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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 34126, 2024 abr. 30. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553435

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mouthwashes play an important role in the dental clinic, but their role on viruses requires investigation. Objective:to review in vitro studies to identify the effect of different mouthwashes on the main viruses associated with routine dental care. Methodology:The following databases were searched in September 2023: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases; the Cochrane Library and the Virtual Health Library (VHL); and grey literature. In vitro studies that used mouthwashes to reduce the viral load were selected. The PICOS strategy was considered to define eligibility criteria: the Population (viruses involved in the etiology of oral infection), the Intervention (oral antiseptics), the appropriate comparator (positive and negative controls), the Outcomes of interest (reduction of viral load) and the Study design (in vitro studies). Results:Considering the eligibility criteria, 19 articles were included in this review. The efficacy of povidone-iodine (PVP-I), chlorhexidine, Listerine®, essential oils, and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) rinses were investigated. PVP-I (0.23%) had its effects mainly associated with coronaviruses SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome),demonstrating a significant reduction in viral load after 15 seconds of exposure. Chlorhexidine (0.05%; 0.1% and 0.5%) was ineffective against adenovirus, poliovirus, and rhinovirus respiratory viruses. Listerine® demonstrated superior efficacy against HSV-1 and 2 viruses and influenza A, and cetylpyridine chloride also demonstrated virucidal activity against influenza A. Conclusions:The type, concentration, and time of exposure to antiseptics varied between studies. PVP-I and chlorhexidine digluconate were the most studied substances, butin general, PVP-I was more effective in reducing viral titers, especially concerning coronaviruses. Other antiseptics such as CPC, H2O2 and Listerine® have also shown significant reduction in viral load, but this is a limited number of studies (AU).


Introdução: Os enxaguantes bucais desempenham um papel importante na clínica odontológico, porém seu papel sobre os vírus requer investigações. Objetivo: revisar estudos in vitro para identificar o efeito de diferentes colutórios sobre os principais vírus associados ao atendimento odontológico de rotina. Metodologia: As seguintes bases foram pesquisadas até setembro de 2023: PubMed, Embase, Scopus e Web of Science; a Biblioteca Cochrane e a Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS); e literatura cinzenta. Foram selecionados estudos in vitro que utilizaram bochechos com o objetivo de reduzir a carga viral. A estratégia PICOS foi considerada para a definição dos critérios de elegibilidade: População (vírus envolvidos na etiologia da infecção oral), Intervenção (antissépticos orais), Comparador (controles positivos e negativos), os Desfechos de interesse (redução da carga viral) e o desenho do estudo (estudos in vitro). Resultados: Considerando os critérios de elegibilidade, 19 artigos foram incluídos para esta revisão. A eficácia da povidona-iodo (PVP-I), clorexidina, Listerine®, óleos essenciais e lavagens com cloreto de cetilpiridínio foram investigadas. O PVP-I(0.23%)teve seus efeitos principalmente associados ao coronavírusSARS (Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Severa),demonstrando uma redução significativa da carga viral após 15 segundos de exposição. A clorexidina mostrou-se ineficaz contra vírus respiratórios de adenovírus, poliovírus e rinovírus. Listerine® demonstrou eficácia superior contra vírus HSV-1 e 2 e vírus influenza A, e cloreto de cetilpiridinio também demonstrou atividade virucida contra influenza A.Conclusões:O tipo, concentração e tempo de exposição aos antissépticos variaram entre os estudos. O PVP-I e o digluconato de clorexidina foram as substâncias mais estudadas, mas no geral, o PVP-I foi mais eficaz na redução dos títulos virais, principalmente no que diz respeito aos coronavírus. Outros antissépticos como CPC, H2O2 e Listerine® também mostraram redução significativa da carga viral, mas trata-se de um número limitado de estudos (AU).


Introducción: Los enjuagues bucales son importantesen la clínica dental, sin embargo, su efecto sobre los virus requiere investigaciones. Objetivo: Revisar estudios in vitro para identificar el efecto de enjuagues bucales sobre los principales virus asociados con larutinaodontológica. Metodología: Las siguientes bases de datos fueron investigadas hasta septiembrede 2023: PubMed, Embase, Scopus y Web of Science; Biblioteca Cochrane y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS); yliteratura gris. Se seleccionaron estudios in vitro que utilizaron enjuagues bucales con el objetivo de reducir la carga viral. Se consideró la estrategia PICOS para definir los criterios de elegibilidad: Población (virus implicados en la etiología de la infección oral), Intervención (antisépticos bucales), Comparador (controles positivos y negativos), Resultados de interés (reducción de la carga viral) y diseño del estudio (in vitro). Resultados: Considerando los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron 19 artículos.Se investigó la eficacia de povidona yodada (PVP-I), clorhexidina, Listerine®,aceites esenciales y enjuagues de cloruro de cetilpiridinio (CPC). PVP-I(0.23%)mostró sus efectos principalmente asociados al coronavirus SARS(Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo), demostrando una reducción significativa de la carga viral después de 15 segundos. Se ha demostrado que la clorhexidina es ineficaz contra losvirus respiratorios adenovirus, poliovirus y rinovirus. Listerine® demostró una eficacia superior contra los virus HSV-1 y 2 y el virus de la influenza A, y el CPCtambién mostró actividad virucida contra la influenza A.Conclusiones: El tipo, la concentración y el tiempo de exposiciónvariaron entre los estudios. PVP-I y digluconato de clorhexidina fueron las sustancias más estudiadas, pero,PVP-I fue más efectiva en la reducción de los títulos virales, especialmente en lo que respecta a los coronavirus. Otros antisépticos como CPC, H2O2 y Listerine® también mostraron una reducción significativa de la carga viral, pero se trata de un número limitado de estudios (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine , Infection Control , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Viruses , In Vitro Techniques/methods
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 184-186, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559669

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso clínico de persona viviendo con VIH, con mala adherencia a tratamiento, sin vacunación previa para mpox, que evolucionó con un cuadro clínico probable de síndrome de reconstitución inmune posterior a reinicio de TAR, debido a la progresión de las lesiones cutáneas. Recibió tratamiento con tecovirimat por siete días, con evolución clínica favorable. Corresponde al primer caso reportado que recibió terapia con tecovirimat en Chile.


We report a clinical case of a person living with HIV with poor adherence to treatment, no previous mpox vaccination, who had a probable mpox syndrome immune reconstitution after restarting ART, due to worsening of skin lesions. He received treatment with tecovirimat for 7 days, clinically improved and was discharged in good condition. We reported this first clinical case that received tecovirimat in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Mpox (monkeypox)/complications , Mpox (monkeypox)/drug therapy , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Phthalimides/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 22(6): 747-769, nov. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554217

ABSTRACT

Larrea divaricata Cav. is an autochthonous South American plant popularly used in inflammatory and infectious diseases with reported anti - inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Covid - 19 is an infection ca used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS - CoV - 2). This virus can cause pneumonia and even death in about 5% of the cases. The objective of the article was to demonstrate, through a literature review, that L. divaricata has sufficie nt attributes to be assayed against SARS - CoV - 2. For this, the chemical composition, reported activities and docking studies were taken into account. This review demonstrated that the plant extracts are capable of inhibiting the proliferation of fungi, bact eria and viruses and that they exert anti - inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions in different " in vitro " and " in vivo " models. These results suggest that the plant is a good candidate to be studied for the prevention and/or treatment of SARS - CoV - 2.


Larrea divaricata Cav. es una planta autóctona Sudamericana, utilizada popularmente en enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciosas, con activida d anti - inflamatoria, inmunomoduladora, antimicrobiana y antioxidante reportada. El Covid - 19 es una infección causada por una cepa de coronavirus, SARS - CoV - 2 (coronavirus tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo). Este virus puede originar neu monía e incluso la muerte en alrededor del 5% de los casos. Nuestro objetivo fue demostrar, a través de una revisión bibliográfica, que esta planta tiene atributos suficientes para ser ensayada en estudios contra SARS - CoV - 2. Se tuvo en cuenta la composici ón química, los antecedentes científicos y los estudios de acoplamiento molecular. Esta revisión permitió demostrar que extractos de la planta son capaces de inhibir la proliferación de hongos, bacterias y virus y que presentan acción anti - inflamatoria en diferentes modelos " in vitro " e " in vivo ", lo que los hace candidatos a ser estudiados en la prevención y/o tratamiento de la infección contra SARS - CoV - 2.


Subject(s)
Larrea/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(1): 62-65, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441399

ABSTRACT

El síndrome "blueberry muffin" es una dermatosis maculopapular eritematoviolácea como resultado de una hematopoyesis extramedular. Se ha asociado con infecciones del espectro TORCH y causas no infecciosas. Presentamos el caso de un recién nacido pretérmino, quien desde el control prenatal presentó una ecografía con signos sugerentes de infección congénita por citomegalovirus (microcefalia, ventriculomegalia y calcificaciones intracerebrales). Al examen físico presentaba una dermatosis macular violácea compatible con síndrome "blueberry muffin". Se detectó carga viral de citomegalovirus en orina (81,200 copias/ml) e inició tratamiento con ganciclovir, con desenlace fatal. La infección congénita por CMV debe considerarse ante el síndrome "blueberry muffin"; el adecuado abordaje diagnóstico debe ser oportuno y debe incluir antecedentes maternos y perinatales, así como estudios serológicos para infecciones por TORCH con el fin del inicio precoz de tratamiento para evitar complicaciones y secuelas.


Blueberry muffin syndrome is characterized by an erythematousviolaceous maculopapular dermatosis due to extramedullary hematopoiesis. This entity has been associated with TORCH spectrum infections and noninfectious causes. We present the case of a preterm newborn, who since the prenatal control gave an ultrasound with data suggestive of congenital infection by cytomegalovirus (microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, intracerebral calcifications). On physical examination, he presented a violaceous macular dermatosis compatible with blueberry muffin syndrome. Cytomegalovirus viral load was detected in urine (81,200 copies/ml), with fatal outcome. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection should be considered in the presence of a blueberry muffin syndrome; an adequate diagnostic approach that includes maternal and perinatal history is essential, as well as serology studies for diseases of the TORCH spectrum in order to start early with treatment and avoid major comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Fatal Outcome , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981866

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus biomarkers are mainly used in clinical practice to diagnose infection, monitor disease progression, evaluate response to chronic hepatitis B treatment, and evaluate the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs in clinical trials. In combination with the recent research progress of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B and the actual needs of clinical diagnosis and treatment, the expert consensus was formulated by the Cooperative Group of Basic Research and Experimental Diagnosis of Liver Diseases, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association. It summarized the evidence and recommended the key points for the clinical application of classic and novel hepatitis B virus related biomarkers in order to guide the standardized and reasonable clinical application for these biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Consensus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
7.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 868-876, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985489

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article investigated the clinical characteristics and distribution of drug resistance mutation sites in HBV RT region of hepatitis B infected patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on 1 948 patients with HBV infection, who had been tested for NAs resistance mutation and had a medical history of NAs in the Laboratory Department of the Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. Basic clinical information and drug resistance related mutation information were recorded. Meanwhile, the serological index data of hepatitis B were collected. Drug resistance gene mutant group and non-mutated group were grouped according to whether the drug resistance genes had a mutation in HBV RT region, and the clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of the two groups were statistically analyzed. The pattern of drug resistance gene mutation, number of mutation sites, drug resistance type and mutation of NAs resistance-related sites were analyzed in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region. χ2 Inspection was used for counting data. Meanwhile, two independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for measurement data. Results: Among the 1 948 patients with chronic HBV infection, 917 patients had drug resistance gene mutation in RT region (47.07%). The proportion of patients with acute hepatitis B and CHB in HBV RT resistance gene mutant group was lower than that in the non-mutated group, while the proportion of patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was higher than that in the non-mutated group, these differences were statistically significant. Compared with the non-mutated group in HBV RT region, the age, the positive rates of HBeAg and HBV DNA, and HBV DNA load of these patients were increased in drug resistance gene mutant group, these differences were statistically significant. Genotypes of patients in both groups were dominated by C, followed by B and D. The proportion of patients with genotype C in HBV RT drug resistance gene mutant group was higher than that of non-mutated group, the difference was statistically significant. There were 53 gene mutation patterns in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region, and the main pattern was rtL180M+rtM204V+rtS202G (9.70%). The mutation sites were dominated by 3 (20.74%). There were 5 types of drug resistance, LAM+Ldt (21.25%) was the most. Among the 18 sites that were clearly associated with LAM, ADV, ETV and Ldt resistance in the HBV RT region, 14 sites were mutated, and the most common mutation sites were rtL180M, rtM204V, rtM204 and rtS202G. what's more, the proportion of patients with NAs drug resistance was LAM>Ldt>ETV>ADV. Conclusion: In order to prevent adverse consequences of this study such as disease recurrence or disease progression caused by HBV drug resistance, HBV infected patients, who have long-term use of NAs antiviral therapy, should monitor the level of HBV DNA and drug resistance genes in HBV RT region in order to optimize the treatment plan in time or guide individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Mutation , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Lamivudine/therapeutic use
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1242-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008956

ABSTRACT

The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in severe consequences, including chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Effective antiviral treatment has the potential to slow down the progression of the disease. HBV serum biomarkers play a crucial role in the dynamic management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the conventional hepatitis B virus markers, such as hepatitis B serologic testing and HBV DNA, are insufficient to meet the clinical requirements. This review provided a comprehensive overview of the current research on the quantification of HBsAg and anti-HBc, HBV RNA and HBV core-associated antigen, which summarized the crucial role these markers play in the administration of antiviral medications, predicting the efficacy of treatment and anticipating the likelihood of virologic rebound following drug cessation, as well as assessing disease progression in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4529-4535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008707

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Chaiyin Granules compared with Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules in the treatment of influenza(exogenous wind-heat syndrome). Based on a randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel control clinical trial, this study evaluated the pharmacoeconomics of Chaiyin Granules with cost-effectiveness analysis method. A total of 116 patients with influenza from eight hospitals(grade Ⅱ level A above) in 6 cities were selected in this study, including 78 cases in the experimental group with Chaiyin Granules and Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules placebo, and 38 cases in the control group with Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules and Chaiyin Granules placebo. The total cost of this study included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The remission time of clinical symptoms, cure time/cure rate, antipyretic onset time/complete antipyretic time, viral nucleic acid negative rate, and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome curative effect were selected as the effect indicators for cost-effectiveness analysis. Four-quadrant diagram was used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The results showed that Chaiyin Granules were not inferior to Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules in the remission time of clinical symptoms of influenza(3.1 d vs 2.9 d, P=0.360, non-inferiority margin was 0.5 d). Compared with Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules, Chaiyin Granules would delay the remission time of clinic symptoms of influenza for 1 d, but could save 213.9 yuan. 1 d delay in cure time could save 149.3 yuan; 1% reduction in the cure rate could save 8.2 yuan; 1 d delay in antipyretic onset time could save 295.4 yuan; 1 d delay in complete antipyretic time could save 114.3 yuan; 1% reduction in the 5-day cure rate of TCM syndrome could save 19.2 yuan. Different from other indicators, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in the effect of negative conversion rate of viral nucleic acid, but the cost was lower and the effect was superior, and the pharmacoeconomics was not different from that of Oseltamivir Phosphate Capsules in the field of influenza treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Phosphates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 608-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986178

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of entecavir combined with Biejiajian pills and its influence on TCM syndrome scores during the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with hepatic fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome by prospective, randomized and controlled study. Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis B with hepatic fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Entecavir plus Biejiajian pills or entecavir plus a simulant of Biejiajian pills were given for 48 weeks. The changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and TCM syndrome scores before and after treatment were compared between the two groups to analyze the correlation. The data between groups were analyzed by t-test/Wilcoxon rank sum test or χ(2) test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between TCM syndrome scores and LSM values. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, the LSM values of the two groups were significantly lower than those of the baseline (P < 0.001), liver fibrosis was significantly improved, and the LSM values of the treatment group were lower than those of the control group [(8.67 ± 4.60) kPa and (10.13 ± 4.43) kPa, t = -2.011, P = 0.049]. After 48 weeks of treatment, the TCM syndrome scores of the two groups were significantly reduced compared with the baseline (P < 0.001), and the clinical symptoms were significantly relieved, and the total effective rates of the improvement of the TCM syndrome scores in the two groups were 74.19% and 72.97%, respectively, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant (χ(2) = 0.013, P = 0.910). Correlation analysis showed that there was no obvious trend between TCM syndrome scores and LSM values. There were no serious adverse reactions associated with the drug during the observation period of this study. Conclusion: Based on antiviral treatment with entecavir, regardless of whether it is combined with the Biejiajian pill, it can effectively reduce the LSM value, improve liver fibrosis, reduce TCM syndrome scores, and alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome. Compared with entecavir alone, the combined Biejia pill has greater efficacy in improving liver fibrosis and a favorable safety profile, meriting its implementation and widespread application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 545-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986167

ABSTRACT

The resolution of the hepatitis C issue has raised expectations for a chronic hepatitis B cure, driving the industry to expand investment in research and development efforts to strengthen functional cure strategies. These strategies have a wide variety of types, and the published research findings are heterogeneous. The theoretical analysis of these strategies is of great significance for determining prioritized research orientations as well as sensibly allocating research and development resources. However, due to a paucity of necessary conceptual models, current theoretical analysis has not been able to unify various therapeutic strategies into a proper theoretical framework. In view of the fact that the decrease in the quantity of cccDNA is an inevitable core event accompanied by the process of functional cure, this paper intends to analyze several chronic hepatitis B cure strategies using cccDNA dynamics as a framework. Furthermore, there are currently few studies on the dynamics of the cccDNA field, hoping that this article can promote recognition and research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Replication , DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 489-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986158

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the role of transient elastography technology in the assessment of disease staging and treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Patients who were clinically diagnosed with chronic HBV infection at Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021 was collected. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) examination was performed more than once by transient elastography. The count data were expressed as cases (%) and the χ (2) test was made. Fisher's exact test was used with theoretical frequency less than 5. The measurement data between two groups was compared by t-test. Multiple groups were compared with an analysis of variance. Results: 1 055 patients were included in this study, including 669 (63.4%) males and 386 (36.6%) females. 757 (71.8%) patients were untreated. Among the untreated patients, the LSM value in the immune clearance (10.2 ± 3.8) kPa (187 cases, 40.4%), and the reactivation stages (9.1 ± 3.4) kPa (114 cases, 24.6%) was significantly higher than that in the immune tolerance (8.7 ± 3.6) kPa (78 cases, 16.8%) and immune control stages (8.4 ± 3.5) KPa (84 cases, 18.1%), and the difference between the four groups was statistically significant (F = 5.31 and P = 0.03). With ALT (male: 30 U/L, female: 19 U/L) as defined the normal value, the LSM value in the immune tolerance and the immune control stages were (5.8 ± 0.9) kPa and (7.1 ± 2.5) kPa, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of patients in the immune tolerance and immune control stages, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There were 294 (38.8%) patients with uncertain period, excluding patients with fatty liver. Patients with uncertain periods were divided into four gray zone (GZ) groups: immune tolerance stage: LSM (5.1 ± 1.3) kPa was significantly lower than GZ-A (6.5 ± 2.4) kPa, t = 2.06, P = 0.03, and the difference was statistically significant; immune control stage: LSM was (5.6 ± 1.5) kPa, which was also lower than GZ-C (6.8 ± 1.3) kPa, t = 3.08, P = 0.02, and the difference was statistically significant; immune clearance stage: LSM > 8.0 kPa. LSM values showed a year-by-year reduction in patients with expanded indications who started antiviral treatment and were followed up for three years. Conclusion: The LSM value is significantly lower after the decrease of the defined high-normal ALT value in patients with the immune tolerance and immune control stages of chronic HBV infection. The LSM values of GZ-A and GZ-C in the uncertain periods of chronic HBV infection are higher than those of patients in the immune tolerance and immune control stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/pathology
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 471-476, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986155

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis type E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis globally and has thus gained attention as a public health issue. The diverse clinical manifestations of hepatitis type E are typically acute and self-limiting with mild symptoms, but populations with underlying liver disease or immunocompromised patients can have severe and chronic symptoms. Severity and chronicity can arise and manifest as fulminant hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, or even hepatic failure. HEV infection-induced hepatic failure (acute-on-chronic liver failure), based on the different backgrounds of chronic liver disease, is a clinical phenotype of severe HEV infection that requires attention. In addition, HEV infection can exhibit extrahepatic clinical manifestations of multi-system and organ involvement like neurological diseases (Guillain-Barré syndrome), renal diseases (membranous/membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia), and blood diseases (thrombocytopenia). At home or abroad, there are no antiviral drugs approved, particularly for HE treatment. Since most acute HE can resolve spontaneously, no special treatment is required clinically. However, in patients with severe or chronic HE, ribavirin (RBV) monotherapy and/or pegylated interferon-combination therapy have achieved certain antiviral effects. Combined small-molecule drugs and RBV have been attempted to treat HEV, but high-level evidence-based treatment is still lacking. Thus, new, highly effective anti-HEV drugs are clinical priorities to address these concerns. Severe and chronic HEV infections' clinical phenotype, early detection, mechanism, intervention, and outcome need additional study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis E virus , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Failure/drug therapy
15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 385-388, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986142

ABSTRACT

Chinese Society of Hepatology and Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Medical Association update the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (version 2022) in 2022. The latest guidelines recommend more extensive screening and more active antiviral treating for hepatitis B virus infection. This article interprets the essential updates in the guidelines to help deepen understanding and better guide the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Gastroenterology
16.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 826-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985993

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of letermovir in primary prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in patients receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: This retrospective, cohort study was conducted using data of patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation at Peking University Institute of Hematology and received letermovir for primary prophylaxis between May 1, 2022 and August 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria of the letermovir group were as follows: letermovir initiation within 30 days after transplantation and continuation for≥90 days after transplantation. Patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation within the same time period but did not receive letermovir prophylaxis were selected in a 1∶4 ratio as controls. The main outcomes were the incidence of CMV infection and CMV disease after transplantation as well as the possible effects of letermovir on acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and bone marrow suppression. Categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for evaluating incidence differences. Results: Seventeen patients were included in the letermovir prophylaxis group. The median patient age in the letermovir group was significantly greater than that in the control group (43 yr vs. 15 yr; Z=-4.28, P<0.001). The two groups showed no significant difference in sex distribution and primary diseases, etc. (all P>0.05). The proportion of CMV-seronegative donors was significantly higher in the letermovir prophylaxis group in comparison with the control group (8/17 vs. 0/68, χ2=35.32, P<0.001). Three out of the 17 patients in the letermovir group experienced CMV reactivation, which was significantly lower than the incidence of CMV reactivation in the control group (3/17 vs. 40/68, χ2=9.23, P=0.002), and no CMV disease development observed in the letermovir group. Letermovir showed no significant effects on platelet engraftment (P=0.105), aGVHD (P=0.348), and 100-day NRM (P=0.474). Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that letermovir may effectively reduce the incidence of CMV infection after haploidentical transplantation without influencing aGVHD, NRM, and bone marrow suppression. Prospective randomized controlled studies are required to further verify these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Recurrence , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 803-811, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010992

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to pose a significant global public health challenge. Currently, the approved treatments for CHB are limited to interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogs, both of which have their limitations, and achieving a complete cure remains an elusive goal. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of novel antiviral strategies are of utmost importance. Natural products (NPs) constitute a class of substances known for their diverse chemical structures, wide-ranging biological activities, and low toxicity profiles. They have shown promise as potential candidates for combating various diseases, with a substantial number demonstrating anti-HBV properties. This comprehensive review focuses on the current applications of NPs in the fight against HBV and provides a summary of their antiviral mechanisms, considering their impact on the viral life cycle and host hepatocytes. By offering insights into the world of anti-HBV NPs, this review aims to furnish valuable information to support the future development of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hepatocytes
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 563-575, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010970

ABSTRACT

Viruses, the smallest microorganisms, continue to present an escalating threat to human health, being the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Over the decades, although significant progress has been made in the development of therapies and vaccines against viral diseases, the need for effective antiviral interventions remains urgent. This urgency stems from the lack of effective vaccines, the severe side effects associated with current drugs, and the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Natural plants, particularly traditionally-used herbs, are often considered an excellent source of medicinal drugs with potent antiviral efficacy, as well as a substantial safety profile. Scutellaria baicalensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, has garnered considerable attention due to its extensive investigation across diverse therapeutic areas and its demonstrated efficacy in both preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we mainly focused on the potential antiviral activities of ingredients in Scutellaria baicalensis, shedding light on their underlying mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications in the treatment of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Scutellaria baicalensis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1068-1079, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010829

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has stimulated tremendous efforts to develop therapeutic agents that target severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to control viral infection. So far, a few small-molecule antiviral drugs, including nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid), remdesivir, and molnupiravir have been marketed for the treatment of COVID-19. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir has been recommended by the World Health Organization as an early treatment for outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. However, the existing treatment options have limitations, and effective treatment strategies that are cost-effective and convenient for tackling COVID-19 are still needed. To date, four domestically developed oral anti-COVID-19 drugs have been granted conditional market approval in China. These drugs include azvudine, simnotrelvir-ritonavir (Xiannuoxin), leritrelvir, and mindeudesivir (VV116). Preclinical and clinical studies have explored the efficacy and tolerability of mindeudesivir and supported its early use in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 cases at high risk for progression. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings regarding the pharmacological mechanism and therapeutic effects focusing on mindeudesivir and other small-molecule antiviral agents for COVID-19. These findings will expand our understanding and highlight the potential widespread application of China's homegrown anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Nitriles , Lactams , Proline , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 383-400, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in excess deaths worldwide. Conventional antiviral medicines have been used to relieve the symptoms, with limited therapeutic effect. In contrast, Lianhua Qingwen Capsule is reported to exert remarkable anti-COVID-19 effect. The current review aims to: 1) uncover the main pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for managing COVID-19; 2) verify the bioactive ingredients and pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule by network analysis; 3) investigate the compatibility effect of major botanical drug pairs in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule; and 4) clarify the clinical evidence and safety of the combined therapy of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule and conventional drugs. Numerous bioactive ingredients in Lianhu Qingwen, such as quercetin, naringenin, β-sitosterol, luteolin, and stigmasterol, were identified to target host cytokines, and to regulate the immune defence in response to COVID-19. Genes including androgen receptor (AR), myeloperoxidase (MPO), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin (INS), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) were found to be significantly involved in the pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule against COVID-19. Four botanical drug pairs in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule were shown to have synergistic effect for the treatment of COVID-19. Clinical studies demonstrated the medicinal effect of the combined use of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule and conventional drugs against COVID-19. In conclusion, the four main pharmacological mechanisms of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for managing COVID-19 are revealed. Therapeutic effect has been noted against COVID-19 in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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