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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 829-833, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351664

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the case of a 41-year-old female who presented with left upper limb embolization due to primary thoracic aortic mural thrombus; this latter represented an uncommon condition with difficult diagnosis and a high rate of life-threatening complications. Upper extremities embolization is extremely rare because it usually occurs in the lower limbs. Management strategy is still controversial, and no clear guidelines indicate superiority of either conservative or invasive treatment approach to date. Our report illustrates how endovascular exclusion of thoracic aortic mural thrombus has the advantage to be a low-risk procedure that represents a definitive therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 520-528, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152828

ABSTRACT

Resumen La válvula aórtica bicúspide es la cardiopatía congénita más frecuente en la población general. Lejos de ser solo una malformación valvular inocua, supone una enfermedad compleja y heterogénea. A menudo es identificada como un hallazgo incidental en personas sanas, cursando de manera asintomática. Sin embargo, en un alto porcentaje de pacientes conduce a lo largo de su vida a complicaciones valvulares (estenosis, insuficiencia, endocarditis) o aórticas (dilatación o disección). Con frecuencia estas manifestaciones suceden a una edad temprana y causan una elevada morbimortalidad. A pesar de que en los últimos años se ha producido una intensa investigación en este campo, la fisiopatogenia de la enfermedad no es del todo conocida y muchas preguntas siguen abiertas. En este artículo se revisan de forma actualizada los aspectos clínicos y fisiopatológicos más novedosos y relevantes sobre esta cardiopatía congénita.


Abstract The most common congenital heart disease in the general population is the bicuspid aortic valve. Far from being just a harmless valve malformation, it is a complex and heterogeneous disease. It is often identified as an incidental finding in healthy people. However, in a high percentage of patients it leads throughout their life towards valvular (stenosis, insufficiency, endocarditis) or aortic (dilatation or dissection) complications. Frequently, manifestations occur at an early age, being responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Even though in recent years intense research has been carried out in this field, the pathophysiogenesis of the disease is not fully known and many questions remain open. In this article, we review the most innovative and relevant clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this congenital heart disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease/physiopathology , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Aortic Diseases/epidemiology , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease/complications , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease/diagnosis , Heart Valve Diseases/etiology , Heart Valve Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Valve Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 215-221, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056424

ABSTRACT

The potential inhibitory effect of the insulin mimicking agent, vanadium on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)induced alterations to the aorta ultrastructure associated with the suppression of dyslipedima and biomarkers of inflammation has not been investigated before. Therefore, we tested whether vanadium can protect against aortic injury induced secondary to T2DM possibly via the inhibition of blood lipid and inflammatory biomarkers. T2DM was induced in rats by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (50 mg/ kg), and the treatment group started vanadium treatment five days post diabetic induction and continued until being sacrificed at week 10. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, we observed in the model group substantial damage to the aorta tissue such as damaged endothelium, degenerative cellular changes with vacuolated cytoplasm and thickened internal elastic lamina that were substantially ameliorated by vanadium. Administration of vanadium to diabetic rats also significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood levels of glucose, hyperlipidemia and biomarkers of inflammation (TNF-a, IL-6). We conclude that vanadium protects against T2DM-induced aortic ultrastructural damage in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of blood sugar and lipid and inflammatory biomarkers.


El potencial efecto inhibidor del agente imitador de la insulina, el vanadio en las alteraciones inducidas por la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) en la ultraestructura de la aorta, asociada con la supresión de dislipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación no se ha investigado anteriormente. El objetivo fue estudiar las propiedades del vanadio para proteger contra la lesión aórtica inducida a la DM2, a través de la inhibición de los lípidos sanguíneos y los biomarcadores inflamatorios. La DM2 fue inducida en ratas con una dieta alta en grasas y estreptozotocina (50 mg / kg), y el grupo de tratamiento fue sometido a un régimen continuo con vanadio, cinco días después de la inducción diabética hasta ser sacrificadas en la semana 10. Se utilizaron exámenes de luz y microscopía electrónica en el grupo modelo y se observó un daño sustancial al tejido de la aorta, como también en el endotelio; los cambios celulares degenerativos con citoplasma vacuolado y lámina elástica interna engrosada mejoró sustancialmente con vanadio. La administración de vanadio a ratas diabéticas también redujo significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la glucosa, hiperlipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación (TNFa, IL-6). En conclusión, el vanadio protege contra el daño ultraestructural aórtico inducido por T2DM en ratas, que es asociado con la inhibición del azúcar en la sangre y los biomarcadores de lípidos y de inflamatorios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vanadium/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Aorta/injuries , Aorta/ultrastructure , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Vanadium/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 101-103, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aorto-atrial fistulas due to cardiac trauma are rare, and survivors require immediate surgical correction. Here, we report a case of an aorto-right atrial fistula due to penetrating trauma after a 16-year evolution, which developed symptoms of acute coronary syndrome and was treated with myocardial revascularization and correction of the aorto-cameral fistula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Wounds, Stab/complications , Aortography/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/surgery , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/etiology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Electrocardiography , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Heart Atria/injuries , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(4): 336-340, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842546

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Alcoholism is a major public health problem, which has a high social cost and affects many aspects of human activity. Liver disease is one of the first consequences of alcohol abuse, and steatosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatitis may occur. Other organs are also affected with pathological changes, such as pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis. Objective: To identify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis in alcohol-dependent individuals with liver cirrhosis, observing macroscopic and microscopic changes in lipid and collagen deposits and in the liver. We also aimed to verify the association of lipid and collagen fiber deposits with gender, age and body mass index, and to relate alcoholism, liver cirrhosis and atherosclerosis. Method: We performed a study based on autopsy reports of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with analysis of aorta and liver fragments to verify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis, as well as collagen contents. Results: Microscopic atherosclerosis was higher in young subjects (early injury) and in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The macroscopic analysis of atherosclerosis in aortas showed that patients in more advanced age groups presented more severe classifications. Atherosclerosis, both micro and macroscopically, and the percentage of fibrosis in the liver and aorta were more expressive in females. Conclusion: Cirrhotic patients presented a higher percentage of fibrosis and lipidosis, and may represent a group susceptible to the accelerated progression of cardiovascular diseases. Investigative studies contribute to targeting health-promoting interventions, reducing the mortality and costs of treating cardiovascular disease.


Resumo Introdução: O alcoolismo é um grande problema de saúde pública, de elevado custo social e que afeta vários aspectos da atividade humana. Hepatopatia é uma das primeiras consequências do abuso de álcool, podendo ocorrer esteatose, cirrose hepática e hepatite. Outros órgãos, porém, também são afetados, ocorrendo alterações patológicas, como pancreatite, cardiomiopatias, dislipidemias e aterosclerose. Objetivo: Identificar a ocorrência e a intensidade de aterosclerose em alcoolistas com cirrose hepática, observando alterações macro e microscópicas do depósito lipídico e de fibras colágenas e fígado. Verificar a associação de depósito lipídico e de fibras colágenas com gênero, idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC). Relacionar alcoolismo, cirrose hepática e aterosclerose. Método: Foi realizado estudo com base em laudos de autópsias de pacientes com cirrose hepática alcoólica, sendo estudados aortas e fígados para verificar a ocorrência e a intensidade de aterosclerose, bem como a quantidade de colágeno encontrada. Resultados: A aterosclerose microscópica foi maior em jovens (lesão inicial) e em pacientes com cirrose hepática alcoólica. A análise macroscópica da aterosclerose nas aortas mostrou que pacientes com faixas etárias mais avançadas apresentaram classificações mais intensas. A aterosclerose, tanto micro quanto macroscopicamente, e a porcentagem de fibrose no fígado e na aorta foram mais expressivas no gênero feminino. Conclusão: Os pacientes cirróticos apresentaram maior porcentagem de fibrose e lipidose, e podem representar um grupo susceptível à acelerada progressão de doenças cardiovasculares. Estudos investigativos contribuem para o direcionamento das intervenções promotoras da saúde, reduzindo a mortalidade e os custos no tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/pathology , Aorta/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Fibrosis/pathology , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Collagen/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Alcoholism/complications
7.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 32(1): 7-12, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869805

ABSTRACT

La arteritis de células gigantes (ACG) es una vasculitis sistémica de grandes vasos que no solo puede afectar a vasos craneales, si no que cada vez más frecuentemente se ha asociado a compromiso de vasos extracraneales. Este compromiso puede ser asintomático por lo que puede pasar inadvertido al estudio clínico básico y llevar a importantes complicaciones. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de ACG, ambos con aortitis y uno, además, con compromiso de grandes vasos del cayado aórtico y del cuello. Se discuten aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos y terapéuticos, con el objetivo de vislumbrar estrategias de abordaje de futuros pacientes con presentaciones similares.


Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a age related, large vessels systemic vasculitis that not only affect cranial vessels, but is increasingly associated with extracranial vessel involvement. This extracranial involvement can be asymptomatic, so it can go unnoticed after basic clinical and laboratory study and lead to serious complications. We report two cases of GCA, both presenting aortitis and one of them presenting also involvement of aortic arch and of neck large vessels. We discuss physiopathologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects, with the aims of developing management strategies for the future patients with similar manifestations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Giant Cell Arteritis/complications , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Vascular Diseases , Angiography , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198115

ABSTRACT

An aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an extremely rare, potentially fatal condition, and aortic surgery is usually performed together with extracorporeal circulation. However, this surgical method has a high rate of surgical complications and mortality. This report describes an AEF caused by tuberculous esophagitis that was treated successfully using a two-stage operation. A 52-yr-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe hematemesis and syncope. Based on the computed tomography and diagnostic endoscopic findings, he was diagnosed with an AEF and initially underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Esophageal reconstruction was performed after controlling the mediastinal inflammation. The patient suffered postoperative anastomotic leakage, which was treated by an endoscopic procedure, and the patient was discharged without any further problems. The patient received 9 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment after he was diagnosed with histologically confirmed tuberculous esophagitis; subsequently, he was followed as an outpatient and has had no recurrence of the tuberculosis or any further issues.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/complications , Esophageal Fistula/etiology , Esophagoscopy/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/complications , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 25(4): 345-347, Oct-Dec/2013. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-701404

ABSTRACT

Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com hematoma intramural e trombo flutuante após ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Esse homem, de 92 anos de idade, teve uma parada cardíaca causada por fibrilação atrial e testemunhas iniciaram imediatamente manobras manuais de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Ao ser admitido no hospital, o paciente apresentava-se em choque cardiogênico, sendo, então, imediatamente submetido a ecocardiografia transesofágica. Além de uma parede anterior acinética, o exame da aorta torácica descendente mostrou um hematoma intramural e um trombo intra-aórtico flutuante a uma distância de 40cm do arco dental. Não havia dissecção da aorta. O trombo foi atribuído à compressão aórtica durante a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Embora o trombo aórtico e o hematoma intramural não tenham se associado a qualquer complicação nesse paciente, a inserção de um balão intra-aórtico poderia ter levado a uma ruptura da aorta ou a eventos embólicos. Recomenda-se a realização de ecocardiografia transesofágica, quando disponível, antes da inserção de um balão intra-aórtico de contrapulsação em pacientes submetidos à ressuscitação cardiopulmonar.


We describe the case of a patient with an intramural hematoma and floating thrombus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The 92-year old man had a cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and witnesses immediately initiated manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed immediately on hospital admission because the patient was in cardiogenic shock. In addition to an akinetic anterior wall, examination of the descending thoracic aorta demonstrated an intramural hematoma and a floating intra-aortic thrombus at a distance of 40cm from the dental arch. There was no aortic dissection. The thrombus was attributed to aortic compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although the aortic thrombus and intramural hematoma were not associated with any complications in this patient, insertion of an intra-aortic balloon may have led to aortic rupture or embolic events. Transesophageal echocardiography should be performed, when available, prior to insertion of an intra-aortic balloon for counterpulsation in patients who have undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Hematoma/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hematoma/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications
11.
Clinics ; 68(7): 946-953, jul. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL) than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3), number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4), periodontitis (Wald 8.6), and male gender (Wald 11) were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Dental Caries/complications , Periapical Periodontitis/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Restoration, Permanent , DMF Index , Dental Caries , Logistic Models , Periapical Periodontitis , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vascular Calcification/etiology
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(2): 264-267, feb. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-675068

ABSTRACT

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma can spread locally to neighboring organs in the mediastinum. When it invades the aorta, the patient may develop an aorto esophageal fistula (AEF), complication that carries a high mortality rate. We report a 62-year-old male with stage IV esophageal carcinoma who, after chemo radiation treatment, developed an AEF. He was successfully treated with the use of an aortic endograft. The patient died 13 months later due to progression of his cancer, without evidence of sepsis or new bleeding episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Esophageal Fistula/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/complications , Vascular Fistula/etiology , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Esophageal Fistula/surgery , Fatal Outcome , Vascular Fistula/surgery
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80214

ABSTRACT

Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) developed after treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rare but usually fatal complication. We report a rare case of AEF bleeding after endovascular stent grafting for AAA which was managed angiographically. An 81-year-old man presented with hematochezia and acute abdominal pain for 1 day ago. Four years ago, an aortic stent was implanted in the infrarenal aorta for AAA. Endoscopies were performed to evaluate the hematochezia. Evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was observed, but a clear bleeding point was not detected on upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed subsequently showed that the bleeding point was located in the fourth portion of the duodenum as an AEF caused by an inflammatory process in the stent-graft. Intra-arterial angiography showed a massive contrast leakage into the bowel via a small fistula from around the aortic stent graft site. Embolization was successfully performed by injecting a mixture of glue and lipiodol into the AEF tract. The patient was discharged with no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after the embolization.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Angiography , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/therapy , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Fistula/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male , Stents/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
West Indian med. j ; 61(7): 756-759, Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672996

ABSTRACT

Aorto-cavitary fistulae are rare complications of infective endocarditis. The diagnosis, in the absence of concomitant aortic valve disease, replacement of aortic valve with homograft or prosthetic valve, periannular abscess and negative blood culture, requires a high index of suspicion and has important prognostic and management significance. The sensitivity of the Modified Duke Criteria is challenged in this case report with a documented right sinus of valsalva fistula to the right ventricle seen on transthoracic echocardiography.


Los fístulas aorto-cavitarias son complicaciones raras de la endocarditis infecciosa. El diagnóstico - en ausencia de la enfermedad concomitante de la válvula aórtica, el reemplazo de válvula aórtica con homoinjertos o válvulas protésicas, absceso perianular, y cultivo de sangre negativo - requiere un alto índice de sospecha, y reviste gran importancia para la prognosis y el tratamiento. En este reporte de caso, se cuestiona la sensibilidad de los Criterios de Duke Modificados, con la documentación de una fístula del seno de valsalva derecho hacia el ventrículo derecho, observada en una ecocardiografía transtorácica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Endocarditis/complications , Fistula/etiology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Tetralogy of Fallot/complications , Aortic Diseases , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color , Endocarditis , Fistula , Heart Diseases , Heart Ventricles , Tetralogy of Fallot , Vascular Fistula/etiology , Vascular Fistula
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 26(2): 273-281, abr.-jun. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597749

ABSTRACT

It is well-known that hypertension is a very common disease, and severe cerebrovascular accidents might occur if the blood pressure is not properly controlled. However, conditions associated with uncontrolled hypertension may be overlooked, and may become critical and eventually require a surgical intervention on an urgent basis. Coronary artery disease, acute aortic syndrome, congenital and valvular heart disease, and arrhythmias are under this topic of discussion. Of them, coronary artery disease including myocardial infarction and especially postinfarction myocardial rupture, and aortic dissection are major critical situations that physicians may encounter in clinical practice. The role that hypertension plays in these conditions can be complex, including hemodynamic, electrophysiological and biomolecular factors, where the latter may prevail in the current era. Coronary artery disease may be associated with a reduced nitric oxide synthesis. Transforming growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases have been observed in relation to aortic syndrome. Wnt, p38 and JNK signaling pathway may be involved in the development of ventricular hypertrophy responsible for cardiac arrythmias. Various gene phynotypes may present in different congenital heart defects. This article is to present these conditions, and to further discuss the possible etiologies and the potential treatment strategies so as to highlight the relevance at a prognostic level.


É sabido que a hipertensão é uma doença muito comum, e que os acidentes cerebrovasculares graves podem ocorrer se a pressão sanguínea não for apropriadamente controlada. Contudo, as condições associadas à hipertensão não controlada podem ser negligenciadas, e tornarem-se críticas, necessitando, eventualmente, uma intervenção cirúrgica urgente. Doença coronariana, síndrome aórtica aguda, cardiopatias congênitas, valvopatias e arritmias são sob este tópico de discussão. Dentre eles, a doença corornariana, inclusive o infarto do miocárdio e especialmente a ruptura cardíaca pós-infarto e a dissecção aórtica, são as situações críticas principais que os médicos podem encontrar na prática clínica. O papel que a hipertensão desempenha nessas condições pode ser complexo, incluindo fatores hemodinâmicos, eletrofisiológicos e biomoleculares, nos quais o último pode prevalecer atualmente. A doença coronariana pode associar-se com uma redução na síntese de óxido nítrico. Fator de crescimento transformador e nas metaloproteinases da matriz têm sido observados em relação à síndrome aórtica. O Wnt, p38 e a via de sinalização JNK caminho podem estar implicado no desenvolvimento da hipertrofia ventricular responsável por arritmias cardíacas. Vários fenótipos dos genes podem apresentar defeitos cardíacos congênitos diferentes. Este artigo apresenta essas condições, e discute, além disso, possíveis etiologias e as estratégias de tratamento potenciais bem destacar sua importância quanto a prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Acute Disease , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Syndrome
16.
Invest. clín ; 51(4): 467-477, dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630905

ABSTRACT

La disfunción endotelial (DE) se presenta en pacientes con hipercolesterolemia, hipertensión arterial, obesidad y diabetes mellitus. Evidencias sugieren un papel de los glicosaminoglicanos en la DE. Evaluamos el efecto del sulodexide (SLD), un glicosaminoglicano utilizado en el tratamiento de la albuminuria y la enfermedad isquémica en pacientes diabéticos, sobre la relajación arterial y los cambios morfológicos en un modelo experimental de diabetes tipo 1. La diabetes se indujo a ratas Sprague Dawley administrando estreptozotocina (STZ), 60 mg/kg, i.v. Los animales fueron distribuidos en los siguientes grupos: I= control, II= diabéticas, III: control + sulodexide, IV= diabéticas + sulodexide (15 mg/kg/día s.c). A los 3 meses fueron sacrificados, las aortas extraídas para evaluar la relajación vascular inducida por acetilcolina (Ach) y nitroprusiato de sodio en anillos precontraídos con fenilefrina. Fueron evaluadas histológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y coloraciones diversas. El SLD in vitro no modificó la tensión basal de los anillos arteriales en reposo o precontraídos con fenilefrina. La diabetes disminuyó la capacidad de relajación arterial en respuesta a la Ach en un 28,8-35,1% vs control, efecto que fue prevenido por SLD. No se observó diferencia significativa en la relajación inducida por nitroprusiato sódico entre los grupos. El estudio histológico en los animales diabéticos mostró alteraciones estructurales, particularmente en la íntima y la adventicia, cambios que fueron prevenidos por el tratamiento con SLD. Nuestros resultados apoyan la potencial utilidad terapéutica del SLD en el tratamiento de la disfunción endotelial.


Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is observed in patients with hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidences suggest the involvement of glycosaminoglycans(GSG) in ED. We evaluated the effect of sulodexide (SLD), a natural GSG used in albuminuria and ischemic diabetes treatment, on arterial relaxation and vascular morphological changes in a diabetic type I model. Diabetes was induced, in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocine (STZ) administration, 60 mg, iv. Rats were divided into four groups; I: control, II: diabetics, III: control + SLD, IV: diabetics treated with SLD (15 mg/day). After three months, phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings were used to evaluate acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (NPS) relaxation capacities. Light microscopy of aorta was done with several staining procedures. In vitro, SLD did not change smooth muscle tone in resting or phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings. In diabetic rats, ACh relaxation was 28.8-35.1% lower than in control rats. Diabetic rats treated with SLD showed aortic ACh relaxation similar to control rats. No significative statistical difference was found in endothelium-independent NPS relaxation, between the different groups. Light microscopy histological studies revealed important morphological alterations, particularly in intima and adventitia layers of aortic artery; those changes were dramatically reversed in SLD treated rats. Our experiments support the conclusion that SLD is a potential drug for improving endothelial dysfunction in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Aortic Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Glycosaminoglycans/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Vasodilation/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta/pathology , Aorta/physiopathology , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetic Angiopathies/etiology , Diabetic Angiopathies/pathology , Diabetic Angiopathies/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Glycosaminoglycans/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tunica Intima/drug effects , Tunica Intima/ultrastructure
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 July; 77(7): 809-810
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142638

ABSTRACT

An 11-yr-old boy was admitted to the hospital with gradually aggravating acute abdominal pain along with nausea, vomiting and constipation for 5 days. The pain started after blunt trauma on the superior abdomen. He had normal laboratory tests and abdominal examination, but his chest radiograph showed infiltration in the right lung and an abnormal mass on the left diaphragm. Further investigation like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance MR angiography, revealed an abnormal para-aotic mass located a mass located para-aortic above posterior to the left diaphragm with a well-defined margin. The abnormal mass was finally confirmed to be a hematoma with exploratory thoracotomy. The rarity of this kind of presentation is discussed for making an early and correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdominal Injuries/complications , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Child , Hematoma/diagnosis , Hematoma/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications
18.
Clinics ; 65(5): 497-505, 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart disease, which affects 1-2 percent of the population. However, the relationship between BAVs and aortic dilation has not been sufficiently elucidated. METHODS: A total of 241 BAV patients who were referred to this hospital for cardiac surgey over a 4.75-year period were included in this study. In addition to the clinical characteristics of the included patients, the morphological features of the aortic valve and aorta, the length of the left main coronary artery, and the laboratory findings (the coagulation and hematological parameters as well as the total cholesterol concentration) were determined and compared with those of the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients. RESULTS: The BAV patients were younger than the TAV patients for a valve surgery in the last 3 months of the study period. The BAV patients were predominantly male. Most of the BAVs that were surgically treated were stenotic, regurgitant, or combined, and only 19 (7.88 percent) were normally functioning valves. According to echocardiography or operative records, 148 (78.31 percent) were type A, 31 (16.40 percent) were type B, and 10 (5.29 percent) were type C. The left main coronary artery was much shorter in the BAV patients than it was in the TAV patients. There was no significant difference between BAV and TAV patients in the total cholesterol concentrations; whereas differences were noted between patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy and those not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. The dimensions of the aortic root, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta were beyond normal limits, while they were significantly smaller in the BAV patients than in the TAV patients. They were also much smaller in patients receiving statin therapy than those not receiving statin therapy in both groups. Moreover, the aortic dilation in the BAV group was found to be significantly associated with patient age. CONCLUSIONS: ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Heart Valve Diseases/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aorta/anatomy & histology , Aortic Valve/physiopathology , Aortic Valve , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Organ Size , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
19.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 72(3): 277-286, 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-594957

ABSTRACT

La angiotomografía computada representa una metodología diagnóstica de gran utilidad que ha cobrado mayor importancia con los nuevos avances tecnológicos. La tomografía computada multicorte con 64 hileras de detectores nos brinda la posibilidad de estudiar con gran precisión y enorme detalle estructuras cada vez más pequeñas, ofreciendo una nueva perspectiva en el diagnóstico de la patología aórtica.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Tomography , Angiography , Aortic Aneurysm , Aortic Coarctation , Arteritis
20.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 19(2): 142-148, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-530296

ABSTRACT

Takayasu arteritis is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous vasculitis, which affects the aorta and its major branches, causing narrowing of the vascular lumen, which explains his particular symptoms. In children, its main manifestations are hypertension, cardiomegaly, increasing of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, among others. We present a case of a girl aged 16, who has a long history of ozena. At physical examination there are nasal scabs and cacosmia. In the laboratory study highlights high levels of C Reactive Protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The study through angio-Tac, shows a significant narrowing of supraaortic vascular structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Female , Takayasu Arteritis/surgery , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Takayasu Arteritis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Angiography , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Paranasal Sinuses , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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