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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 221-223, July-sept. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521145


Objective: This study aims to report the case of a 69-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of anorectal melanoma (AM) established by immunohistochemistry. Methods: Clinical case report, a descriptive and qualitative study. Results: The patient had a nodular and ulcerative lesion in the anal region, the imaging exams revealed an expansive lesion that affected the rectum and the vaginal wall. The chosen course of treatment was initial surgical intervention, the surgery and postoperative course progressed without complications, and the anatomopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of invasive malignant melanoma of the distal rectum of anorectal transition. The anatomopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of invasive malignant melanoma located in the distal rectum of the anorectal transition. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed infiltrative melanoma with microsatellites, as well as peri and intratumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, angiolymphatic invasion, and perineural invasion. The surgical resection margins, ovaries, posterior vaginal wall, and parametrium showed no signs of neoplastic involvement. Following the surgery, the patient began immunotherapy, which she is still undergoing. Conclusions: The survival rate of AM can be improved through various diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, further exploration of this topic through clinical studies is necessary to enhance both diagnosis and treatment. (AU)

Humans , Female , Aged , Anus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/diagnosis
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 75-81, Apr.-June 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514427


Introduction: Anal examination and videoanoscopy (VA) are rarely performed during colonoscopies. In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in lesions of sexually transmitted anal and rectal infections, but these conditions are not noticed or reported during routine colonoscopy. Objective: To raise awareness regarding the fortuitous findings of lesions and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in colonoscopy exams and to demonstrate that anal examination and VA provide important information and should be routinely performed. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study in 16,132 patients screened by colonoscopy and VA between 2006 and 2018. Among numerous other findings, the presence of anal condylomata and sexually transmitted retitis or perianal dermatitis was observed. The rates of each finding were calculated, and the patients were subdivided by sex and into age groups by blocks of ten years. Results: Among the 16,132 colonoscopies performed, 26 cases of condyloma (0.16%) and 50 cases of proctitis or perianal dermatitis suspicious for STI (0.33%) were found. Conclusion: Performing anal examination and VA systematically in all routine colonoscopies enabled the identification of numerous anal conditions, including several fortuitous cases of STIs. The study proposes that anal examination and VA should be performed in all routine colonoscopies and, in suspected cases, complementary tests for STIs. (AU)

Anal Canal/injuries , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 548-556, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986819


Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is the ultimate sphincter-preserving surgical technique for low rectal cancer. To promote the standardized implementation of ISR, this review discusses the important issues regarding the clinical application of ISR with reference to the latest Chinese expert consensus on ISR. In terms of ISR-related pelvic anatomy of the rectum/anal canal, hiatal ligament is not identical with the anococcygeal ligament. At the level where the rectourethralis muscle continuously extends to the posteroinferior area of the membranous urethra from the rectum, the neurovascular bundle is identified between the posterior edge of rectourethralis muscle and the anterior edge of the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. This knowledge is crucial to detect the anterior dissection plane during ISR at the levator hiatus level. The indication criteria for ISR included: (1) stage I early low rectal cancer; (2) stage II-III low rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant treatment, and supra-anal tumors and juxta-anal tumors of stage ycT3NxM0, or intra-anal tumors of stage ycT2NxM0. However, signet ring cell carcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma should be contraindicated to ISR. For locally advanced low rectal cancer (especially anteriorly located tumor), neoadjuvant treatment should be carried out in a standardized manner. However, it should be recognized that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was a risk factor for poor anal function after ISR. For surgical approaches for ISR, including transanal, transabdominal, and transanal transabdominal approaches, the choice should be based on oncological safety and functional consequences. While ensuring the negative margin, maximal preservation of rectal walls and anal canal contributs to better postoperative anorectal function. Careful attention must be paid to complications regarding ISR, with special focus on the anastomotic complications. The incidence of low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) was higher than 40%. However, this issue is often neglected by clinicians. Thus, management and rehabilitation strategies for LARS with longer follow-ups were required.

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Laparoscopy/methods , Anal Canal/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Anus Diseases/surgery , Low Anterior Resection Syndrome , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology , Treatment Outcome
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 52-55, Jan.-Mar. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430687


Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have a higher incidence of neoplasms associated with human papillomavirus infections, such as those that affect the vulva, the vagina, and the cervix; however, little is known about the frequency of anal cancer among these patients. Although there are recommendations for screening for this cancer in immunosuppressed individuals, it is possible that this procedure is not strictly followed. We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who was treated with immunosuppressants and developed advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma after adequate treatment and healing of a high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion. Five years after the completion of the anal cancer treatment, the patient presented with cystic hepatic lesions that were histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This report aimed to highlight the need for anal cancer screening in patients with lupus, particularly if there was a history of cervical cytopathological alterations. (AU)

Resumo Pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico apresentam maior incidência de neoplasias associadas a infecções por HPV, como aquelas que acometem a vulva, a vagina e o colo do útero, mas pouco se sabe sobre a frequência de câncer anal entre essas pacientes. Embora existam recomendações para o rastreamento desse câncer em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, é possível que esse procedimento não esteja sendo rigorosamente seguido. Descrevemos uma mulher de 47 anos com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, tratada com imunossupressores, que desenvolveu um carcinoma escamocelular anal avançado após tratamento adequado e cicatrização de lesão intraepitelial escamosa cervical de alto grau. Cinco anos após o término do tratamento do câncer anal, a paciente apresentou lesões císticas hepáticas cujo resultado citopatológico confirmou ser carcinoma escamocelular metastático. O presente relato teve como objetivo chamar atenção para a necessidade do rastreamento do câncer anal em pacientes com lúpus, principalmente se houver história prévia de alterações citopatológicas cervicais. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Papillomavirus Infections , Liver Neoplasms/secondary
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e304, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505950


El manejo del adenocarcinoma de recto se ha visto revolucionado por la cirugía mesorectal y la neoadyuvancia al igual que el cáncer epidermoide de ano con el protocolo de Nigro. Sin embargo, los adenocarcinomas de ano constituyen una patología infrecuente, relacionada con procesos inflamatorios crónicos como las fístulas perianales y cuyo tratamiento genera controversias. El desconocimiento de sus características clínicas e imagenológicas puede generar una confusión diagnóstica principalmente con un absceso perianal. Presentamos el caso clínico de un adenocarcinoma de canal anal en relación a una fístula perianal crónica y una revisión de la literatura actual sobre el tema.

The mesorectal surgery and the neoadyuvant treatment have changed the management of rectal adenocarcinoma. The Nigro protocol had the same impact on the squamous cell cancer of the anus. However, the adenocarcinoma of the anus is an infrequent pathology, related to chronic inflammatory processes such as perianal fistulas and its treatment generates controversy. The lack of knowledge about clinical and imaging characteristics of this pathology can lead to diagnostic confusion, mainly with a perianal abscess. We hereby present the clinical case of an anal canal adenocarcinoma in relation to a chronic perianal fistula and a review of the current literature on the subject.

O manejo do adenocarcinoma retal foi revolucionado pela cirurgia mesorretal e pelo tratamento neoadjuvante, assim como o câncer de células escamosas do ânus com o protocolo Nigro. Entretanto, os adenocarcinomas do ânus são uma patologia pouco frequente, relacionada a processos inflamatórios crônicos como as fístulas perianais e cujo tratamento gera controvérsias. O desconhecimento de suas características clínicas e de imagem pode levar a uma confusão diagnóstica, principalmente com o abscesso perianal. Apresentamos o caso clínico de um adenocarcinoma do canal anal relacionado a uma fístula perianal crônica e uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto.

Humans , Male , Aged , Anal Canal/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Anus Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Palliative Care , Rectal Fistula , Fatal Outcome , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/radiotherapy
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2023. 177 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1538254


Pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto em tratamento por radioterapia apresentam alta prevalência de radiodermatite com descamação úmida, desfecho que causa impactos clínicos, econômicos e sociais. Estudos sobre a efetividade de produtos na prevenção das radiodermatites representam uma lacuna de conhecimento na área oncológica, podendo o seu desenvolvimento contribuir para a diminuição dos impactos negativos desse evento, do tempo ocioso do equipamento pela interrupção do tratamento e da possibilidade de falha local da doença. Objetivou-se analisar a efetividade do protetor cutâneo em spray à base de terpolímero acrílico na prevenção da radiodermatite com descamação úmida nos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto em comparação com um hidratante padronizado na instituição à base de Calendula officinalis L. e Aloe barbadensis. Ensaio clínico randomizado, aberto, em instituição única, referência nacional no tratamento de doenças oncológicas, com amostra 63 pacientes que foram randomizados nos grupos: experimental, com uso do protetor cutâneo em spray, e controle, usando o hidratante Dnativ Revita Derm. Os pacientes foram acompanhados na consulta de enfermagem, com cegamento do avaliador da pele quanto ao uso da intervenção. A escala de avaliação de pele utilizada foi a da Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio dos formulários de avaliação inicial e subsequente, sendo o desfecho principal medido a ocorrência de radiodermatite com descamação úmida, e os secundários a ocorrência de interrupção temporária da radioterapia por radiodermatite, de eventos adversos aos produtos e de severidade da radiodermatite. As análises se deram por Intenção de Tratar e Protocolo, sendo utilizadas as estatísticas descritiva, analítica e inferenciais no tratamento dos dados, com nível de significância de ≤ 0,10. Pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética sob parecer nº 5.322.985 e registrado no Clinical Trials sob número: NCT04067310T. A regressão logística binária mostrou que os participantes expostos ao protetor cutâneo em spray tiveram menor chance de apresentar a radiodermatite com descamação úmida quando comparados ao grupo controle. A redução absoluta do risco de radiodermatite foi de 18% no grupo experimental. A incidência geral de radiodermatite foi de 100%, sendo 36,5% graus mais severos. A incidência de radiodermatite Grau 1 foi maior no grupo experimental, enquanto os graus mais severos (Graus 3 e 4) tiveram maior incidência no grupo controle; 17,5% dos participantes tiveram interrupção da radioterapia por radiodermatite, variando de 3 a 15 dias, com média de seis dias interrompidos. Apesar de relevantes clinicamente, esses resultados sobre a interrupção temporária do tratamento e a severidade da radiodermatite não tiveram significância estatística. Foram considerados fatores de risco para a descamação úmida: sexo feminino, diagnóstico C.21 e C.21.8, altas doses de radioterapia (5400-6000cGy), tipo histológico carcinoma espinocelular, umidade antes e durante a radioterapia e uso de proteção íntima. Concluiu-se que o protetor cutâneo em spray é um produto efetivo na prevenção da radiodermatite com descamação úmida nos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto, afirmação que sustenta a tese defendida. Nesse sentido, os resultados podem orientar a revisão dos protocolos assistenciais de prevenção da radiodermatite utilizados pelo enfermeiro no âmbito da consulta de enfermagem em radioterapia, com vistas a reduzir os impactos no seguimento terapêutico e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto.

Patients' ongoing anal and rectal cancer radiotherapy exhibit a high prevalence of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation, impairing clinical, economic, and social outcomes. Clinical trials targeting product efficacy in preventing radiodermatitis are lacking in the current literature. These products could contribute to diminishing adverse effects, reducing equipment idle time by therapy interruption, and increasing the cure rate. Our goal is to evaluate the effectiveness of cutaneous spray based on acrylic terpolymers in preventing radiodermatitis with moist desquamation in patients with rectal or anal cancer. Spray effectiveness was defied against a standardized moisturizer in the institution made of Calendula officinalis L. and Aloe barbadensis extracts. An open, single-blind, randomized clinical study was conducted in a single institution, reference in national treatment in oncological diseases, with a sample size (n) of 63 patients. Patients were randomized into two groups: (i) experimental, using cutaneous protector spray; and (ii) control, using moisturizer Dnativ Revita Derm. RTOC's scale was used for evaluating skin condition. Data was collected in forms, which considered: (i) the primary outcome of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation occurrence; and (ii) the secondary outcome of radiotherapy interruption caused by radiodermatitis occurrence and severity, and product adverse effects. Analyses were performed by intention to treat and per protocol, using descriptive, analytical, and inferential statistics, with a significance level of ≤ 0.10 (α). Research was approved by the Ethics committee under approval nº 5.322.985 and registered in Clinical Trials under number NCT04067310T. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that patients exposed to cutaneous spray protector were less prone to develop radiodermatitis with moist desquamation compared to the control group. Absolute reduction in radiodermatitis risk was 18% in the experimental group. The radiodermatitis overall incidence was 100%, with 36.5% of higher severity. The incidence of grade 1 radiodermatitis was higher in the experimental group, while the more severe grades (3 and 4) had a higher incidence in the control group; 17.5% of the participants had an interruption of radiotherapy due to radiodermatitis, ranging from 3 to 15 days, with an average of six interrupted days. Despite being clinically relevant, these results regarding the temporary interruption of treatment and the severity of radiodermatitis were not statistically significant. Risk factors for moist desquamation were considered: female gender, diagnosis of C.21 and C.21.8, high radiation doses (5400 to 6000 cGy), histological type squamous cell carcinoma, humidity before and during radiotherapy, and use of intimate protection. In conclusion, the skin protector spray is an effective product in the prevention of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation in patients with anal and rectal cancer. In this sense, the results can guide the review of care protocols for the prevention of radiodermatitis used by nurses in the context of nursing consultations in radiotherapy to reduce the impacts on therapeutic follow-up and the quality of life of patients with cancer of the anal canal and straight.

Los pacientes con cáncer de canal anal y recto en tratamiento con radioterapia tienen una alta prevalencia de radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda, desenlace que genera impactos clínicos, económicos y sociales. Los estudios sobre la efectividad de los productos en la prevención de la radiodermatitis representan un vacío de conocimiento en el área de oncología y pueden contribuir para la reducción de los impactos negativos, el tiempo de inactividad de los equipos por interrupción del tratamiento y la posibilidad de falla local de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la eficacia de un protector cutáneo en spray a base de terpolímero acrílico en la prevención de la radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en pacientes con cáncer anal y rectal frente a una crema hidratante estandarizada de la institución a base de Calendula officinalis L. y Aloe barbadensis. Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, abierto, en una sola institución, referente nacional en el tratamiento de enfermedades oncológicas, con una muestra de 63 pacientes que fueron aleatorizados en grupos: experimental, utilizando spray protector para la piel, y control, utilizando Dnativ Revita Derm hidratante. Los pacientes fueron seguidos en la consulta de enfermería, cegándose el evaluador de piel en cuanto al uso de la intervención. La escala de valoración de la piel utilizada fue la del RTOC. Los datos se recopilaron mediante formularios de evaluación inicial y posterior, siendo el resultado principal medido la aparición de radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda y los resultados secundarios la interrupción temporal de la radioterapia debido a la radiodermatitis, los eventos adversos de los productos y la gravedad de la radiodermatitis. Los análisis fueron realizados por Intención de Tratar y Protocolo, utilizando estadística descriptiva, analítica e inferencial en el procesamiento de datos, con nivel de significación ≤ 0,10. Investigación aprobada por el Comité de Ética con dictamen nº 5.322.985 y registrada en Ensayos Clínicos con el número: NCT04067310T. La regresión logística binaria mostró que los participantes expuestos al protector de piel en aerosol tenían menos probabilidades de tener radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en comparación con el grupo de control. La reducción absoluta del riesgo de radiodermatitis fue del 18 % en el grupo experimental. La incidencia global de radiodermatitis fue del 100%, siendo el 36,5% grados más graves. La incidencia de radiodermatitis Grado 1 fue mayor en el grupo experimental, mientras que los grados más severos (3 y 4) tuvieron mayor incidencia en el grupo control; El 17,5% de los participantes tuvo interrupción de la radioterapia por radiodermatitis, variando de 3 a 15 días, con un promedio de seis días de interrupción. A pesar de ser clínicamente relevantes, estos resultados en cuanto a la interrupción temporal del tratamiento y la gravedad de la radiodermatitis no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Se consideraron factores de riesgo para descamación húmeda: sexo femenino, diagnóstico C.21 y C.21.8, dosis altas (5400-6000cGy), carcinoma epidermoide de tipo histológico, humedad antes y durante la radioterapia y uso de protección íntima. Se concluyó que el spray protector de piel es un producto eficaz en la prevención de la radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en pacientes con cáncer anal y rectal, afirmación que sustenta la tesis defendida. En ese sentido, los resultados pueden orientar la revisión de los protocolos de atención para la prevención de la radiodermitis utilizados por los enfermeros en el contexto de las consultas de enfermería en radioterapia, con el objetivo de reducir los impactos en el seguimiento terapéutico y en la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer del canal anal y recto.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anus Neoplasms , Radiodermatitis/prevention & control , Rectal Neoplasms , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiodermatitis/complications , Radiodermatitis/nursing , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 9(2): e201, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1403135


La cirugía del cáncer de recto y ano se ha desarrollado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. En función de dichos avances, se ha observado una disminución en la morbimortalidad operatoria, así como también una mejoría en el pronóstico de estos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es exponer y analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de recto y ano en un servicio universitario. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de todos los pacientes intervenidos por cáncer de recto y ano en el Hospital Español entre 2016 y 2020. Las variables registradas fueron: variables demográficas, clínico-oncológicas, relacionadas a la morbimortalidad operatoria y a la recidiva locorregional, y la sobrevida a 5 años. El procedimiento más realizado fue la resección anterior de recto (RAR) en 11 intervenciones (58%), mientras que las 8 restantes correspondieron a amputaciones abdominoperineales (AAP) (42%). Se diagnosticaron un total de 6 complicaciones intraoperatorias en 5 pacientes, siendo la perforación del tumor la más frecuente, y un total de 18 complicaciones postoperatorias en 11 pacientes, siendo la más frecuente la infección de la herida quirúrgica abdominal. La morbilidad operatoria mayor fue de 31,6% y la mortalidad operatoria a 90 días fue de 0%. La sobrevida global a 5 años fue de 63,2%. Los resultados quirúrgicos en la presente casuística fueron comparables con los de la bibliografía consultada. Destacamos la nula mortalidad a 90 días, con resultados oncológicos similares a los reportados en la literatura.

Rectal and anus surgery have been developed considerably in the last decades. Based on these advancements, it has been observed a decrease in the surgical morbidity and mortality, as well as an improved prognosis of these patients. The aim of the present study is to expose and analyze the results of the anus and rectal surgical treatment in a university service. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed of all the intervened patients for rectum and anus cancer in the Hospital Español between 2016 and 2020. We recorded data about demographic, clinical-oncologic, related to the surgical morbidity and mortality, locoregional relapse and overall 5 year survival. The most performed procedure was the rectum anterior resection in 11 interventions (58%), while the 8 left corresponded to abdominoperineal resection (42%). There was a total of 6 intraoperative complications diagnosed in 5 patients, being the tumor perforation the most frequent one, and a total of 18 postoperative complications diagnosed in 11 patients, being the surgical wound infection the most frequent one. The serious surgical morbidity was 31,6%, while the surgical mortality rate at 90 days was 0%. Overall 5 year survival was 63,2%. The surgical results in the present study about the rectum and anal cancer were comparable with the results reported on the consulted bibliography. We highlight the null mortality within 90 days, with oncologic results similar to the ones reported in the literature.

A cirurgia do câncer retal e anal desenvolveu-se consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Com base nesses avanços, observou-se diminuição da morbimortalidade operatória, bem como melhora no prognóstico desses pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e analisar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto e anal em um serviço universitário. Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo de todos os pacientes operados por câncer de reto e ânus no Hospital Espanhol entre 2016 e 2020. As variáveis ​​registradas foram: variáveis ​​demográficas, clínico-oncológicas, relacionadas à morbidade e mortalidade operatórias e recorrência locorregional. , e sobrevida em 5 anos. O procedimento mais realizado foi a ressecção anterior do reto (RAR) em 11 intervenções (58%) e as 8 restantes corresponderam a amputações abdominoperineais (AAP) (42%). Foram diagnosticadas 6 complicações intraoperatórias em 5 pacientes, sendo a perfuração tumoral a mais frequente, e um total de 18 complicações pós-operatórias em 11 pacientes, sendo a infecção da ferida operatória abdominal a mais frequente. A morbidade operatória maior foi de 31,6% e a mortalidade operatória em 90 dias foi de 0%. A sobrevida global em 5 anos foi de 63,2%. Os resultados cirúrgicos da presente casuística foram comparáveis ​​aos da bibliografia consultada. Destacamos a mortalidade nula em 90 dias, com resultados oncológicos semelhantes aos relatados na literatura.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Octogenarians , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441505


Introducción: El incremento del cáncer anal en poblaciones de alto riesgo induce a la implementación de protocolos para efectuar diagnóstico precoz y seguimiento de neoplasia anal intraepitelial. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de la aplicación del consenso nacional de prevención del cáncer anal en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo con 43 pacientes de alto riesgo de neoplasia anal intraepitelial atendidos en la consulta de Coloproctología del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico "Comandante Manuel Fajardo", desde 2018 hasta 2019. Se evaluaron en el momento del diagnóstico y a los 6 meses. Se hicieron estudios de citología anal (normales, lesiones de bajo y alto grado, y células epidermoides atípicas de significado incierto), examen digital anorrectal y anoscopia de alta resolución (normal, tipos I-II y III). Resultados: El 53,5 por ciento de los resultados fueron normales. En los hallazgos anormales por citología anal, la lesión de bajo grado fue la de mayor porcentaje (50 por ciento). La neoplasia anal intraepitelial tipo I fue la de mayor frecuencia (52,9 por ciento). De los pacientes evolucionados a los 6 meses, la mayoría tuvo resultados anormales de citología anal (55,6 por ciento), se presentó el 70 por ciento con lesiones de bajo grado. El examen digital anorrectal fue normal en todos los casos. Los factores de riesgos predominantes fueron: sexo con penetración anal y sexo de hombres con otros hombres, incluyendo que todos habían padecido el virus del papiloma humano. Conclusiones: El protocolo permitió identificar fundamentalmente lesiones de bajo grado. Los factores de riesgo influyen en la aparición de esta neoplasia(AU)

Introduction: The increase of anal cancer in high-risk populations leads to the implementation of protocols to perform early diagnosis and follow-up of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Objective: To evaluate the results of the application of the national consensus for anal cancer prevention in Cuba. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 43 patients at high risk of intraepithelial anal neoplasia cared for in the coloproctology consultation at Comandante Manuel Fajardo Clinical Surgical University Hospital, from 2018 to 2019. They were evaluated at the time of diagnosis and at six months. Anal cytology studies (normal, low- and high-degree lesions, and atypical epidermoid cells of uncertain significance), anorectal digital examination and high resolution anoscopy (normal, types I-II and III) were performed. Results: 53.5 percent of the results were normal. In abnormal anal cytology findings, low-degree lesion had the highest percentage (50 percent). Anal intraepithelial neoplasia type I was the most frequent (52.9 percent). Of the patients followed up at six months, the majority had abnormal anal cytology results (55.6 percent); 70 percent had low-degree lesions. The anorectal digital examination was normal in all cases. The predominant risk factors were anal penetrative sex and male-to-male sex, including that all had had human papillomavirus. Conclusions: The protocol allowed the identification of primarily low-degree lesions. Risk factors influence the appearance of this neoplasm(AU)

Humans , Anus Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Prospective Studies
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(7): 678-685, July 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394816


Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence and possible variables associated with anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in immunocompetent women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving immunocompetent women with a histological diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, conducted between January 2016 and September 2020. All women underwent anal cytology and answered a questionnaire on characterization and potential risk factors. Women with altered cytology were submitted to anoscopy and biopsy. Results A total of 69 women were included in the study. Of these, 7 (10.1%) had abnormal anal cytology results: (high-grade lesion, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade lesions: 28,5% each; low grade lesion: 14,3%). Of the anoscopies, 3 (42.8%) showed alterations. Of the 2 (28,5% of all abnormal cytology results) biopsies performed, only 1 showed low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. The average number of pregnancies, vaginal deliveries, and abortions was associated with abnormal anal cytology. However, the highest mean regarding the cesarean sections was associated with normal cytology. Conclusion The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia was compatible with data from recent studies, especially those conducted in Brazil. Opportunistic screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in this high-risk population should be considered. Anal cytology is suitable for this purpose, due to its low cost and feasibility in public health services.

Resumo Objetivo Determinar a prevalência e as possíveis variáveis associadas à neoplasia intraepitelial anal e ao câncer anal em mulheres imunocompetentes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical de alto grau. Métodos Estudo transversal em mulheres imunocompetentes com diagnóstico histológico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical de alto grau e câncer cervical, feito entre janeiro de 2016 e setembro de 2020. Todas as mulheres foram submetidas a citologia anal e responderam a um questionário de caracterização e potenciais fatores de risco. Mulheres com citologia alterada foram submetidas a anuscopia e biópsia. Resultados No total, 69 mulheres foram incluídas no estudo. Destas, 7 (10,1%) tiveram resultados anormais de citologia anal (lesão de alto grau, células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado, e células escamosas atípicas, não se pode excluir lesões de alto grau: 28,5% cada; lesão de baixo grau: 14,3%). Das anuscopias, 3 (42,8%) demonstraram alterações. Das 2 biópsias realizadas, apenas 1 apresentou neoplasia intraepitelial anal de baixo grau. O número médio de gestações, partos vaginais e abortos estava associado à citologia anal anormal. No entanto, a maior média de partos cesáreos estava associada à citologia normal. Conclusão A prevalência de neoplasia intraepitelial anal foi compatível com dados de estudos recentes, principalmente daqueles feitos no Brasil. O rastreamento oportunista para neoplasia intraepitelial anal nesta população de alto risco deve ser considerado. A citologia anal é adequada para esse fim, devido ao seu baixo custo e viabilidade nos serviços públicos de saúde.

Humans , Female , Anus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mass Screening , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions , Papillomaviridae
Cir. Urug ; 6(1): e305, jul. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | UY-BNMED, BNUY, LILACS | ID: biblio-1404119


El tratamiento correcto de carcinoma escamoso avanzado requiere de un manejo multidisciplinar entre cirujanos, anatomopatólogos, radioterapeutas y radiólogos. Los protocolos están claros cuando nos hallamos ante una enfermedad localizada, sin embargo, cuando la enfermedad es metastática no existe evidencia científica de los pasos a seguir. Presentamos una paciente con un carcinoma escamoso del ano con una única metástasis cutánea metacrónica que fue tratada con cirugía y radioterapia posterior con buena respuesta.

The right therapy of anal cancer needs a multidisciplinary management of surgeons, pathologists, radiotherapists and radiologist. The treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is well-known when the patient presents a locally disease, nevertheless, there is a lack of information with the advanced anal cancer. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with a solitary methachronical cutaneous metastasis of anal cancer which responded perfectly to surgery and radiotherapy.

A correta terapêutica do câncer anal necessita de uma gestão multidisciplinar de cirurgiões, patologistas, radio terapeutas e radiologistas.O tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal é bem conhecido quando o paciente apresenta uma doença local, porém, há uma falta de informação sobre o câncer anal avançado. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 74 anos com metástase cutânea metacrônica solitária de câncer anal que respondeu perfeitamente à cirurgia e à radioterapia.

Humans , Female , Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Anus Neoplasms/complications , Skin Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 233-236, Jan.-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394955


Abstract Introduction: Primary tumors of the anal canal other than carcinomas are rare entities; among them, anal canal lymphomas are extremely unusual and pose both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the coloproctologist. Case presentation: A male patient with positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with proctalgia and mass sensation at the perianal level. A concentric thickening of the walls of the lower rectum was documented by magnetic resonance imaging, with colonoscopy and biopsies with histopathology compatible with plasmablastic lymphoma. Therefore, a diverting colostomy was performed and, subsequently, the hematology service indicated chemotherapy with the EPOCH scheme. Discussion: Lymphoma of the anus represents 0.2 % of anorectal tumors, most of these are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; Hodgkin's disease at the anorectal level is even rarer. The population with the highest risk of this entity is HIV-positive patients, such as the patient in this case, although other associated factors are described in the literature.

Resumen Introducción: los tumores primarios del canal anal diferentes a carcinomas son entidades poco frecuentes; dentro de estos, los linfomas del canal anal son extremadamente raros y generan un reto tanto diagnóstico como terapéutico para el coloproctólogo. Presentación de caso: se presenta a continuación un caso clínico de un paciente con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) positivo con proctalgia y sensación de masa a nivel perianal, se documentó por resonancia magnética un engrosamiento concéntrico de las paredes del recto inferior, con realización de colonoscopia y biopsias con histopatología compatible con linfoma plasmablástico, por lo que se realizó una colostomía derivativa y, posteriormente, se indicó por el servicio de hematología una quimioterapia con esquema EPOCH. Discusión: el linfoma de ano representa el 0,2 % de los tumores anorrectales, la mayoría de estos corresponde a linfomas no Hodgkin, y es aún más rara la enfermedad de Hodgkin a nivel anorrectal. La población con mayor riesgo de presentar esta entidad es los pacientes con VIH positivo, como el paciente descrito en el caso, aunque existen otros factores asociados descritos en la literatura.

Humans , Male , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Plasmablastic Lymphoma/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Plasmablastic Lymphoma/diagnosis
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408244


Introducción: El cáncer anal es el de menor incidencia del tubo digestivo, pero en los últimos años ha presentado un discreto incremento. Objetivo: Identificar los resultados del tratamiento empleado para el cáncer anal en el Servicio de Coloproctología del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico "Comandante Manuel Fajardo". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional con pacientes diagnosticados y tratados por cáncer anal en el período 2014-2019. Se estudiaron variables como antecedentes patológicos, factores de riesgo, síntomas, estadio de la enfermedad, tratamientos, entre otras. Resultados: La media de edad fue 58,4±14,7 años y el 75,3 por ciento fueron mujeres. El 52,1 por ciento presentaban antecedentes patológicos y el factor de riesgo más frecuente fue la edad (> 50 años: 80,8 por ciento). La localización más usual fue en el conducto anal y los estadios II y III. El sangrado se manifestó en el 58,9 por ciento de los pacientes. Se aplicó como tratamiento quimiorradioterapia (87,7 por ciento), exéresis local (17,8 por ciento) y cirugía abdominoperineal (8,2 por ciento). Se realizó colostomía al 14 por ciento de los individuos y el 72,6 por ciento estuvieron libres de colostomía más de un año. El tiempo libre de colostomía fue de 87,5 por ciento, con tratamiento de 5 años y más. De los pacientes fallecidos (24,7 por ciento), en el 55,6 por ciento la causa fue progresión de la enfermedad y la metástasis más frecuente fue la hepática. Conclusiones: La quimiorradioterapia fue el principal tratamiento con el que se obtuvo una aceptable tasa de sobrevida en los pacientes con cáncer anal(AU)

Introduction: Anal cancer is the one with the lowest incidence of the digestive tract, but in recent years it has slightly increased. Objective: To identify the results of the treatment used for anal cancer in the Coloproctology Service of Comandante Manuel Fajardo Surgical Clinical University Hospital. Methods: A descriptive and observational study was carried out with patients diagnosed and treated for anal cancer in the 2014-2019 period. Variables such as pathological history, risk factors, symptoms, stage of the disease, treatments, among others, were studied. Results: The mean age was 58.4 ± 14.7 years and 75.3 percent were women. 52.1 percent had pathological antecedents and the most frequent risk factor was age (> 50 years: 80.8 percent). The most usual location was in the anal canal and stages II and III. Bleeding appeared in 58.9 percent of the patients. Chemoradiation therapy (87.7 percent), local exeresis (17.8 percent) and abdominoperineal surgery (8.2 percent) were applied. Colostomy was performed in 14 percent of individuals; 72.6 percent were free of colostomy for more than one year. The colostomy-free time was 87.5 percent, with treatment of 5 years and more. 24.7 percent died, the disease progression was the cause of death in 55.6 percent of the diseased subjects, while the most frequent cause was liver metastasis. Conclusions: Chemoradiotherapy was the main treatment with which an acceptable survival rate was obtained in patients with anal cancer(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anus Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Survival Rate , Observational Studies as Topic
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(3): 280-286, Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387885


Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and abnormal anal cytology in immunocompetent women with and without HPV-induced genital lesions. Methods This analytical cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between July 2017 and December 2018 in a specialized outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, CE. Fifty-seven immunocompetent women with and without genital intraepithelial lesions were assessed; they were divided into two groups: group 1 was comprised of women with HPV-associated genital lesions (n=26), and group 2 was comprised of those without HPV-associated genital lesions (n=31). Samples for liquidbased cytology and high-risk DNA-HPV polymerase chain reaction real-time tests were collected from the cervix and anus. All cases were evaluated using high-resolution anoscopy; biopsies were performed when required. The Fisher exact and chi-squared tests were applied for consolidated data in the contingency table, and the Student ttest and Mann-Whitney U-test for independent variables. Results Anal high-risk HPV infections were more frequent in group 1 (odds ratio [OR], 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-18.3; p=0.012), along with concomitant highrisk HPV infections in the uterine cervix and the anus (OR 18.8; 95% CI, 2.20-160; p<0.001). The incidence of high-risk cervical HPV infection was associated with highrisk anal HPV infection (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.34-18.3; p=0.012). There was no statistical difference concerning abnormal anal cytology or anoscopy between the groups, and no anal intraepithelial lesion was found in either group. Conclusion Immunocompetent women with HPV-associated genital lesions and high-risk cervical HPV were more likely to have high-risk anal HPV.

Resumo Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a frequência de papilomavírus humano (HPV) de alto risco e citologia anal anormal em mulheres imunocompetentes com e sem lesões genitais induzidas por HPV. Métodos Este estudo transversal analítico e observacional foi realizado entre julho de 2017 e dezembro de 2018 em um ambulatório especializado de um hospital terciário em Fortaleza, CE. Cinquenta e sete mulheres imunocompetentes com e sem lesões intraepiteliais genitais foram avaliadas. Foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1, composto por mulheres com lesões genitais associadas ao HPV (n=26) e grupo 2, composto pormulheres sem lesões genitais associadas ao HPV (n=31). Amostras para citologia em meio líquido e testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real para DNA-HPV de alto risco foram coletadas do colo do útero e do ânus. Todos os casos foram avaliados por anuscopia de alta resolução; sendo realizada biópsia quando necessária. Os testes exatos de Fisher e qui-quadrado foram aplicados para dados consolidados na tabela de contingência; o teste t de Student e o teste U de Mann-Whitney foram aplicados para variáveis independentes. Resultados As infecções anais por HPV de alto risco forammais frequentes no grupo 1 (razão de chances [RC], 4,95; intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%, 1,34-18,3; p=0,012), assim como infecções concomitantes por HPV de alto risco em colo uterino e ânus (RC 18,8; IC de 95%, 2,20-160; p<0,001). A incidência de infecção de HPV cervical de alto risco foi associada à infecção de HPV anal de alto risco (RC, 4,95; IC de 95%, 1,34-18,3; p=0,012). Não houve diferença estatística em relação à citologia anal anormal ou anuscopia entre os grupos, e não houve caso de lesão intraepitelial anal em nenhum dos grupos. Conclusão Mulheres imunocompetentes com lesões genitais associadas ao HPV e com HPV cervical de alto risco foram mais propensas a ter HPV anal de alto risco.

Humans , Female , Anus Neoplasms , Papillomaviridae , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colposcopy , Cell Biology
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 34: 1-8, fev. 02, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378046


Introduction: The incidence of anal cancer is influenced by individual factors and socially determined conditions of vulnerability. In Brazil, it has increased in recent decades. A probable explanation for the growing incidence is the low coverage of screening and prevention programs. Objective: The aim of this study was to reflect on risk factors, the need for early diagnosis, and care of people with anal cancer and to associate social vulnerability in the understanding of illness and care in the Unified Health System (SUS). Methods: This is a systematic literature review with consultations carried out in open electronic databases: SciELO, Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and CAPES Publications Portal. The descriptors used were "anal cancer," "anal cytology," "anal cancer precursor lesions," "primary prevention," "integrality in health," and "public health policies." Results: Ensuring access to services is a common guideline in the literature. Based on the recovered references, two axes of analysis were built: in the first, ideas to reflect on care with collective health approaches were systematized, mainly on the etiology, biological risk factors, and conditions of vulnerability for cancer development to which the subjects are exposed. In the second, ideas to propose care technologies are put forward, with evidence from similar protocols and policies, especially the "Cervical Cancer Control Program," which deals with a pathology with cytohistological and etiological similarities, risk factors, diagnostic techniques, and skilled health professionals. Conclusion: The reviewed sources point to the possibility of incorporating, as a SUS policy, large-scale actions of prevention, screening, and early diagnosis, to qualify and expand the initiatives of promotion and care. The professional cytotechnologist can be a decisive factor in the implementation of the care policy, expanding assistance to the population and qualifying the services.

Introdução: O câncer anal tem incidência influenciada por fatores individuais e condições de vulnerabilidade socialmente determinadas. No Brasil, apresentou crescimento nas últimas décadas. Uma provável explicação para a incidência é a baixa abrangência dos programas de rastreamento e prevenção. Objetivo: Refletir sobre fatores de risco, necessidade de diagnóstico precoce e cuidado às pessoas com câncer anal, bem como compreender a relação entre vulnerabilidade social, adoecimento e cuidados no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, com consultas realizadas em bases de dados eletrônicas abertas: SciELO, Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações e Portal de Periódicos CAPES. Os descritores utilizados foram "câncer anal", "citologia anal", "lesões precursoras do câncer anal", "prevenção primária", "integralidade em saúde" e "políticas públicas de saúde". Resultados: A garantia de acesso aos serviços é orientação comum na literatura. Com base nas referências recuperadas, foram construídos dois eixos de análise: no primeiro, foram sistematizadas ideias para refletir sobre o cuidado com abordagens da saúde coletiva, principalmente sobre a etiologia, fatores de riscos biológicos e condições de vulnerabilidades para desenvolvimento do câncer ao qual os sujeitos estão expostos. No segundo, foram sistematizadas ideias para propor tecnologias de cuidado, com evidências de protocolos e políticas modelo, principalmente o Programa de Controle de Câncer de Colo do Útero, que trata de patologia com semelhanças cito-histológicas e etiológicas, considerando fatores de risco, boas técnicas para diagnóstico e a qualificação dos profissionais de saúde habilitados. Conclusão: As fontes revisadas apontam a possibilidade de se incorporar, como política do Sistema Único de Saúde, ações de prevenção, rastreio e diagnóstico precoce em ampla escala, a fim de qualificar e expandir as iniciativas de promoção e atenção ao público. O profissional citotécnico pode ser um fator decisivo na implantação da política de cuidado, ampliando a assistência à população e qualificando os serviços prestados.

Humans , Anus Neoplasms/etiology , Health Vulnerability , Social Determinants of Health , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/prevention & control , Primary Prevention , Risk Factors , Early Diagnosis
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 186-189, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391649


O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia maligna associada à infecção pelo herpes vírus humano 8 em doentes imunossupressos. O sarcoma de Kaposi Epidêmico é o tipo epidemiológico mais frequente e afeta indivíduos VIH-positivos. A região anoperineal é raramente envolvida e as lesões suspeitas devem ser biopsiadas para confirmação histológica. A base do tratamento é a restauração imune do doente. Relatamos o caso de um jovem, com diagnóstico recente de infeção pelo VIH, sem tratamento, que foi admitido no serviço de infectologia apresentando sintomas constitucionais, adenomegalias inguinais e extensa lesão verrucosa e ulcerada na região anoperineal. As biópsias confirmaram o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi e o doente iniciou terapia antirretroviral e quimioterapia. Houve recuperação clínica, regressão das lesões e desaparecimento das adenomegalias. Este relato objetiva alertar as equipes médicas no sentido de se incluir o sarcoma de Kaposi no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões que afetam a região anoperineal.

Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection in immunocompromised patients. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common epidemiological type and affects HIV-positive patients. Perineal involvement is rare, and suspicious lesions should be biopsied to confirm histological diagnosis. Treatment consists of restoring the patient's immune system. We report the case of a young patient recently diagnosed with HIV, without treatment, who was admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases with nonspecific symptoms, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and an extensive verrucous ulcerated lesion in the perineal region. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, and the patient was started on antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy. Clinical recovery was achieved, with lesion reduction and inguinal adenopathy resolution. This case report aims to encourage physicians to include Kaposi's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of perineal lesions.

Humans , Male , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 419-424, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356442


Objective: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in almost 90% of the cases. Its incidence is alarmingly high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and continues to increase at an average rate of 2% per year. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness and performance of liquid-based anal cytology as a screening tool for prevention and early detection of SCCA in a cohort of at-risk men. Method: We conducted a retrospective study including 111 MSM, aged between 22 and 62 years old, who underwent anal cytological screening with a liquid-based Pap test at our sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic from January 2015 to March 2017. Results: Out of 111 anal smears, 57 (51,4%) resulted negative, 42 (37,8%) abnormal, and 12 (10,8%) unsatisfactory for the cytological evaluation. Only patients with an abnormal cytology underwent anoscopy and subsequent biopsy. The histological results were as follows: negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) in 5 cases, low-grade SIL (L-SIL) in 21, high-grade SIL (H-SIL) in 5, SCCA in 1. Five patients had a normal anoscopy and biopsy was not taken. Conclusion: Liquid-based cytology, reducing the "darkening factors" typical for the conventional smears, has a higher positive predictive value than the traditional technique. Moreover, a cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or L-SILmay hide a severe dysplasia or even a carcinoma. Thus, all patients with an abnormal anal cytology at any grade should be considered for anoscopy. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Anus Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Sexual and Gender Minorities , HIV , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 229-234, set 29, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354390


Introduction: the prevalence of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high. However, little is known about the differences in the susceptibility of these infections and related lesions. The aim of this study was to describe the association between the prevalence of cervical and anal HPV infection and HPV-related lesions in HIV-positive women. Methods: this study included 88 HIV-positive women attending an outpatient clinic in a university hospital. Ectocervical, endocervical, and anal samples were collected for colpocytology and anal cytology. A polymerase chain reaction-based technique was used to detect HPV deoxyribonucleic acid in endocervical and anal swab samples. Results: the cervical and anal HPV positivity rates were 35.21% and 78.8%, respectively. The presence of HPV-related lesions on colpocytology was associated with anal HPV positivity (P = 0.027). The ratio between cervical HPV infection and cervical HPV-related lesions was 2.5. The ratio between anal HPV infection and anal HPV-related lesions was 4.3. Overall, 30% had concomitant HPV DNA in the cervix and anus. Conclusion: there are differences in the susceptibility of infections and related lesions between the cervix and anus. Despite a higher incidence of anal HPV, the progression to HPV-related lesion does not occur via the same manner in the cervix and anus. Moreover, cervical HPV-related lesions in HIV-positive women may serve as a cue for anal preventive strategies, and further investigations in these women may be useful.

Introdução: as infecções cervicais e anais pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV) em mulheres infectadas com o vírus da imunodeficiência umana (HIV) são muito prevalentes. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre as diferenças na suscetibilidade entre essas infecções e as lesões HPV-relacionadas. Objetivo: descrever a associação entre as prevalências de infecção cervical e anal pelo HPV e lesões relacionadas em mulheres HIV-positivas. Metodologia: este estudo incluiu 88 mulheres HIV-positivas atendidas em ambulatório de hospital universitário. Amostras ectocervicais, endocervicais e anais foram coletadas para colpocitologia e citologia anal. Uma técnica baseada na reação em cadeia da polimerase foi usada para detectar o ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA) do HPV em amostras de swabs endocervical e anal. Resultado: as taxas de positividade do HPV cervical e anal foram de 35,21% e 78,8%, respectivamente. As lesões relacionadas ao HPV na colpocitologia foram associadas à positividade anal para o HPV (P = 0,027). A proporção entre infecção cervical por HPV e lesões cervicais relacionadas foi de 2,5. A proporção entre a infecção anal por HPV e as lesões anais relacionadas foi de 4,3. 30% tinham DNA-HPV concomitante no colo do útero e ânus. Conclusão: existem diferenças na suscetibilidade de infecções e de lesões relacionadas entre o colo e o ânus. Apesar de maior incidência de HPV anal, a progressão para lesões relacionadas não ocorre da mesma forma no colo e no ânus. Além disso, lesões cervicais relacionadas ao HPV em mulheres HIV positivas podem servir como pista para estratégias preventivas anais. Investigações adicionais podem ser úteis.

Humans , Female , Anus Neoplasms , HIV , Alphapapillomavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 329-331, July-Sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346413


The aim of the present article is to report the case of a young patient with bowenoid papulosis who was a carrier of other sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), such as HIV and high-grade vulva lesion (usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, VIN), and to demonstrate the strategy used to manage the case, as well as to discuss important issues regarding the standardization of intraepithelial lesions. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Vulvar Neoplasms/surgery , Papillomavirus Infections/surgery , Anus Neoplasms/therapy , Vulvar Neoplasms/therapy , Bowen's Disease/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy