Foram avaliados 81 pacientes, e 80% apresentaram pelo menos um problema relacionado ao uso de medicamentos, sendo os mais frequentes ligados à problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação e adesão. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos foram idade, estado civil, caso novo, etnia, tempo de diagnóstico do HIV e tempo de tratamento da tuberculose. Conclusão: A frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos em pacientes coinfectados foi alta, e a identificação dos principais problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos e dos fatores associados aos mesmos pode direcionar a equipe multiprofissional de saúde, para garantir o uso dos medicamentos mais indicados, efetivos, seguros e convenientes para a condição clínica dos pacientes. Os indivíduos coinfectados com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS maiores de 40 anos possuem maior chance de apresentarem problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos durante o tratamento, sendo os mais frequentes os que indicam a necessidade de medicamento para condição de saúde não tratada e não adesão ao tratamento. Pacientes mais idosos, solteiros ou não, que já trataram a tuberculose antes, com menor tempo de tratamento de tuberculose e maior tempo de diagnóstico de HIV/AIDS devem ter atenção especial no acompanhamento por uma equipe multiprofissional de saúde por indicarem maior chance de apresentar Problemas Relacionados ao uso de Medicamentos de não adesão à terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Prescription Drugs/standards , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Referral and Consultation , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(7): 2277-2290, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952693

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo analisa a ação de atores nacionais e internacionais na Assistência Farmacêutica (AF) em Moçambique, no período de 2007 a 2012, com foco na provisão pública de medicamentos para HIV/Aids, malária e tuberculose. Descreve-se o funcionamento da AF no país; os atores que atuam nesse âmbito e as relações entre eles; discutem-se questões relevantes sobre o modus operandi dos parceiros de cooperação. A metodologia combinou: revisão bibliográfica, levantamento e análise documental e entrevistas. O marco teórico e analítico utilizou a análise de políticas públicas com foco no papel do Estado e suas inter-relações como os demais atores na ajuda externa na área farmacêutica e a abordagem de redes. Conclui-se que a interação entre os atores envolvidos é complexa, caraterizada pela fragmentação operacional e sobreposição de atividades entre diversos entes; centralização da aquisição de medicamentos na mão de poucos agentes; by pass das estruturas nacionais e desconsideração do necessário fortalecimento do sistema nacional de saúde para a construção de sua autonomia. A despeito de alguns avanços na provisão e disponibilidade de medicamentos para essas doenças, existe forte dependência externa nesse âmbito, o que obstaculiza a sustentabilidade da AF em Moçambique.


Abstract This article examines the activities of national and international actors in Pharmaceutical Services (PS) in Mozambique from 2007 to 2012, focusing on the public provision of HIV/Aids, malaria and tuberculosis medicines. It describes how PS functions in the country, what actors are involved in this area and the relations among them, pursuing salient issues in the modus operandi of partners in cooperation. The methodology combines literature review, document survey and analysis and interviews. The theoretical and analytical framework was given by the policy analysis approach, focusing on the role of the State and its interrelations with other actors in foreign aid in PS, and also by the networks approach. It was concluded that the interactions among the actors involved is complex and characterised by operational fragmentation and overlapping of activities between entities, centralised medicine procurement in the hands of few agents, bypassing of national structures and disregard for the strengthening needed to bolster national health system autonomy. Despite some advances in the provision and availability of medicines for these diseases, external dependence is strong, which undermines the sustainability of PS in Mozambique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/supply & distribution , Health Policy , Malaria/drug therapy , Mozambique , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Antitubercular Agents/supply & distribution
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 324-330, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957432

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: High endemic levels of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons result from overcrowding, limited access to healthcare, delayed diagnosis, sustained transmission owing to poor control measures, and multidrug resistance. This study evaluated locally implemented measures for early pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and evaluated resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: This transversal study employed data from the Mato Grosso do Sul State Tuberculosis Control Program obtained from 35 correctional facilities in 16 counties for 2 periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). RESULTS: Statewide prevalence (per 100,000) was 480.0 in 2007 and 972.9 in 2014. The following indicators showed improvement: alcohol-acid-fast bacillus testing (from 82.7% to 92.9%); cultures performed (55.0% to 81.8%); drug susceptibility testing of positive cultures (71.6% to 62.4%); and overall drug susceptibility testing coverage (36.6% to 47.4%). Primary and acquired resistance rates for 2007-2014 were 21.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Primary and acquired multidrug resistance rates were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates increased, and laboratory indicators improved as a result of capacity building and coordination of technical teams and other individuals providing healthcare to inmates. Resistance rates were high, thereby negatively affecting disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 463-467, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950028

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis, considerada desde 2003 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud una emergencia global de salud, provoca una mortalidad anual de alrededor de 2 millones de personas, fundamentalmente, en países en vías de desarrollo. En la población pediátrica española, la incidencia es de 5 casos/100 000 niños de entre 5 y 14 años y 13 casos/100 000 niños de entre 0 y 4 años. La infección se transmite por vía respiratoria por enfermos bacilíferos. Los niños eliminan escasos bacilos en secreciones respiratorias y no suelen transmitir la infección. En España, el porcentaje de resistencias a isoniazida en la población general es de 5% y es superior en la población inmigrante, lo cual es importante tener en cuenta para el tratamiento de los casos. Se presenta un caso de tuberculosis por Mycobacterium africanum multirresistente al tratamiento, con evolución satisfactoria posterior a la terapia múltiple.


Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection. In Spain, the resistance to isoniazid in the general population is 5%, being higher in the immigrant population, which is important to take into account for the treatment of cases. A case of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium africanum multiresistant to treatment is presented, with satisfactory evolution after multiple therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Mycobacterium/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 37(3): 211-215, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Tuberculosis fistula in ano, though less encountered, is an important clinical entity in developing countries like India. Diagnosis of TB fistula is a challenge despite of advances in diagnostic modalities and it depends upon both local and systemic clinical presentation. This prospective study aimed at to substantiate the importance of clinical diagnosis as well as medical management of tubercular fistula by antitubercular drugs. Methods and results 25 patients of fistula in ano suspected to be of tubercular origin underwent histopathology of fistulous tracks and an 8 week therapeutic trial of antitubercular treatment after getting an informed consent. Though biopsy showed positive evidence of tubercular pathology only in 52% cases, therapeutic trial showed improvement in local and systemic features in 23 (92%) cases. Of these 23 cases, 3 were cured after 18 months of anti tubercular treatment and 18 showed cure after 24 months of anti tubercular treatment while 2 cases withdrew from the study at 12 and 14 months respectively due to adverse drug reactions though their fistulous symptoms were relieved. Conclusion Meticulous clinical evaluation plays a vital role in diagnosis of tubercular fistula in addition to other diagnostic methods. Anti tubercular treatment is the mainstay of treatment in tubercular fistula with a minimum duration of 18-24 months owing to the recurrent and relapsing nature of disease.


Resumo Objetivo A fístula anal da tuberculose (TB), embora menos observada, constitui entidade clínica importante em países em desenvolvimento, como a Índia. O diagnóstico de fístula TB é tarefa desafiadora, apesar dos avanços nas modalidades diagnósticas; seu estabelecimento depende tanto da apresentação clínica local, como da apresentação sistêmica. Esse estudo prospectivo teve por objetivo consubstanciar a importância do diagnóstico clínico e também do tratamento clínico da fístula TB com medicamentos contra tuberculose. Métodos e resultados Foi realizado estudo histopatológico de tratos fistulosos em 25 pacientes com fístula anal com suspeita de origem tuberculosa; depois de obtido o consentimento livre e informado, esses pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento anti-tuberculose (TAT) durante 8 semanas. Embora a biópsia tenha revelado evidência positiva de patologia tuberculosa em apenas 52% dos casos, o curso terapêutico resultou em melhora nos aspectos local e sistêmico em 23 (92%) pacientes. Desses 23 casos, 3 e 18 casos estavam curados após 18 e 24 meses de TAT, respectivamente, enquanto que 2 pacientes desistiram do estudo após 12 e 14 meses, respectivamente, em decorrência de reações farmacológicas adversas, mesmo diante do alívio de seus sintomas fistulosos. Conclusão Juntamente com outros métodos diagnósticos, uma avaliação clínica meticulosa desempenha papel vital no diagnóstico da fístula TB. TAT é o principal procedimento terapêutico em pacientes com fístula TB, com duração mínima de 18-24 meses devido à natureza recorrente e recidivante da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal/drug therapy , Rectal Fistula/etiology , Prospective Studies , India/ethnology , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 1969-1977, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839997

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar fontes de registro da tuberculose (TB) antes e após a implantação do Sistema Informatizado para Registro da Assistência à TB em Ribeirão Preto (SP). Estudo epidemiológico descritivo-analítico, do tipo intervenção. Os dados foram coletados em fontes secundárias, a partir de um formulário estruturado, e analisados através de teste Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher com nível de significância de 5%. Identificou-se associação entre o período anterior da implantação do sistema com o arquivamento da Ficha do Tratamento Diretamente Observado no prontuário e o registro de orientação de retorno às consultas pela equipe de enfermagem. O posterior esteve associado com o aumento do registro do contato telefônico e endereço do doente de TB, data de término do tratamento, situação de encerramento, resultado da baciloscopia de escarro para controle mensal, teste anti-HIV, consultas mensais e solicitação de exames realizados pelo médico, atendimento com assistente social, condições de vida do doente, controle de comunicantes, incentivos sociais e uso de álcool e drogas. A implantação do sistema possibilitou a melhora no registro de algumas variáveis, ainda que outras fontes de registro tenham permanecido que não fossem o próprio sistema.


Abstract Objective to analyze sources of data for tuberculosis (TB) before and after the implementation of the Computerized System to Record Care for TB in Ribeirão Preto - SP. Method Intervention, descriptive-analytical epidemiological study. Data was collected from secondary sources using a structured form, and analyzed using Chi-squared or Fisher’s Exact Test, with a significance level of 5%. Results We found an association between the period before implementation of the system and placing the Directly Observed Treatment Card in the file, and registration of instructions for the return visit by the nursing team. The latter was associated with an increase in registered data regarding TB patient telephone number, address, end of treatment date, status at closing, sputum smear results for monthly control, HIV test, monthly checkups, tests ordered by physician, social worker visits, patient living conditions, contact control, social incentives and the use of drugs and alcohol. Conclusion Implementing the system improved the registration of a number of variables, despite the fact that other sources of data other than the system continue to exist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Directly Observed Therapy/methods , Health Information Systems , Tuberculosis/therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil
11.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(1): 54-61, mar. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844396

ABSTRACT

During 2016, American Thoracic Society: ATS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC and Infectious Disease Society of America: IDSA jointly sponsored the development of Guidelines for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis using the P-I-C-O (Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome) system to answer nine questions. The preferred regimen for treating adults with drug-susceptible tuberculosis, consider a 2 month intensive phase with isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) followed by a continuation phase of 4 months of INH and RIF For patients who have cavitation on the initial chest radiograph and have positive cultures at completion of 2 months therapy, it is recommended to extend the continuation phase to prevent relapse. EMB can be discontinued as soon as susceptibility to INH and RIF is demonstrated. The guidelines also makes recommendations for the management in different clinical situations as in patients co-infected with HIV and in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In tuberculous pericarditis no longer is recommended the routinely use of corticosteroids together with the anti TB treatment. In the case of tuberculous meningitis it is recommended the addition of corticosteroids and to extend the continuation phase to 9-12 months.


Durante el año 2016, la American Thoracic Society: ATS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC y la Infectious Disease Society of America: IDSA desarrollaron en conjunto una guía de recomendaciones para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis (TBC) sensible, empleando el sistema P-I-C-O (Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome) para contestar 9 preguntas. El régimen de terapia farmacológica óptima para el paciente con TBC sensible considera una fase intensiva de 2 meses de duración con isoniacida (H), rifampicina (R), pirazinamida (Z) y etambutol (E) seguida de una fase de continuación por 4 meses de H y R. En los casos con cavitación en la radiografía de tórax inicial y en pacientes con cultivo de esputo positivo al segundo mes de tratamiento, se propone prolongar la fase de continuación con el propósito de reducir el riesgo de recaída. La guía también recomienda retirar el etambutol una vez que se haya demostrado la sensibilidad a H y R. Se hacen además recomendaciones de manejo en distintas situaciones clínicas como en pacientes co-infectados con VIH y en las TBC extrapulmonares. En la pericarditis TBC se sugiere no utilizar de forma rutinaria la terapia corticoesteroidal coadyuvante al tratamiento anti TBC. En el caso de la TBC meníngea se recomienda usar corticoesteroides y prolongar la quimioterapia durante la fase de continuación a 9 -12 meses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 454-459, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787556

ABSTRACT

In this study we evaluated the crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antituberculosis drugs. 53 isolates were tested in this study and 13 of them were multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. The antibiotics concentrations were 2-0.06 mg/L for isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) and were 16-0.25 mg/L for streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (EMB). Crystal violet (CV-25 mg/L) was added into the microwells on the seventh day of incubation and incubation was continued until decolorization. Decolorization of CV was the predictor of bacterial growth. Overall agreements for four drugs were detected as 98.1%, and the average time was detected as 9.5 ± 0.89 day after inoculation. One isolate for INH and two isolates for STM were determined resistant in the reference method, but susceptible by the CVDA. One isolate was susceptible to EMB by the reference method, but resistant by the CVDA. All results were concordant for RIF. This study shows that CVDA is a rapid, reliable and suitable for determination of MIC values of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. And it can be used easily especially in countries with limited-sources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Assay , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Ethambutol/administration & dosage , Ethambutol/pharmacology , Gentian Violet/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents/chemistry , Isoniazid/administration & dosage , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/pharmacology , Streptomycin/administration & dosage , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
13.
Lima; s.n; ene. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847801

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente informe expone la evaluación del medicamento linezolid, respecto a su uso en pacientes con tuberculosis extremadamente resistente (TB- XDR). Aspectos Generales: La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial importante. A pesar que la incidencia de TB está disminuyendo globalmente aproximadamente 2% cada año y la mortalidad relacionada con la TB disminuyo un 45% entre los años 1995 y 2012, el número de casos de TB en el mundo es aún ingente, con 8.6 millones de personas con la enfermedad y 1.3 muertes en el 2012. Además, los casos de tuberculosis multidrogo resistente (TB-MDR) y tuberculosis extremadamente resistente (TB-XDR) presentan nuevos y enormes retos para el manejo y control de esta enfermedad. Tecnologia Sanitaria de Interés: Linezolid: El Linezolid pertenece a la clase de antibióticos denominada oxazolidinonas. Este medicamento se une a la subunidad ribosomal 50S inhibiendo la formación del complejo de iniciación y previniendo la traducción y síntesis de proteínas. Este mecanismo de acción tiene la ventaja de limitar la reacción cruzada con otros inhibidores de la síntesis de proteínas, haciéndolo atractivo para las infecciones resistentes. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: La búsqueda de la literatura respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de linezolid para el \r\ntratamiento de pacientes con TB-XDR incluyo la búsqueda de guías de práctica clínica, evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias, revisiones sistemáticas y estudios primarios. La búsqueda de GPC se realizó en las páginas de internet de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC), la National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), la Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) y el repositorio creado por la agencia para la investigación \r\nen salud y calidad (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)). Se utilizaron las bases creadas por NICE, SIGN y Cochrane para la búsqueda de evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria. La búsqueda de las revisiones sistemáticas y los estudios primarios fueron realizados en las bases de datos de OVID MEDLINE y TRIPDATABASE. RESULTADOS: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento del uso del linezolid en los esquemas de tratamiento antituberculoso para pacientes adultos y niños \r\ncon TB-XDR. Guías Clínicas: la búsqueda identificó tres guías desarrolladas por la OMS para el manejo de la tuberculosis multidrogo resistente: la guía de la OMS para el manejo programático de la tuberculosis resistente 2008, la guía de la OMS para el manejo programático de la tuberculosis resistente 2011, y la guía de la OMS para los programas nacionales de tuberculosis para el manejo de la tuberculosis en los niños 2014. Evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria: no se identificó alguna evaluación del medicamento de linezolid como tratamiento antituberculoso. Revisiones sistemáticas: se identificaron tres revisiones sistemáticas que examinaron los efectos de beneficio y de daño del uso de linezolid en pacientes con TB-DR. Ensayos clínicos: se incluyó un ensayo controlado aleatorizado que evaluó la eficacia y seguridad del uso de linezolid en pacientes adultos con TB-XDR. Otros estudios: se incluyeron una revisión narrativa que describió los resultados de reportes de casos del uso de linezolid en pacientes pediátricos con TB-DR. Ensayos Clínicos registrados en www.clinicaltrials.gov: no se identificaron estudios registrados que tengan como objetivo evaluar los efectos del linezolid en pacientes con TB-XDR. CONCLUSIONES: En la presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria se identificó evidencia de baja calidad respecto a los efectos de beneficio y de daño de los regímenes que contienen linezolid comparado con los regímenes sin linezolid. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, aprueba temporalmente el uso del linezolid para el tratamiento de pacientes con TB-XDR. Dado que la evidencia que respalda este uso de linezolid dentro de los esquemas \r\nantituberculosos para casos de TB-XDR es aún limitada, se establece que el efecto de la aprobación del linezolid para su uso en el tratamiento de TB-XDR se evaluará con los datos de los pacientes que hayan recibido el esquema por el lapso de dos años para determinar el impacto de su uso en varios desenlaces \r\nclínicos. Esta información será tomada en cuenta en la re-evaluación de este medicamento para efectos de un nuevo dictamen al terminar la vigencia del presente Dictamen Preliminar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Linezolid/administration & dosage , Peru , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(6): 1069-1077, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-767772

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar os discursos dos gestores, acerca da transferência de política do tratamento diretamente observado (TDO) para o controle da tuberculose no município de João Pessoa/PB Método: trata-se de estudo qualitativo, desenvolvido em maio e junho de 2013, por meio de entrevista semidirigida, com vinte profissionais de saúde nos cinco distritos sanitários de saúde em João Pessoa/ PB. O material empírico produzido foi analisado conforme o aporte teórico-analítico de Análise de Discurso da linha francesa pecheutiana. Resultados: o estudo evidenciou fragilidades na condução e organização das ações em relação ao TDO. Revelou que o desconhecimento desses gestores acerca dessa política traz implicações diretas para o cuidado ao doente de tuberculose. Conclusão: sugere-se que a gestão trace planos estratégicos para repensar as práticas de cuidado e, assim, reorganize toda a rede de atenção ao usuário, de modo que possam efetivamente contribuir para a adesão deste ao combate à tuberculose.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar los discursos de los gestores, acerca de la transferencia de política del tratamiento directamente observado (TDO) para el control de la tuberculosis en el municipio de João Pessoa/PB. Método: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, desarrollado en mayo y junio de 2013, por medio de entrevista semi-dirigida, con veinte profesionales de salud en los cinco distritos sanitarios de salud en João Pessoa/PB. El material empírico producido fue analizado conforme el aporte teórico-analítico de Análisis de Discurso en la línea francesa pecheutiana. Resultados: el estudio evidenció fragilidades en la conducción y organización de las acciones en relación al TDO. Reveló que el desconocimiento de esos gestores acerca de esa política trae implicaciones directas al cuidado del enfermo de tuberculosis. Conclusión: se sugiere que la gestión trace planes estratégicos para repensar las prácticas de cuidado y así reorganizar toda la red de atención al usuario, de modo que puedan efectivamente contribuir para la adhesión de este al combate a la tuberculosis.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the managers' speeches about the policy transfer of the directly observed treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis control in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Method: this is a qualitative study developed in May and June, 2013 through semi-directed interviews with twenty health professionals in five health districts in João Pessoa/PB. The empirical material produced was analyzed according to the theoretical-analytical basis of the French Discourse Analysis by Pêcheux. Results: the study demonstrated weaknesses in the conduction and organization of actions in relation to the DOT. It revealed that the lack of knowledge of the managers about this policy has direct implications to the care of tuberculosis patients. Conclusion: the management should trace strategic plans to rethink the care practices and thus, reorganize the entire care network to users in order to effectively contribute to user adherence in the fight against tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Directly Observed Therapy , Brazil , Organizations , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Qualitative Research , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 507-513, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763334

ABSTRACT

AbstractLatent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfection are challenges in the control of tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to assess and summarize evidence available in the literature regarding the treatment of LTBI in both the general and HIV-positive population, in order to support decision making by the Brazilian Tuberculosis Control Program for LTBI chemoprophylaxis. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Trip database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Brazilian Theses Repository to identify systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, clinical guidelines, evidence-based synopses, reports of health technology assessment agencies, and theses that investigated rifapentine and isoniazid combination compared to isoniazid monotherapy. We assessed the quality of evidence from randomized clinical trials using the Jadad Scale and recommendations from other evidence sources using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations approach. The available evidence suggests that there are no differences between rifapentine + isoniazid short-course treatment and the standard 6-month isoniazid therapy in reducing active tuberculosis incidence or death. Adherence was better with directly observed rifapentine therapy compared to self-administered isoniazid. The quality of evidence obtained was moderate, and on the basis of this evidence, rifapentine is recommended by one guideline. Available evidence assessment considering the perspective of higher adherence rates, lower costs, and local peculiarity context might support rifapentine use for LTBI in the general or HIV-positive populations. Since novel trials are ongoing, further studies should include patients on antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Isoniazid/administration & dosage , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Drug Therapy, Combination , Evidence-Based Medicine , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 543-550, 09/06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748862

ABSTRACT

The recommended treatment for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults is a daily dose of isoniazid (INH) 300 mg for six months. In Brazil, INH was formulated as 100 mg tablets. The treatment duration and the high pill burden compromised patient adherence to the treatment. The Brazilian National Programme for Tuberculosis requested a new 300 mg INH formulation. The aim of our study was to compare the bioavailability of the new INH 300 mg formulation and three 100 mg tablets of the reference formulation. We conducted a randomised, single dose, open label, two-phase crossover bioequivalence study in 28 healthy human volunteers. The 90% confidence interval for the INH maximum concentration of drug observed in plasma and area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration “time t” was 89.61-115.92 and 94.82-119.44, respectively. The main limitation of our study was that neither adherence nor the safety profile of multiple doses was evaluated. To determine the level of INH in human plasma, we developed and validated a sensitive, simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Our results showed that the new formulation was bioequivalent to the 100 mg reference product. This finding supports the use of a single 300 mg tablet daily strategy to treat latent TB. This new formulation may increase patients’ adherence to the treatment and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacokinetics , Isoniazid/pharmacokinetics , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Area Under Curve , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cross-Over Studies , Isoniazid/administration & dosage , Latent Tuberculosis/metabolism , Tablets , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Therapeutic Equivalency
19.
Clinics ; 70(6): 429-434, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Fixed-dose combination formulations, which simplify the administration of drugs and prevent the development of drug resistance, have been recommended as a standard anti-tuberculosis treatment regimen. However, the composition and dosage recommendations for fixed-dose combination formulations differ from those for separate formulations. Thus, questions about the effectiveness and side effects of combination formulations remain. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of these two types of anti-tuberculosis regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. METHOD: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted using the directly observed treatment short-course strategy. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two short-course regimens. One year after completing the treatment, these patients’ outcomes were analyzed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979290. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were enrolled, 142 of whom were evaluable for safety assessment. The two regimens had a similar incidence of adverse effects. In the per-protocol population, serum bilirubin concentrations at the peak level, at week 4, and at week 8 were significantly higher for the fixed-dose combination formulation than for the separate formulations. All patients had negative sputum cultures at the end of the treatment, and no relapse occurred after one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized study, transient higher serum bilirubin levels were noted for the fixed-dose combination regimen compared with the separate formulations during treatment. However, no significant difference in safety or efficacy was found between the groups when the directly observed treatment short-course strategy was used. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Bilirubin/blood , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Directly Observed Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Prospective Studies , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Sputum/microbiology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Vision Disorders/chemically induced
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157577

ABSTRACT

Zinc being a stronger electron acceptor than iron might replace iron from the critical thiol groups. So, Zinc supplementation in Tubercular Subjects might help the decompartmentalised state of iron in the body to revert back to normal compartmentalized state of iron. Again, Zinc inhibits the formation of superoxide radicals. Thus, Zinc supplementation might decrease the excess superoxide with simultaneous decrease in the formation of soluble oxygen made by dismutation reaction by the iron cofactored superoxide dismutase secreted extracellularly by the pathogenic M. tuberculosis. The study shows early and effective recovery with Zinc supplementation (50mgm. of elemental zinc orally / day for one month) along with anti - Tubercular drug therapy. This gets support by the significant changes in the serum level of three enzymes – Glutamine Synthetase, Superoxide Dismutase and Cholienesterase. Again, the dose of zinc supplementation instituted with a great benefit and without any toxic symptoms and signs, is below the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) based on the superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes with zinc intake.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Drug Tolerance , Cholinesterases/blood , Female , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/blood , Humans , Male , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL