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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 785-788, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514315

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An aberrant right subclavian artery described by David Bayford, is rare and one of the aortic arch anomalies. It gives usually incidental findings. We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to a neurology outpatient clinic due to a headache and no obvious pathology was detected during a physical examination. In consequence of the brain and chest CT angiography, incidental anomalies of the aortic arch branches were found and asymptomatic aberrant right subclavian artery and bicarotid trunk was diagnosed. The presence of this anomaly is becoming increasingly important in avoiding vascular injuries and cerebral complications in patients undergoing endovascular intervention on the aorta aortic arch surgery, thyroidectomy, or cervicothoracic surgery. So, detailed knowledge of variations of the subclavian artery and bicarotid trunk is paramount for radiologists and surgeons operating on the region of the anterior neck.


Una arteria subclavia derecha aberrante descrita por David Bayford, es rara y es una de las anomalías del arco aórtico. Además, suele ser hallazgos accidentales. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 57 años que ingresó a una consulta de neurología por dolor de cabeza, sin embargo, no se le detectó patología evidente al examen físico. En el angio-TC de cerebro y tórax, se encontraron anomalías incidentales de las ramas del arco aórtico y se diagnosticó arteria subclavia derecha aberrante asintomática y tronco bicarotídeo. Determinar la presencia de esta anomalía es cada vez más importante, para así evitar lesiones vasculares y complicaciones cerebrales en pacientes sometidos a intervención endovascular de la aorta, cirugía del arco aórtico, tiroidectomía o cirugía cervicotorácica. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento detallado de las variaciones de la arteria subclavia y el tronco bicarotídeo es primordial para los radiólogos y cirujanos que operan en la región anterior del cuello.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aorta, Thoracic/abnormalities , Subclavian Artery/abnormalities , Anatomic Variation
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 191-198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of different manners of heat exposure on thoracic aorta injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Normal 6 to 7-week-old male SHRs were randomized into control group (cage at room temperature), intermittent heat exposure group (SHR-8 group, exposed to 32 ℃ for 8 h daily for 7 days) and SHR-24 group (with continuous exposure to 32 ℃ for 7 days). After the treatments, the pathologies of the thoracic aorta of the rats were observed with HE staining, and the expressions of Beclin1, LC3B and p62 were detected with Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis in the thoracic aorta, and the expressions of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were detected using Western blotting. The effects of intraperitoneal injections of 3-MA (an autophagy agonist), rapamycin (an autophagy inhibitor) or compound C 30 min before intermittent heat exposure on the expressions of proteins associated with autophagy, apoptosis and the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway in the aorta were examined with immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#In SHR-8 group, the rats showed incomplete aortic intima with disordered cell distribution and significantly increased expressions of Beclin1, LC3II/LC3I and Bax, lowered expressions of p62 and Bcl-2, and increased apoptotic cells in the thoracic aorta (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with 3-MA obviously inhibited the expressions of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins, whereas rapamycin promoted their expressions. Compared with the control group, the rats in SHR-8 group had significantly down-regulated p-mTOR and up-regulated p-AMPK and p-ULK1 expression of in the aorta; Treatment with compound C obviously lowered the expressions of p-AMPK and p-ULK1 and those of LC3B and Beclin1 as well.@*CONCLUSION@#In SHRs, intermittent heat exposure causes significant pathologies and promotes autophagy and apoptosis in the thoracic aorta possibly by activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Inbred SHR , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic , Beclin-1 , Hot Temperature , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Aortic Diseases , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/metabolism
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 201-208, 20221230. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417768

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La patología del arco aórtico se ha tratado principalmente con cirugía por vía abierta, pero con una alta morbimortalidad. Las técnicas endovasculares híbridas y las reconstrucciones en "chimenea" son una técnica válida y segura para disminuir el riesgo y la mortalidad. Métodos. Se presentan dos pacientes con patología del arco aórtico y contraindicación de manejo quirúrgico abierto, atendidos en el Servicio de Cirugía Vascular, Hospital Universitario Clínica de San Rafael, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Resultados. Se realizaron dos procedimientos endovasculares del arco aórtico para tratar un aneurisma torácico roto y una úlcera aórtica sintomática, con cubrimiento de los troncos supra aórticos con una endoprótesis y canalización de los vasos supra aórticos con prótesis cubiertas y uso de la "técnica de chimenea", de manera exitosa. Discusión. La patología del arco aórtico es de alta complejidad y se asocia con una morbimortalidad elevada por lo que, en los últimos 20 años se han desarrollado diferentes técnicas utilizando procedimientos percutáneos. Conclusión. La "técnica de chimenea" se puede realizar de una manera mínimamente invasiva en pacientes con patología del arco aórtico, no candidatos para cirugía abierta, con resultados exitosos.


Introduction. Aortic arch pathology has been treated mainly by open surgery, but with high morbidity and mortality. Hybrid endovascular techniques and "chimney" reconstructions are a valid and safe techniques to reduce risk and mortality. Method. Two patients with pathology of the aortic arch and contraindication for open surgical management, treated at the Vascular Surgery Service, Hospital Universitario Clínica de San Rafael, Bogotá, Colombia, are presented. Results. Two endovascular aortic procedures were performed successfully to treat a ruptured thoracic aneurysm and a symptomatic aortic ulcer, with coverage of the supra-aortic trunks with an endoprosthesis and cannulation of the supra-aortic vessels with covered prostheses and use of the "chimney technique". Discussion. The pathology of the aortic arch is highly complex and is associated with high morbidity and mortality, being the reason that during the last 20 years, different techniques have been developed using percutaneous procedures. Conclusions. The "chimney technique" can be performed with successful results in a minimally invasive manner in patients with pathology of the aortic arch, who are not candidates for open surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Aneurysm , Endovascular Procedures , Aortic Rupture , Aortic Dissection
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 486-489, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the characteristics of thoracic aorta injury in road traffic accidents, to provide data reference for forensic identification.@*METHODS@#The data of 27 traffic accident death cases with thoracic aorta injury were analyzed according to relevant parameters including sex, age, mode of transportation, and thoracic aorta injury.@*RESULTS@#Aortic injury in traffic accidents was significantly more in males than females, and 74.1% cases were in the age range of 31-70 years. The most common mode of transportation was the motorcycle, followed by electric bike, most of which crashed with trucks. Most cases were accompanied by rib fractures and lung injuries. Thoracic aorta injury was the most common in ascending aorta, followed by aortic arch and thoracic aorta. Ascending aorta injury was most likely to occur in the range of 0-<1.6 cm from the aortic valve, while it was rare over 2.6 cm. Taking the aortic valve as the reference, the most common locations of injury were the anterior semilunar valve, followed by the right posterior semilunar valve and the left posterior semilunar valve. Thoracic aortic rupture occurred in 63.0% cases, and intima and media lacerations only occurred in 37.0% cases. A few deceased had aortic diseases.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The proximal part of the ascending aorta is prone to be injured because of the large external force of traffic accidents. The medical examiner should carefully examine the aortic injury in traffic accident deaths, and evaluate the relationship between the injury and the disease according to the condition and degree of aortic injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta, Thoracic/injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Thoracic Injuries , Aortic Rupture/etiology , Rib Fractures
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 319-329, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Kuanxiong Aerosol (KXA) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury in rat models.@*METHODS@#Totally 24 rats were radomly divided into control, ISO, KXA low-dose and high-dose groups according to the randomized block design method, and were administered by intragastric administration for 10 consecutive days, and on the 9th and 10th days, rats were injected with ISO for 2 consecutive days to construct an acute myocardial ischemia model to evaluate the improvement of myocardial ischemia by KXA. In addition, the diastolic effect of KXA on rat thoracic aorta and its regulation of ion channels were tested by in vitro vascular tension test. The influence of KXA on the expression of calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway has also been tested.@*RESULTS@#KXA significantly reduced the ISO-induced increase in ST-segment, interventricular septal thickness, cardiac mass index and cardiac tissue pathological changes in rats. Moreover, the relaxation of isolated thoracic arterial rings that had been precontracted using norepinephrine (NE) or potassium chloride (KCl) was increased after KXA treatment in an endothelium-independent manner, and was attenuated by preincubation with verapamil, but not with tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, or barium chloride. KXA pretreatment attenuated vasoconstriction induced by CaCl2 in Ca2+-free solutions containing K+ or NE. In addition, KXA pretreatment inhibited accumulation of Ca2+ in A7r5 cells mediated by KCl and NE and significantly decreased p-CaMK II and p-ERK levels.@*CONCLUSION@#KXA may inhibit influx and release of calcium and activate the CaMK II/ERK signaling pathway to produce vasodilatory effects, thereby improving myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aerosols , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Vasodilation
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 829-833, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351664

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the case of a 41-year-old female who presented with left upper limb embolization due to primary thoracic aortic mural thrombus; this latter represented an uncommon condition with difficult diagnosis and a high rate of life-threatening complications. Upper extremities embolization is extremely rare because it usually occurs in the lower limbs. Management strategy is still controversial, and no clear guidelines indicate superiority of either conservative or invasive treatment approach to date. Our report illustrates how endovascular exclusion of thoracic aortic mural thrombus has the advantage to be a low-risk procedure that represents a definitive therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 461-467, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: End-to-end anastomosis and extended end-to-end anastomosis are typically used as surgical approaches to coarctation of the aorta (CoAo) with access at the subclavian artery or an interposition graft. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of surgical and anatomical characteristics and techniques on early outcomes after surgical treatment of CoAo without cardiopulmonary bypass through left thoracotomy. Methods: This is a quantitative, observational, and cross-sectional analysis of patients who underwent repair of CoAo between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017. Seventy-two patients were divided into three groups according to age: 34 in group A (≤ 30 days), 24 in group B (31 days to one year), and 14 in group C (≥ 1 year to 18 years). Results: Aortic arch hypoplasia was associated in 30.8% of the cases, followed by ventricular septal defect (13.2%). The preductal location was more frequent in group A (73.5%), ductal in group B (41.7%), and postductal in group C (71.4%). Long coarcted segment was predominant in groups A and C (61.8% and 71.4%, respectively) and localized in group B (58.3%). Extended end-to-end anastomosis technique was prevalent (68%), mainly in group A (91.2%). Mortality in 30 days was 1.4%. Conclusion: Most of the patients were children under one year of age, and extended end-to-end anastomosis was the most used technique, secondary to arch hypoplasia. Further, overall mortality was low in spite of moderate morbidity in the first 30 postoperative days.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Adult , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Thoracotomy , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 437-444, ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388852

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las diversas patologías de la aorta torácica descendente, representan una implícita amenaza para la vida, y son potencialmente tratables mediante reparación endovascular. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de la reparación endovascular de la aorta torácia descendente (TEVAR). Material y Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y descriptivo, donde se analiza TEVAR, en un período de 10 años (2009 al 2019), en el Hospital Dr. Eduardo Pereira de Valparaíso, Chile. Resultados: Se realizó TEVAR en 31 pacientes, sexo masculino 74,2%, femenino 25,8%, edad promedio 67,8 años (rango 53-85), patologías asociadas: hipertensión arterial sistémica (77,4%), tabaquismo (67,7%) y dislipidemia (38,7%), las indicaciones para TEVAR fueron: el aneurisma de la aorta descendente (51,61%), la disección tipo B crónica complicada (29,03%), y la disección tipo B aguda complicada (19,35%), relacionado al procedimiento se evidenció: morbilidad cardiovascular (12,9%) y morbilidad neurológica (6,45%), complicaciones relacionadas a la endoprótesis (29,03%), incidencia de endofugas (19,35%), estancia hospitalaria promedio de 5,2 días (rango 3 a 17), seguimiento promedio de 47,3 meses (9-108), éxito técnico primario (100%), tasa de reintervención: 3,22%, tasa de supervivencia a 1, 3, 5 años del 96,77%, 93,54 y 90,32% respectivamente, no hubo mortalidad menor a 30 días. Discusión: La evidencia demuestra que TEVAR puede realizarse en forma segura y efectiva, cumpliendo estrictos criterios clínicos y condiciones anatómicas, representando la modalidad de elección para la reparación de las lesiones de la aorta descendente. Conclusión: Los resultados demuestran que TEVAR, representa una excelente estrategia terapeutica, menos invasiva, con baja morbilidad y mortalidad asociada.


Introduction: The pathological injuries of the descending thoracic aorta, represent an implicit threat to life, and are potentially treatable by endovascular repair. Aim: To evaluate the results of endovascular repair of the descending thoracic aorta (TEVAR) in the medium and long term. Material and Method: Observational, retrospective and descriptive study, where TEVAR is analyzed, over a period of 10 years (2009 to 2019), at the Dr. Eduardo Pereira Hospital in Valparaíso, Chile. Results: TEVAR was performed in 31 patients, male sex 74.2%, average age 67.8 years (range 53-85), symptomatic 64.5%, associated pathologies: systemic arterial hypertension (77.4%), smoking (67.7%) and dyslipidemia (38.7%), indications for endovascular repair were descending aortic aneurysm (51.61%), complicated Stanford type B chronic aortic dissection (29.03%), and complicated Stanford type B acute aortic dissection (19.35%), neurological morbidity (6.45%), cardiovascular morbidity (12.9%), complications related to the stent (29.03%), where endoleaks predominate (19.35%), average hospital stay of 5.2 days (range 3 to 17), average followup of 47.3 months (9-108), primary technical success (100%), survival rate at 1, 3, 5 years of 96.77%, 93.54 and 90.32% respectively, there was no mortality less than 30 days or reoperation. Discussion: the evidence shows that TEVAR can be performed safely and effectively, meeting strict clinical criteria and anatomical conditions, which represents the modality of choice for the repair of lesions in the descending aorta. Conclusion: The results show that TEVAR represents an excellent therapeutic strategy, less invasive, with low associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 365-371, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The positional relationship between the three branches of the aortic arch was determined in normal people. This study provides data to support the customization of aortic arch stents and simplifies intraluminal treatment. Methods: From January 2019 to August 2019, 120 patients who met the inclusion criteria were examined by CT angiography. The ratio of the distance from the midpoint of the three-branch opening onto the anterior wall to the cross-sectional diameter of the aortic arch was calculated. The positional relationship among the three-branch openings was obtained and the data were analyzed statistically. Results: The three-branch openings were not in a straight line. The positional relationship among the three-branch openings was divided into four types, which were not statistically different between sex and age (P>0.05). Conclusion: By measuring the opening position of the three aortic branches, the positional relationship among the three branches was defined to provide a theoretical basis for the design of intraluminal stents and simplified intracavity thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Prosthesis Design , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Stents , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 244-252, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf., tab.
Article in English | LILACS, CONASS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1251100

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate whether hybrid repair has supremacy over conventional open repair in aortic arch diseases. Methods: A comprehensive search was undertaken in two major databases (PubMed and MEDLINE) to identify all studies comparing the two surgical techniques in five years, up to December 2018, that met the established criteria in this study. The search returned 310 papers, and 305 were selected after removing duplicates. The abstracts of the remaining articles were assessed, resulting in 15 studies that went to full-text analysis. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 papers remained for the final revision. Results: Eight studies met the criteria, with the inclusion of 1,837 patients. From a short-term perspective, hybrid repair and conventional open repair had similar outcomes in terms of postoperative mortality and acute neurological events. Hybrid repair was associated with less respiratory complications and risk of new intervention, as well as reduced hospital length of stay. Conventional open repair showed better mid- and long-term outcomes. Conclusion: Hybrid repair should be used in selected patients, with a high risk or very high-risk profile for conventional surgery. Finally, since most of the current data were obtained from limited to large samples, with narrow follow-up and had great heterogeneity, the best approach to the aortic arch is still variable. Therefore, the decision of the approach should be individualized and evaluated by the whole Heart Team, considering the expertise of the surgical team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Treatment Outcome
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 240-243, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Double-lumen aortic arch is a rare congenital anomaly related to persistence of the fifth aortic arch. It may be found alone or in association with other anatomical changes of the heart. We report a case of double-lumen aortic arch associated with coarctation of the aorta and patent ductus arteriosus in a child with a congenital malformation known as the VACTERL association (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, cardiopathy, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal abnormalities and limb anomalies).


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Aorta, Thoracic/abnormalities , Aortic Diseases , Vascular Ring/diagnosis , Anus, Imperforate , Aortic Coarctation , Echocardiography/methods , Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Vascular Ring/prevention & control
14.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 18-23, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341255

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El conocimiento del patrón de las estructuras que emergen del arco aórtico es importante para las intervenciones en el cuello y la cabeza. Las variantes anatómicas y el área interna de estos vasos son cruciales para el enfoque de terapias endovasculares más seguras. Objetivo: Mostrar las variantes anatómicas y el área de los vasos que tiene dicha variación. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron cuatrocientos cadáveres frescos, del Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Medellín, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 40 años, sin lesiones en el tórax o el cuello, a los cuales se les evaluaron sus arcos aórticos. Todas las variantes se fijaron mediante registro fotográfico y las medidas se tomaron con un calibrador Mitutoyo. Conclusión: Este es el segundo trabajo sobre el tema llevado a cabo en Colombia y el primero en usar cadáveres frescos que se incorporaron en la medida que cumplían los criterios de inclusión.


Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the pattern of the structures that emerge from the aortic arch is important for neck and head interventions mainly. The presence of anatomical variants and the internal area of these vessels is of great importance for the approach of safer endovascular therapies. Objective: To show the anatomical variants present and the area of the vessels that present such variation. Materials and methods: Four hundred fresh cadavers, aged between 18 and 40 years, without chest or neck injuries, were selected to evaluate their aortic arches, in the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the city of Medellin, Colombia. All the variants were fixed photographically and the measurements taken with Mitutoyo calibrator. Conclusion: This is the second work on the subject carried out in our country and the first one using fresh cadavers and in a random way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Morgue , Aorta, Thoracic , Anatomic Variation
17.
Medwave ; 21(1): e8112, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283299

ABSTRACT

El pseudoaneurisma se define como un hematoma pulsátil repermeabilizado, encapsulado y en comunicación con la luz de un vaso dañado. Se origina cuando hay una disrupción de la pared arterial. La hemoptisis es un signo/síntoma de presentación muy rara de aneurisma aórtico torácico y de pseudoaneurisma aórtico torácico. Hay poca información sobre la hemoptisis asociada con la ruptura del aneurisma aórtico cuyo mecanismo no se explica por la presencia de una fístula aortopulmonar. Entre las hipótesis para explicar este fenómeno, se encuentra la capacidad de las arterias bronquiales de volverse hiperplásicas y tortuosas en presencia de una lesión que modifica la arquitectura pulmonar, siendo más susceptibles a la ruptura. También hay descripciones de lesiones directas del parénquima pulmonar por aneurisma roto. El presente caso nos ilustra que debemos considerar a la hemoptisis como signo de alarma en el diagnóstico diferencial de los aneurismas y pseudoaneurismas aórticos entre otras causas que puede ser fatal en breve tiempo por una hemorragia masiva.


Pseudoaneurysm is defined as a reperfused pulsatile hematoma, encapsulated and communicated with the damaged vessel's lumen. It originates when there is a disruption of the arterial wall. Hemoptysis is a very rare sign/symptom of a thoracic aortic aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm. There is little information on hemoptysis associated with aortic aneurysm rupture, whose mechanisms are not explained by the presence of an aortopulmonary fistula. Among the hypotheses to explain this phenomenon, is the ability of the bronchial arteries to become hyperplasic and tortuous in the presence of a lesion that modifies the pulmonary architecture, being more susceptible to rupture. There are also descriptions of direct lung parenchymal injury from ruptured aneurysm. The present case illustrates that we must consider the hemoptysis as a warning sign in differential diagnosis of aortic aneurysms and pseudo aneurysms, among other causes, that it can be fatal in a short time due to massive hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Rupture , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, False/diagnostic imaging , Hemoptysis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aneurysm, False/surgery , Aneurysm, False/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hemoptysis/diagnosis
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 217-220, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880647

ABSTRACT

Type A aortic dissection (AD) is a critical and severe disease with high mortality. The Sun's operation is a standard surgical method for this kind of disease at present. For the procedure, an elephant trunk stent is inserted into the true lumen of the descending aorta and the aortic arch is replaced. A patient was admitted to the First Hospital of Lanzhou University due to sudden chest and back pain for 6 days. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed type A AD. Ascending aorta replacement, Sun's operation, and ascending aorta to right femoral artery bypass grafting were performed. After surgery, the patient's condition was worsened. The digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed the elephant trunk stent was inserted into the false lumen of AD, leading to the occlusion of the large blood vessel at the distal part of the abdominal aorta and below. Although we performed intima puncture and endovascular aortic repair, the patient was still dead.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
20.
Clinics ; 76: e2315, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) represent one-third of the hospitalizations for aortic diseases. The prevalence rate depends on the definition of the normal size of the aorta, which is quite variable, depending on the population studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the thoracic aorta of Brazilian smokers, identifying the normal size of the aorta, presence of anatomical variations, and prevalence of TAA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 711 patients underwent radiological evaluation with low-dose computed tomography (CT) from January 2013 to July 2014 with the initial objective of lung nodule tracking. Two examiners evaluated these images, and measurements of maximum and serial diameters were performed manually in true orthogonal planes. Serial diameter measurements were taken every 2 cm in the ascending aorta and 5 cm in the descending segment. We searched for anatomical variations, aortic arch type, and correlations between anatomical characteristics, sex, body mass index, and body surface area (BSA). RESULTS: The maximum diameters were 33.61 (standard deviation [SD] 3.88), 28.66 (SD 2.89), and 28.36 mm (SD 3.09) for the ascending segment, aortic arch, and descending segment, respectively. A positive correlation was found between male sex, age, and BSA and aorta diameter. The bovine arch was the most common variation of the aortic arch type, and we found one (0.14%) case of TAA. CONCLUSIONS: This study with low-dose CT allowed the determination of the mean diameters of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta in Brazilian smokers and TAA prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/epidemiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Smokers
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