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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 861-864, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351063

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, en un paciente masculino de 38 años, sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni otros antecedentes previos. La sospecha diagnóstica comienza por síndrome febril prolongado, astenia y pérdida de peso, confirmada con rescate de gonococo en los hemocultivos. Cumplió tratamiento antibiótico con ceftriaxona por 29 días. Evoluciona con insu ficiencia aórtica grave por lo cual se realiza cirugía de reemplazo valvular por prótesis mecánica bidisco exitosa, con una evolución favorable.


Abstract We report a case of infectious endocarditis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a 38-year-old male patient with no cardiovascular risk factors or past medical history who presented with prolonged febrile illness, asthenia and weight loss. The blood cultures were positive for gonococcus. He received antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone for 29 days. The patient developed severe aortic regurgitation and underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis, with favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 120-124, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155801

ABSTRACT

Abstract Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement has gained consent due to its good results in terms of minimized surgical trauma, faster rehabilitation, pain control and patient compliance. In our experience, we have tried to replicate the conventional and gold standard approach through a smaller incision. Sparing the right internal thoracic artery, avoiding rib fractures and performing total central cannulation is important to make this procedure minimally invasive from a biological point of view too. In addition, the total central cannulation is pivotal to simplify perfusion and drainage. Moreover, a complete step-by-step procedure optimization and-when possible-the use of sutureless prosthesis help to reduce the cross-clamping and perfusion times. After more than 1000 right anterior thoracotomy (RAT) aortic valve replacements, we have found tips and tricks to make our technique more effective.


Subject(s)
Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thoracotomy , Treatment Outcome , Sternotomy
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 130-132, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aortic valve endocarditis can lead to secondary involvement of aorto-mitral curtain and the adjacent anterior mitral leaflet (AML). The secondary damage to AML is often caused by the infected jet of aortic regurgitation hitting the ventricular surface of the mitral leaflet, or by the pronounced bacterial vegetation that prolapses from the aortic valve into the left ventricular outflow tract. This is called 'kissing lesion'. We describe a patient with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve causing perforation of both noncoronary cusp of aortic valve and the AML, which is rare.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 10-17, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155793

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There are scarce data comparing different mechanical valves in the aortic position. The objective of this study was to compare the early hemodynamic changes after aortic valve replacement between ATS, Bicarbon, and On-X mechanical valves. Methods: We included 99 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves between 2017 and 2019. Three types of mechanical valves were used, On-X valve (n=45), ATS AP360 (n=32), and Bicarbon (n=22). The mean prosthetic valve gradient was measured postoperatively and after six months. Results: Preoperative data were comparable between groups, and there were no differences in preoperative echocardiographic data. Pre-discharge echocardiography showed no difference between groups in the ejection fraction (P=0.748), end-systolic (P=0.764) and end-diastolic (P=0.723) diameters, left ventricular mass index (P=0.348), aortic prosthetic mean pressure gradient (P=0.454), and indexed aortic prosthetic orifice area (P=0.576). There was no difference in the postoperative aortic prosthetic mean pressure gradient between groups when stratified by valve size. The changes in the aortic prosthetic mean pressure gradient of the intraoperative period, at pre-discharge, and at six months were comparable between the three prostheses (P=0.08). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that female gender (beta coefficient -0.242, P=0.027), body surface area (beta coefficient 0.334, P<0.001), and aortic prosthetic size (beta coefficient -0.547, P<0.001), but not the prosthesis type, were independent predictors of postoperative aortic prosthetic mean pressure gradient. Conclusion: The three bileaflet mechanical aortic prostheses (On-X, Bicarbon, and ATS) provide satisfactory early hemodynamics, which are comparable between the three valve types and among different valve sizes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Prosthesis Design , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Hemodynamics
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 125-129, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155789

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard treatment for aortic valve diseases like stenosis (AS) or insufficiency, new surgical methods have been developed with a focus in the reconstruction of the aortic valve rather than replacing it. The Ozaki procedure involves a tailored replacement of each individual valvular leaflet with glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium and aims to reproduce the normal anatomy of the aortic valve. Cases of patients with unicuspid aortic valve treated with the Ozaki procedure are uncommon in the litrature and become even more rare when it comes to concomitant diseases like AS and ascending aorta aneurysm. We present the case of a 21-year-old, fit and asymptomatic male, with unicuspid aortic valve with severe stenosis and ascending aorta dilatation, surgically treated with tricuspidization of the aortic valve with glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium and replacement of the ascending aorta with a straight synthetic graft. Postoperative studies showed a fully functional, neo-tailored tricuspid aortic valve with trivial regurgitation. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery, stayed in the intensive care unit for 2 days and was discharged on the 7th postoperative day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Aortic Aneurysm/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Heart Valve Diseases , Aorta , Aortic Valve/surgery
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 869-877, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a surgery with the use of valved conduit is capable of leading to better immediate and late results than those obtained by the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. Methods: Between January 2002 and June 2016, 448 patients underwent aortic root reconstruction. These were divided into three groups according to the technique used: 319 (71.2%) patients received mechanical valved conduits, 49 (10.9%) received biological valved conduits, and 80 (17.9%) underwent the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. The results were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses of Cox proportional hazards models with multiple logistic regression. Results: The hospital mortality rate was 7.5%. The mortality rates were 8.2%, 12%, and 2.5% in the mechanical valved conduit, biological valved conduit, and aortic valve-sparing groups, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P=0.1). Thromboembolic complications and reoperation-free survival were also similar (P=0.169 and P=0.688). However, valve-sparing aortic root replacement was superior in terms of long-term survival (P<0.001), hemorrhagic-free survival (P<0.001), and endocarditis-free survival (P=0.048). Multivariate analysis showed that the following aspects had an impact on mortality: age > 70 years (P<0.001; hazard ratio [HR] 1.05), preoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.0042; HR 2.9), diagnosis of dissection (P<0.01; HR 2.0), previous cardiac surgery (P<0.027; HR 2.3), associated coronary artery bypass grafting (P<0.038; HR 1.8), reoperation for postoperative tamponade (P<0.004; HR 2.2) and postoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.02; HR 3.35). Conclusion: Valve-sparing technique seems to be the operation of choice, whenever possible, for aortic root reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aorta/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 1007-1009, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143993

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of a 36-year-old male patient with known arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and an associated unicuspid aortic valve. The patient later developed a significant aneurysm of the ascending aorta, however refused surgical intervention and missed follow-up appointments for 5 years. During an urgent, general practitioner-initiated transthoracic echocardiography follow-up, a chronic type A aortic dissection was diagnosed as a result of progressive aortic dilatation. Due to the stationary pressure gradients and non-progressive leaflet fibrosis, a conservative approach for to the unicuspid aortic valve was chosen, combined with replacement of the ascending aorta and partial replacement of the aortic arch.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Conservative Treatment , Heart Valve Diseases
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 680-687, out. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131356

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O implante valvar aórtico percutâneo (TAVR, do inglês Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement) reduz a mortalidade de pacientes portadores de estenose aórtica grave. O conhecimento da distribuição da pressão e tensão de cisalhamento na parede aórtica pode ajudar na identificação de regiões críticas, onde o processo de remodelamento aórtico pode ocorrer. Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo de simulação computacional da influência do posicionamento do orifício valvar protético na hemodinâmica na raiz de aorta e segmento ascendente. Objetivos A presente análise apresenta um estudo da variação do padrão de fluxo devido a alterações no ângulo do orifício valvar. Métodos Um modelo tridimensional foi gerado a partir do exame de angiotomografia computadorizada da aorta de um paciente que foi submetido ao procedimento de TAVR. Diferentes vazões de fluxo foram impostas através do orifício valvar. Resultados Pequenas variações no ângulo de inclinação causaram mudanças no padrão de fluxo, com deslocamento na posição dos vórtices, na distribuição de pressão e no local de alta tensão cisalhante na parede aórtica. Conclusão Essas características hemodinâmicas podem ser importantes no processo de remodelamento aórtico e distribuição de tensão, além de auxiliar, em um futuro próximo, a otimização do posicionamento da prótese valvar percutânea. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Backgroud Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can reduce mortality among patients with aortic stenosis. Knowledge of pressure distribution and shear stress at the aortic wall may help identify critical regions, where aortic remodeling process may occur. Here a numerical simulation study of the influence of positioning of the prosthetic valve orifice on the flow field is presented. Objective The present analysis provides a perspective of great variance on flow behavior due only to angle changes. Methods A 3D model was generated from computed tomography angiography of a patient who had undergone a TAVR. Different mass flow rates were imposed at the inlet valve. Results Small variations of the tilt angle could modify the nature of the flow, displacing the position of the vortices, and altering the prerssure distribution and the location of high wall shear stress. Conclusion These hemodynamic features may be relevant in the aortic remodeling process and distribution of the stress mapping and could help, in the near future, the optimization of the percutaneous prosthesis implantation. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Aorta , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Prosthesis Design , Treatment Outcome , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hemodynamics
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 821-823, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137350

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this case report, I describe a new technique for total reconstruction of the aortic valve with autologous pericardium. The parameters of the cusps were calculated using very simple formulas after measurement of the aortic root intercommissural distances. Glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium was trimmed along the marked line, leaving 2 mm of tissue along the fibrous annulus attachment margin for the suture and small wings on both commissural margins to secure the commissural coaptation between right and noncoronary cusps. The annular margin of each pericardial cusp was sutured to the corresponding fibrous annulus with running 4/0 polypropylene suture. The commissures of pericardial patch and the commissural coaptation between right and noncoronary cusps were secured with mattress 4/0 polypropylene sutures. The coaptation of the three cusps was checked with negative pressure on the left ventricular vent before closure of the aortotomy. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a peak pressure gradient of 10 mmHg and trivial aortic regurgitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Pericardium/transplantation , Glutaral
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 411-419, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: People with aortic/prosthetic valve endocarditis are a high-risk cohort of patients who present a challenge for all medically involved disciplines and who can be treated by various surgical techniques. Methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of root endocarditis with Medtronic Freestyle® in full-root technique over 19 years (1999-2018) and compared them against treatment with other tissue valves. Comparison was made with propensity score matching, using the nearest neighbor method. Various tests were performed as suited for adequate analyses. Results: Fifty-four patients in the Medtronic Freestyle group (FS group) were matched against 54 complex root endocarditis patients treated with other tissue valves (Tissue group). Hospital mortality was 9/54 (16.7%) in the FS group vs. 14/54 (25.6%) in the Tissue group (P=0.24). Cox regression performed for early results demonstrated coronary heart disease (P=0.004, odds ratio 2.3), among others, influencing early mortality. Recurrent infection was low (1.8% for FS and Tissue patients) and freedom from reoperation was 97.2% at a total of 367 patient-years of follow-up (median of 2.7 years). Conclusion: The stentless xenograft is a viable alternative for treatment of valve/root/prosthetic endocarditis, demonstrating a low rate of reinfection. The design of the bioroot allows for complex reconstructive procedures at the outflow tract and the annular level with at an acceptable operative risk. Endocarditis patients can be treated excluding infective tissue from the bloodstream, possibly with benefits, concerning bacteremia and recurrent infection. Furthermore, the use of the stentless bioroot offers varying treatment options in case of future valve degeneration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve/surgery , Prosthesis Design , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 504-511, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137287

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Recently, the clinical significance of mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) has been evaluated and suggested that it can be predictor of clinical outcomes. In our study, we aimed to investigate the interaction of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and mild PAR and their effects on the functional status of patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: A total of 109 consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis were enrolled prospectively. After TAVI procedure, they were divided in to three groups according to PAR and PWV measurements. Patients without PAR were defined as the NonePAR group (n=60), patients with mild PAR and normal PWV were defined as the MildPAR-nPWV group (n=23), and patients with mild PAR and high PWV were defined as the MildPAR-hPWV group (n=26). Results: Compared with other groups, the MildPAR-hPWV group was older (P<0.001), hypertensive (P=0.015), and had a higher pulse pressure (P=0.018). In addition to PWV, this group had lower aortic regurgitation index (ARI) (P=0.010) and higher rate of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II (at least) patients (P<0.001) in 30-day follow-up period. On multivariate regression analysis, the MildPARhPWV group (odds ratio=1.364, 95% confidence interval 1.221-1.843; P=0.011) as well as N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and ARI were independently related with 30-day functional NYHA classification. However, NonePAR or MildPAR-nPWV group was not an independent predictor of early functional status. Conclusion: It was concluded that high PWV may adversely affect early functional status in patients with mild PAR in contrast to normal values following TAVI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Pulse Wave Analysis
14.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 319-323, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mitral valve aneurysm is a rare and uncommon complication of infective endocarditis leading to a weakened mitral tissue. The most feared mitral valve aneurysm's complications are: perforation and severe mitral regurgitation. Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to explain the development of mitral valve aneurysm in aortic infective endocarditis including: local extension of the infection, the mitral kissing vegetation and aortic regurgitation. We report the case of a 29-year-old man who had infective endocarditis of a native aortic valve and the sub-aortic diaphragm complicated by a perforated mitral valve aneurysm diagnosed only by transesophageal echocardiogram. The patient had no sign of heart failure. We hypothesized that all those mechanisms lead to the developing of the mitral valve aneurysm in this case, but also the presence of the diaphragm favored the spread of the infection.


Resumen Una de las complicaciones poco comunes e inusuales de la endocarditis infecciosa son los aneurismas de la válvula mitral. Las complicaciones más temidas de estos últimos son la perforación y la insuficiencia mitral severa. Diferentes mecanismos pueden explicar el desarrollo de dicha insuficiencia en el contexto de una endocarditis infecciosa, incluyendo una extensión local, una vegetación sobre la válvula mitral y una insuficiencia aórtica. Nuestro caso clínico es el de un joven de 29 años diagnosticado de endocarditis infecciosa sobre su válvula aortica nativa con un diafragma subaortico complicado con un aneurisma de la válvula mitral perforado. El paciente no presentaba signos de insuficiencia cardíaca. Hemos supuesto que todos los mecanismos que hemos evocado anteriormente han llevado al desarrollo de dicho aneurisma, junto con la presencia del diafragma, elemento en favor de la diseminación de la infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Elements , Endocarditis/complications , Aneurysm , Mitral Valve , Aortic Valve , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Mitral Valve Insufficiency
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 516-522, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287205

ABSTRACT

Resumen La estenosis aórtica grave es una enfermedad común cuya prevalencia crece con el envejecimiento de la población. El reemplazo valvular aórtico quirúrgico (SAVR) ha sido la única alternativa efectiva hasta la aparición del reemplazo valvular aórtico por cateterismo (TAVR o TAVI). Este procedimiento se usó inicialmente para pacientes inoperables en quienes dos ensayos clínicos aleatorios y varios registros mostraron su superioridad sobre el tratamiento médico conservador. Dos ensayos clínicos adicionales en pacientes que, a pesar de ser considerados operables, tenían alto riesgo quirúrgico, demostraron la no inferioridad de TAVR versus reemplazo quirúrgico. Investigaciones posteriores probaron también su efectividad en pacientes de riesgo intermedio y bajo. Algunas complicaciones, como las relacionadas al acceso vascular, el accidente cerebro vascular, la necesidad de marcapasos definitivo y la regurgitación periprotésica, han ido disminuyendo con la mejoría de la tecnología, la curva de aprendizaje y la estrategia mínimamente invasiva actual. Queda pendiente determinar la durabilidad para establecer cuál será el papel de TAVR en la práctica clínica.


Abstract Severe aortic stenosis is a common disease whose prevalence is steadily growing with population ageing. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the only effective alternative until the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR or TAVI). This procedure was initially used for non-surgical candidate patients where two randomized clinical trials and several registries showed superiority over conservative medical treatment. Furthermore, two additional clinical trials including high surgical risk patients proved the non-inferiority of TAVR versus surgical replacement. Similar findings regarding effectiveness were observed in other clinical trials including intermediate and low risk patients. Technical and procedural improvements, including learning curve and the current minimally invasive strategy have decreased periprocedural and mid-term complications such as those related with vascular access, stroke, the need for permanent pacemaker implantation and paravalvular leak. All things considered, durability is a pending question to establish which would be the role of TAVR in current and future practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Stroke , Forecasting
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 346-367, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world study (RWS) appear to be discordant. We aimed to investigate whether data derived from RCTs and RWS evaluating long-term all-cause mortality of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) were in agreement. Methods: RCTs or RWS comparing TAVI and SAVR, reporting longterm (≥2-year follow-up) all-cause mortality, were identified. We also carried out subgroup analyses to access the effect in different subgroups. A pre-designated data extraction form including 5 domains and 26 items was used to explore the relationship between RCTs and RWS. Mortality and effect in different subgroups were evaluated using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Five RCTs (5421 participants, TAVI: 2759, SAVR: 2662) and 33 RWS (20839 participants; TAVI: 6585, SAVR: 14254) were identified. Pooled RCT analysis showed no difference in all-cause mortality between TAVI and SAVR (HR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88-1.07; P=0.55). In RWS, TAVI was associated with an increased risk of allcause mortality (HR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.26-1.69; P<0.001) compared to SAVR. Conclusion: These results highlight the inconsistencies between RCTs and RWS in assessing long-term all-cause mortality in the treatment of AS using TAVI or SAVR, which may be caused by interactions of clinical characteristics or study design. RCTs as well as RWS are both developing and improving; the advantages of one kind of design, measurement and evaluation can and should be thoughtfully referred to the other.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aortic Valve/surgery , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 299-306, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CAR) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods: Four hundred seventy-six patients with severe degenerative aortic stenosis who underwent successful isolated surgical AVR were enrolled. Hospitalization due to heart failure, surgical aortic reoperation, paravalvular leakage rates, and long-term mortality were evaluated in the whole study group. The participants were divided into two groups, as 443 patients without mortality (group 1) and 33 patients with mortality (group 2) during the follow-up time. Results: CAR was lower in patients without mortality than in those with mortality during the follow-up time (0.84 [0.03-23.43] vs. 2.50 [0.22-26.55], respectively, P<0.001). Age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.062, confidence interval [CI]: 1.012-1.114, P=0.014), CAR (OR: 1.221, CI: 1.125-1.325, P<0.001), ejection fraction (OR: 0.956, CI: 0.916-0.998, P=0.042), and valve type (OR: 2.634, CI: 1.045-6.638, P=0.040) were also found to be independent predictors of long-term mortality. Additionally, rehospitalization (0.86 [0.03-26.55] vs. 1.6 [0.17-24.05], P=0.006), aortic reoperation (0.87 [0.03-26.55] vs. 1.6 [0.20-23.43], P=0.016), and moderate to severe aortic paravalvular leakage (0.86 [0.03-26.55] vs. 1.86 [0.21-19.50], P=0.023) ratios were associated with higher CAR. Conclusion: It was firstly described that CAR was strongly related with increased mortality rates in patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis after surgical AVR. Additionally, rehospitalization, risk of paravalvular leakage, and aortic reoperation rates were higher in patients with increased CAR than in those without it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Prognosis , C-Reactive Protein , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 307-313, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137277

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in aortic valve replacement (AVR) patients with aortic bioprosthesis under oral anticoagulation (OA). Methods: Patients who underwent AVR with bioprosthesiswere prospectively enrolled. They were classified based on postoperative use of OA. Clinical and operative variables were collected. Echocardiographic and clinical follow-ups were performed two years after surgery. The primary outcome evaluated was change in transprosthetic gradient. Secondary outcomes analyzed were change in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, major bleeding episodes, hospitalization, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Results: We included 103 patients (61 without OA and 42 with OA). Clinical characteristics were similar among groups, except for younger age (76±6.3 vs. 72.4±8.1 years, P=0.016) and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (0% vs. 23.8%, P<0.001) in the OA group. Mean (21.4±10 mmHg vs. 16.8±7.7 mmHg, P=0.037) and maximum (33.4±13.7 mmHg vs. 28.4±10.2 mmHg, P=0.05) transprosthetic gradients were higher in patients without OA. Improvement in NYHA class was more frequent in patients with OA (73% vs. 45.3%, P=0.032). Major bleeding, stroke, and hospitalization were similar among groups. OA was the only independent predictor for improvement of NYHA class after multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-29.4; P=0.028). Stratification by prosthesis size showed that patients with ≤ 21 mm prosthesis benefited from OA. Conclusion: Early anticoagulation after AVR with bioprosthesis was associated with significant decrease of transprosthesis gradient and improvement in NYHA class. These associations were seen mainly in patients with ≤ 21 mm prosthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/drug therapy , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Prosthesis Design , Treatment Outcome , Hemodynamics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 241-248, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137266

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the feasibility of aortic valve neocuspidization (AVNeo) with glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. Methods: One hundred and seventy (170) AVNeo (84 males/86 females) were performed from January 2017 through March 2019 in three centers. All the records were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Results: Most of the patients were older than 60 years and over 95% were operated for aortic stenosis. Preoperatively, pressure gradients were 69.9±21.3 mmHg for patients with aortic stenosis, and the surgical annular diameter was 21.0±2.0 mm for all patients. Effective orifice area (EOA) and indexed EOA (iEOA) averaged 0.7±0.3 cm2 and 0.4±0.2 cm2/m2 for patients with aortic stenosis before surgery, respectively. There was no conversion to prosthetic aortic valve replacement. Eight patients needed reoperation for bleeding, but no patient needed reoperation due to early infective endocarditis. There were five in-hospital deaths due to noncardiac cause. Compared to preoperative echocardiographic measurements, postoperative peak pressure gradient decreased significantly (-58.7±1.7 mmHg; P<0.001) and reached 11.2±5.6 mmHg, and mean pressure gradient also decreased significantly (-36.8±1.1 mmHg; P<0.001) and reached 6.0±3.5 mmHg. Accordingly, EOA and iEOA increased significantly 2.0 cm2 and 1.0 cm2/m2 (both P<0.001) to reach 2.7±0.6 cm2 and 1.4±0.3 cm2/m2 after surgery, respectively, with minimal significant aortic regurgitation (0.6% > mild). Conclusion: AVNeo is feasible and reproducible with good clinical results. Hemodynamically, AVNeo produces immediate postoperative low-pressure gradients, large EOA, and minimal regurgitation of the aortic valve. Further studies are necessary to evaluate mid- and long-term evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Pericardium/transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Glutaral
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 265-273, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137265

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze patients' preoperative characteristics, surgical data, postoperative courses, and short- and long-term outcomes after implantation of different full-root prostheses for destructive aortic valve endocarditis. Methods: Between 1999 and 2018, 80 patients underwent aortic root replacement due to infective endocarditis in our institution. We analyzed the abovementioned data with standard statistical methods. Results: The Freestyle stentless porcine prostheses were implanted in 53 (66.25%) patients, biological valve conduits in 13 (16.25%), aortic root homografts in nine (11.25%), and mechanical valve conduits in five (6.25%). There were no significant preoperative differences between the groups. The incidence of postoperative complications and intensive care unit length of stay did not differ significantly between the groups. The 30-day mortality rate was low among Freestyle patients (n=8, 15.1%) and high in the mechanical conduit cohort (n=3, 60%), though with borderline statistical significance (P=0.055). The best mean survival rates were observed after homograft (13.7 years) and stentless prosthesis (8.1 years) implantation, followed by biological (2.8 years) and mechanical (1.4 years) conduits (P=0.014). The incidence of reoperations was low in the mechanical conduit group (0) and stentless bioroot group (n=1, 1.9%), but two (15.4%) patients with biological conduits and three (33.3%) patients with homografts required reoperations in the investigated follow-up period (P=0.005). Conclusion: In patients with the destructive form of aortic valve endocarditis, homografts and stentless porcine xenografts offer better survival rates than stented valve conduits; however, the reoperation rate among patients who received homograft valves is high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Endocarditis , Aortic Valve/surgery , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Reoperation , Swine , Follow-Up Studies
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