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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251075, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plant-derived products can assist in the healing process of dermal wounds. It has been demonstrated that Hancornia speciosa latex present angiogenic, osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Then, it could contribute to the wound healing process. However, natural products in contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allergic and irritant potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex using in vitro assays. The obtained results showed that the H. speciosa serum fraction latex has a slightly irritant potential and is not cytotoxic neither allergenic for human cells. Moreover, we identified a remarkable low amount of proteins in this material in comparison to Hevea brasiliensis latex. This result could explain the non-allergenic potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex because proteins present in latex are the main responsible for allergy. This biomaterial could be used as a non-allergenic source for development of new medicines.


Resumo Produtos derivados de plantas podem auxiliar no processo de cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. Foi demonstrado que o látex de Hancornia speciosa apresenta atividades angiogênicas, osteogênicas, antiinflamatórias e antioxidantes. Então, este biomaterial pode contribuir para o processo de cicatrização de feridas. No entanto, produtos naturais em contato com a pele podem causar dermatites. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alérgico e irritante do látex da fração soro de H. speciosa por meio de ensaios in vitro. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o látex da fração do soro de H. speciosa possui um potencial pouco irritante e não é citotóxico nem alergênico para células humanas. Além disso, foi identificado uma notável baixa quantidade de proteínas neste material em comparação ao látex de Hevea brasiliensis. Esse resultado poderia explicar o potencial não alergênico do látex da fração soro de H. speciosa, pois as proteínas presentes no látex são as principais responsáveis ​​pela alergia. Este biomaterial pode ser utilizado como fonte não alergênica para desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apocynaceae , Hevea , Wound Healing , Biocompatible Materials , Allergens , Latex
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 488-495, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388010

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the systemic effect of Hancornia speciosa latex on bone neoformation and mineralization in rats. Methods For that, the latex was first collected, and its composition was analyzed. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were used, which were simultaneously submitted to two surgical procedures: extraction of an incisor and creation of a defect with 2 mm in diameter in the parietal bone. The rats were divided into two groups: systemic control (SC) systemic latex (SX) which were administered, orally and daily, 1.5 mL of water or a solution containing 50% of water and 50% of latex by gavage, respectively. After 15 days of the treatment, the animals were euthanized and their samples were collected. Results The results were statistically analyzed, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. We showed that H. speciosa latex contained calcium. The oral and daily administration of the latex for 15 days increased the contents of calcium and phosphorus in the basal bone and newly-formed bone in the mandibular alveolus of rats. Conclusion The present was a pioneer study demonstrating the potential of H. speciosa latex in increasing bone mineralization. Our results may aid in the conception and development of a natural drug.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o efeito sistêmico do látex de Hancornia especiosa na neoformação óssea e mineralização em ratos. Métodos Para isso, primeiro o látex foi coletado, e sua composição foi analisada. No estudo, foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar machos submetidos simultaneamente a dois procedimentos cirúrgicos: extração de incisivo e criação de um defeito de 2 mm de diâmetro no osso parietal. Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos: controle sistêmico (CS) e látex sistêmico (XS), aos quais foi administrado, oral e diariamente, 1,5 mL de água ou uma solução contendo 50% de água e 50% de látex por gavagem, respectivamente. Após 15 dias do tratamento, os animais foram eutanizados, e suas amostras, coletadas. Resultados Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente, e o nível de significância foi fixado em 0,05. Mostramos que o látex de H. speciosa continha cálcio. A administração oral e diária deste látex por 15 dias aumentou o conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo de osso basal e de osso recém-formado no alvéolo mandibular de ratos. Conclusão Este foi um estudo pioneiro, que demonstrou o potencial do látex de H. speciosa no aumento da mineralização óssea. Nossos resultados podem ajudar na concepção e no desenvolvimento de uma droga natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Complementary Therapies , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Durapatite , Apocynaceae/anatomy & histology
3.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 166-174, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380086

ABSTRACT

Context: Despite the commonness of polyherbal therapy among the locals in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria, there are no adequate data on the therapeutic potentials and safety profile of these herbal combinations. The use of these plants in combination in the treatment of suspected and confirmed malaria infection is very common among the Niger Delta dwellers in Nigeria. Aim: To evaluate the therapeutic potential of co-administration of Hippocratea Africana, a medicinal plant with well documented antimalarial properties, and Eremomastax speciosa, a tropical plant with well reported antianaemic potential and haematoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: Thirty albino mice, whose weights ranged between 32 - 37g, were divided into five groups having six mice in each. Clinical features, weight changes and parasite clearance were evaluated to determine therapeutic potential of treatments. An inoculum which consisted of 5 x 107 Plasmodium berghei infested erythrocytes per ml of blood from a donor mouse with 64% parasitaemia was injected into each mouse by intraperitoneal route. The mice were kept at room temperature of 28.0 ± 20C for 7 days for the parasite to develop. A non-parasitized mice group served as normal control. After parasitaemia was confirmed using standard procedure, 200mg/kg and 300mg/Kg body weights of Hippocratea Africana root bark and Eremomastax speciosa leaf extracts respectively, were administered by oral routes to the respective groups of mice for 6 days. A parasitized group was treated with fixed doses of 3mg/kg body weight of Artemether and 18mg/kg body weight of Lumefantrine. Another parasitized group was left untreated. Results: Mice treated concurrently with the extracts of H. africana and E. speciosa showed a significant improvement in clinical signs in comparison to the untreated group. The mean body weights of mice administered both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) increased when compared to the parasitized untreated mice and those treated with extracts separately. The mice treated concurrently with the two extracts also showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in percentage parasitaemia and significant (P < 0.05) increase in percentage parasite clearance comparable to that of Artemether-lumefantrine. The parasitized untreated group recorded 50% mortality, while the group treated concurrently with the two extracts did not record any mortality.


Subject(s)
Hippocrateaceae , Therapeutics , Apocynaceae , Malaria , Phytotherapy , Mice
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Degenerative diseases diabetes and oxidative stress constitute a major health concern worldwide. Medicinal plants are expected to provide effective and affordable remedies. The present research explored antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of extracts of Carissa opaca roots. Methanolic extract (ME) was prepared through maceration. Its fractions were obtained, sequentially, in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. An aqueous decoction (AD) of the finely ground roots was obtained by boiling in distilled water. The leftover biomass with methanol was boiled in water to obtain biomass aqueous decoction (BAD). The extracts and fractions showed considerable porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 in the range of 5.38-7.12 mg/mL while acarbose had 0.31 mg/mL. The iron chelating activity in terms of EC50 was 0.2939, 0.3429, 0.1876, and 0.1099 mg/mL for AD, BAD, ME, and EDTA, respectively. The EC50 of beta-carotene bleaching activity for AD, BAD, ME, and standard BHA were 4.10, 4.71, 3.48, and 2.79 mg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of AD and BAD were also considerable. In general, ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Thus, the C. opaca roots had excellent antioxidant activity while having moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentia


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Iron Chelating Agents/analysis , beta Carotene/analysis , Apocynaceae/classification , Disease , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 367-385, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349509

ABSTRACT

Araujia odorata is a sub-shrub native from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, whose latex, roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this work is to study the foliar morpho-anatomy of six populations in an altitudinal gradient (359-2155 m.a.s.l.) of Northwestern Argentine and to determine the nature of the compounds present in the laticiferous of the stems and fruits using conventional techniques for plant anatomy. The populations under study did not show significant morpho-anatomical differences. They presented simple leaves, pinnated brochydodromous venation, amphiestomatic isolateral lamina, brachy, anomo and amphicyclocytic stomata, eglandular trichomes, midvein with bicolateral vascular bundle and non-articulated laticifers continuous in the petiole, stem and fruits. Differences in the quantified foliar parameters are observed, however, only the density of trichomes, stomata and the thickness of the cuticle are positively correlated with the altitudinal gradient, indicating phenotypic plasticity. Histochemical analysis of laticifers and other stem idioblasts of A. odoratawas performed for the first time.


Araujia odorata, es un subarbusto nativo de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, cuyo látex, raíces y hojas son utilizados en medicina popular. Se plantea como objetivo realizar un estudio morfo-anatómico foliar de seis poblaciones del Noroeste Argentino en un gradiente altitudinal (359-2155 m.s.n.m) y determinar la naturaleza de los compuestos presentes en laticíferos de tallos y frutos mediante técnicas convencionales de anatomía vegetal. Las poblaciones estudiadas no evidenciaron diferencias morfo-anatómicas significativas. Presentan hojas simples, venación pinnada broquidódroma, lámina isolateral anfiestomática, estomas braqui, anomo y anficiclocíticos, tricomas eglandulares, nervio medio con haz bicolateral y laticíferos no-articulados continuos en pecíolo, tallo y frutos. Se observan diferencias en los parámetros foliares cuantificados, sin embargo, solo la de densidad de tricomas, estomas y el espesor de cutícula se correlacionan positivamente con el gradiente altitudinal indicando plasticidad fenotípica. Se realiza por primera vez un análisis histoquímico de los laticíferos y otros idioblastos del tallo A. odorata.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Apocynaceae/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Altitude , Fruit/anatomy & histology
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 68-76, Mar. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signal transducer molecule that plays an important role in plant development and stress response; it can also efficiently stimulate secondary metabolism in plant cells. RESULTS: RNA-Seq technology was applied to identify differentially expressed genes and study the time course of gene expression in Rhazya stricta in response to JA. Of more than 288 million total reads, approximately 27% were mapped to genes in the reference genome. Genes involved during the secondary metabolite pathways were up- or downregulated when treated with JA in R. stricta. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of all up- and downregulated genes identified many biological processes and molecular functions. Jasmonic acid biosynthetic, cell wall organization, and chlorophyll metabolic processes were upregulated at days 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Similarly, the molecular functions of calcium-transporting ATPase activity, ADP binding, and protein kinase activity were also upregulated at days 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Time-dependent transcriptional gene expression analysis showed that JA can induce signaling in the phenylpropanoid and aromatic acid pathways. These pathways are responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which are essential for the development and environmental defense mechanism of R. stricta during stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and aromatic acid synthesis pathways were upregulated during JA stress. However, monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) was unaffected by JA treatment. Hence, we can postulate that JA plays an important role in R. stricta during plant development and environmental stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Cyclopentanes/metabolism , Apocynaceae/genetics , Oxylipins/metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Flavonoids/biosynthesis , Base Sequence , Gene Expression , Environment , Transcriptome
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 473-486, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146277

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the behavior of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of two mangaba varieties (H. speciosa var. gardneri and H. speciosa var. cuyabensis) during storage, in two ripening stages. The fruit were harvested from the Germplasm bank of the School of Agronomy, at two ripening stages: "mature green" (mature fruit picked from the tree) and "fallen" (ripe fruit collected from the ground). After collection, they were transported to the laboratory, washed under running water, immersed in chlorine solution at 100 mg L-1 for 10 minutes, left to dry and stored under ambient conditions (22±1ºC and 90±5% RH). The fruit were analyzed to determine ascorbic acid content, total extractable polyphenols, yellow flavonoids and antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Analyses were performed dailyuntil the mangaba were unfit for sale, using 3 repetitions with 3 fruit each. The maximum conservation time was eight days for "mature green" and two days for "fallen" fruit. The cuyabensis variety exhibited greatest ascorbic acid content at both ripening stages, in addition to higher antioxidant activity, and was therefore found to have the best potential to be marketed as a "superfruit"


O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento dos compostos bioativos e da atividade antioxidante total de duas variedades de mangaba (H. speciosa var. gardneri e H. speciosa var. cuyabensis) durante o armazenamento, em dois estádios de maturação. Os frutos foram colhidos no banco de Germoplasma da Escola de Agronomia, em dois estádios de maturação, "de vez" (frutos maturos colhidos da árvore) e "de caída" (frutos maduros coletados no chão). Após a colheita, foram transportados para o laboratório, onde foram selecionados, lavados em água corrente, imersos em solução de cloro a 100 mg L-1 por 10 minutos, deixados secar e armazenados sob condição ambiente (22±1ºC e 90±5%UR). Os frutos foram analisados quanto aos teores de ácido ascórbico, flavonoides amarelos e polifenóis extraíveis totais, além da atividade antioxidante total determinada pelo método de redução do ferro (FRAP) e ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). As análises foram realizadas diariamente até que os frutos se tornassem impróprios para a comercialização, utilizando-se 3 repetições com 3 frutos cada. O período máximo de conservação foi de oito dias para os frutos "de vez" e dois dias para os frutos "de caída". A variedade cuyabensis apresentou maiores teores de ácido ascórbico em ambos os estádios de maturação avaliados, além da capacidade antioxidante mais elevada, mostrando ser a variedade com maior potencial para "superfruta" na comercialização


Subject(s)
Apocynaceae , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(6): 692-696, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present work aimed to evaluate the systemic effect of H. speciosa latex on bone neoformation. Methods For this, the latex was collected and diluted to 3% and 50%. A total of 28 Wistar rats were submitted to surgery to create a 5 mm diameter defect in the parietal bone. This experiment was conducted in 2 different periods: 1 and 2. For each period, the rats were divided into 3 groups: Control Group, Latex3 Group, and Latex50 Group, which received, respectively, daily administrations of 0.5 mL of distilled water, latex to 3% and latex to 50% by gavage, orally. The rats of periods 1 and 2 were euthanized, respectively, 15 and 30 days after the surgery, and the calvaria was collected. The results were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey tests; the significance level was 0.05. Results We show that, in each analyzed period, the experimental groups had the same amount of newly formed bone in the calvaria defect. Conclusion We conclude that daily and oral administrations of H. speciosa latex to 3% and to 50% over a period of 15 and 30 days does not contribute to the increase of the area of the newly formed bone in the calvaria defect.


Resumo Objetivo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito sistêmico do látex de H. speciosas obre a neoformação óssea. Métodos Para isso, o látex foi coletado e diluído a 3% e a 50%. Um total de 28 ratos Wistar foi submetido a cirurgia para a criação de um defeito de 5 mm de diâmetro no osso parietal. Esse experimento foi conduzido em dois períodos distintos: 1 e 2. Para cada período, os ratos foram divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Látex3 e Grupo Látex50 que receberam, respectivamente, administrações diárias de 0,5 mL de água destilada, látex a 3% e látex a 50% por gavagem, via oral. Os ratos dos períodos 1 e 2 foram eutanasiados, respectivamente, 15 e 30 dias após a cirurgia e a calvária foi coletada. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando os testes ANOVA e Tukey; o nível de significância estabelecido foi 0,05. Resultados Mostramos que, em cada período analisado, os grupos experimentais tiveram a mesma quantidade de osso neoformado no defeito da calvária. Conclusão Portanto, concluímos que administrações diárias e orais do látex de H. speciosa a 3% e a 50% durante um período de 15 e 30 dias não contribui para o aumento da área do osso neoformado no defeito da calvária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones , Complementary Therapies , Administration, Oral , Apocynaceae , Hematoxylin , Histology , Latex
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e7798, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001525

ABSTRACT

Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel belongs to the Apocynaceae family and the latex from its trunk bark (Hd) is known as "janaguba milk". This latex is widely used in Northeast Brazil, mainly in the Cariri region, for its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. The objective of this study was to investigate a triterpene-rich fraction (FJNB) from H. drasticus latex on acute models of nociception and inflammation and to clarify its mechanisms of action. Wistar rats or Swiss mice were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test or the formalin test, respectively, after the acute oral treatment with FJNB. The inflamed paws from the carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin tests were processed for histological and immunohistochemical assays, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and considered significant at P<0.05. FJNB (10 mg/kg) decreased the paw edema by 25% at the 3rd h after the carrageenan injection. Indomethacin, used as reference, inhibited the paw edema by 59% at the same time-point. In the formalin test, FJNB inhibited the 1st phase by 27, 49, and 52% and the 2nd phase by 37, 50, and 67%, at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, FJNB significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa (NF-kB) were also inhibited at the same doses. In conclusion, the FJNB inhibitory actions on iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, HDAC, and NF-kB could be involved with the drug anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Triterpenes/therapeutic use , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
11.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 43: 1-7, Mar. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carissa bispinosa, Ficus sycomorus, and Grewia bicolar are edible fruit plants that grow in the wild. The plants produce yellow-, red-, and purple-colored fruits and thus can be good sources of flavonoids for fighting oxidative reactions in humans, food, and the pharmaceutical industry. The present study aimed at isolating flavonoids from C.bispinosa, F. sycomorus, and G. bicolar fruits and determining their antioxidant activity using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis 3-ethylbenz-thiaz-oline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) model radical assays. METHODS: Analytical and preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate flavonoids from the fruits using methanol/chloroform/hexane (7:2:1,v/v/v) as a mobile phase system. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging methods were used to test for the antioxidant activity of the samples, using quercetin and catechin as reference standards. RESULTS:Thin-layer chromatographic profiling revealed two different types of flavonoids from each plant.C. bispinosa yielded two flavonoid bands, Rfvalues 0.11 and 0.38;G. bicolaryielded two flavonoid bands,Rfvalues 0.63 and 0.81; andF.sycomorus also yielded two types of flavonoids, Rfvalues 0.094 and 0.81. All the extracted flavonoids exhibited significant antioxidant activity of over 80% at a concentration of 200 mg/L. The order of radical scavenging activity for the 200-mg/Lsamples is G. bicolar Rf(0.81) >C. bispinosa Rf(0.113) >F. sycomorus Rf(0.094) >F. sycomorus Rf(0.047) >C. bispinosa Rf(0.38) >G. bicolar Rf(0.63).G. bicolar(Rf= 0.81) exhibited antioxidant activitythat was superior to that of catechin. CONCLUSION:The present study results show that C. bispinosa,F. sycomorus,and G. bicolar contain different flavonoid types with significant antioxidant activity of over 80% at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Therefore, the fruits can be used as a source of natural antioxidants which can be used as nutraceuticals to promote health, as preservatives to delay peroxidation of foods, and as flavoring for packed foods.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Ficus/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Grewia/chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773586

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to develop a practical strategy to tackle the problem of lacking standard compounds and limited references for identifying structure-related compounds in Streptocaulon griffithii Hook. f., especially those in trace concentrations, with a focus on antitumor activity. The cardiac glycosides (CGs)-enriched part was determined using in vitro bioactive assays in three cancer cell lines and then isolated using macroporous resins. The MS and MS/MS data were acquired using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) system. To acquire data of trace compound in the extract, a multiple segment program was applied to modify the HPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. A mass defect filter (MDF) approach was employed to make a primary MS data filtration. Utilizing a MATLAB program, the redundant peaks obtained by imprecise MDF template calculated with limited references were excluded by fragment ion classification, which was based on the ion occurrence number in the MDF-filtered total ion chromatograms (TIC). Additionally, the complete cleavage pathways of CG aglycones were proposed to assist the structural identification of 29 common fragment ions (CFIs, ion occurrence number ≥ 5) and diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs, ion occurrence number < 5). As a result, 30 CGs were filtered out from the MDF results, among which 23 were identified. This newly developed strategy may provide a rapid and effective tool for identifying structure-related compounds in herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Animals , Apocynaceae , Chemistry , Cardiac Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Computational Biology , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Workflow
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812375

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to develop a practical strategy to tackle the problem of lacking standard compounds and limited references for identifying structure-related compounds in Streptocaulon griffithii Hook. f., especially those in trace concentrations, with a focus on antitumor activity. The cardiac glycosides (CGs)-enriched part was determined using in vitro bioactive assays in three cancer cell lines and then isolated using macroporous resins. The MS and MS/MS data were acquired using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) system. To acquire data of trace compound in the extract, a multiple segment program was applied to modify the HPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. A mass defect filter (MDF) approach was employed to make a primary MS data filtration. Utilizing a MATLAB program, the redundant peaks obtained by imprecise MDF template calculated with limited references were excluded by fragment ion classification, which was based on the ion occurrence number in the MDF-filtered total ion chromatograms (TIC). Additionally, the complete cleavage pathways of CG aglycones were proposed to assist the structural identification of 29 common fragment ions (CFIs, ion occurrence number ≥ 5) and diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs, ion occurrence number < 5). As a result, 30 CGs were filtered out from the MDF results, among which 23 were identified. This newly developed strategy may provide a rapid and effective tool for identifying structure-related compounds in herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Animals , Apocynaceae , Chemistry , Cardiac Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Computational Biology , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Workflow
14.
Hig. aliment ; 31(272/273): 120-127, 30/10/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876335

ABSTRACT

A mangaba (Hancornia speciosa) fruto característico do cerrado tem elevado valor nutricional e grande potencial para exploração econômica. O objetivo do trabalho foi produzir iogurte com polpa de mangaba sem aditivos químicos e avaliar suas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas, sensoriais e vida de prateleira. O experimento foi composto por cinco tratamentos variando a concentração (0, 5, 10, 15, 20%) da polpa de mangaba. Foi verificada a aceitabilidade dos tratamentos utilizando escala hedônica de nove pontos, com 100 provadores não treinados. O tratamento com polpa de mangaba que obteve maior aceitação foi caracterizado por análises físico-químicas e determinada a vida de prateleira, a qual foi avaliada por meio do pH, acidez titulável e análises microbiológicas. As análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas nos dias 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35. No 7o e 28o dias foi realizada análise sensorial para verificar a aceitabilidade durante o armazenamento. O tratamento 2, com 5% de polpa foi selecionado pelos degustadores na análise sensorial, e durante o armazenamento, apresentou resultados microbiológicos, pH e acidez dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação e não houve alteração na aceitabilidade. Conclui-se que o iogurte adicionado de polpa de mangaba a 5% apresentou boa aceitabilidade e características adequadas para o consumo humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Apocynaceae , Food Quality , Food Storage/standards , Fruit , Yogurt/analysis , Nutritional Facts , Chemical Phenomena
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(5): 1134-1143, sept./oct. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966276

ABSTRACT

The Allamanda blanchetii belongs to the Apocynaceae family, being an ornamental species popularly known as allamanda-roxa and is endemic to the Caatinga. The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth, gas exchange, relative water content, and stomatal density of A. blanchetii under water stress conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized with six levels of the maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) (100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%) with eight replications. Weekly, it was performed the evaluations of plant height and number of leaves. The results for water stress treatment in the A. blanchetii plants show that they develop better in the water levels of 100% and 80% of the MWHC, without presenting significant morphological and physiological changes. In turn, 20% of the MWHC does not allow the survival of the A. blanchetii plants. The water restriction negatively interfered in the gas exchange in the treatment of 60% and 40% of the MWHC. Therefore, it can be concluded that the A. blanchetii plants grow satisfactorily in 100% and 80% of the MWHC, ensuring the growth and survival during the drought period. The water availability to which the plants were submitted does not influence the total chlorophyll and relative water content of leaves. Gas exchanges are adversely affected at levels of water availability below 80% of the MWHC.


Allamanda blanchetii pertence à família Apocynaceae, é uma espécie ornamental, conhecida popularmente como allamanda-roxa, endêmica da Caatinga. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o crescimento, trocas gasosas, conteúdo relativo de água e densidade estomática de A. blanchetii sob condições de estresse hídrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis capacidade máxima de retenção de água tratamentos hídricos (100%, 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%) com oito repetições. Os resultados obtidos sobre o déficit hídrico aplicado, as plantas de A. blanchetii se desenvolvem com níveis de água de 100% e 80% da CMRA, sem apresentar modificações morfológicas e fisiológicas significativas enquanto que com de 20% da CMRA não houve a sobrevivência de plantas. A restrição hídrica interferiu negativamente nas trocas gasosas, nos tratamentos de 60% e 40% CMRA. Portanto pode-se concluir que as plantas de A. blanchetii crescem satisfatória sob 100% e 80% CMRA garantindo a sua sobrevivência e crescimento durante a seca. A clorofila total e o teor relativo de água na folha das plantas não foram influenciados pelos regimes hídricos a que foram submetidas. As trocas gasosas são negativamente afetadas em níveis de disponibilidade hídrica abaixo de 80% da CMRA.


Subject(s)
Plant Transpiration , Apocynaceae/growth & development , Dehydration , Droughts
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 513-522, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846834

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate Himatanthus drasticus latex in a mice wound healing experimental model. Animals were divided into four groups (n=7) according to the treatments: GI - saline 0.9% (control), GII - mineral oil (vehicle), GIII - H. drasticus commercial latex (HdCL) and GIV - H. drasticus mixed isolated fraction (MIF, 1 mg/mL). The treatments were applied topically once daily, 50 µL for 14 consecutive days. Macroscopic lesions were evaluated, considering parameters such as swelling, redness, granulation tissue and reepithelialization. VEGF+, CD68+ expressions and mast cells (Toluidin blue stain) were evaluated. HdCL induced higher contraction and exuberant granulation tissue (P > 0.05). HdCL showed a mild inflammatory process while MIF induced intense infiltrate inflammatory predominantly by lymphocytes, vascular congestion, bleeding and did not presented full reepithelialization. Reorganization of collagen fibers (red picrosirius stain) was observed. CD68+ expression and mast cells were presented as moderate, intense and mild in GI, GIII and GIV, respectively. Neovascularization occurred in all groups, while VEGF+ expression was intense in MIF in relation to HdCL. We concluded that HdCL presents wound healing potential, through modulation of mast cells, CD68+ and VEGF+ expressions that can be associated to triterpenes presence according MIF isolated from HdCL.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o látex de Himatanthus drasticus em feridas induzidas experimentalmente em camundongos. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=7): GI - salina 0,9% (controle), GII - óleo mineral (veículo), GIII - látex comercial de H. drasticus (HdCL) e GIV - fração isolada mista de H. drasticus (MIF, 1mg/mL). Os tratamentos foram aplicados topicamente uma vez ao dia (50µL), durante 14 dias consecutivos. Lesões macroscópicas, as expressões de VEGF+, CD68+ e a participação dos mastócitos (coloração azul de toluidina) foram avaliadas. HdCL induziu maior contração e tecido de granulação exuberante (P >0,05). HdCL induziu leve processo inflamatório enquanto MIF promoveu intenso infiltrado inflamatório predominantemente linfocítico, congestão vascular, hemorragia e reepitelização parcial. Observou-se reorganização das fibras colágenas (coloração picrosírius). A expressão de CD68+ e os mastócitos apresentaram-se moderados, intensos e leves em GI, GIII e GIV, respectivamente. A neovascularização foi observada em todos os grupos, enquanto a expressão de VEGF+ foi mais intensa em MIF em relação a HdCL. Conclui-se que HdCL apresenta potencial de cicatrização por meio da modulação dos mastócitos e das expressões de CD68+ e VEGF+, o que pode estar associado à presença de triterpenos de acordo com MIF isolada de HdCL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/analysis , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Glycoproteins , Mast Cells , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Wound Healing/drug effects , Latex/chemistry
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(1): 87-93, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846588

ABSTRACT

Hancornia speciosa is a fruitful species from Cerrado biome with high economic potential. However, the intense and disordered extractivism have caused a reduction of its population in its endemic area. In addition, seed recalcitrance negatively affects the conventional conservation of the species. Aiming to find alternatives that enable the long-term conservation of this species, the study's objective was to assess the behavior of lateral bud's regrowth after cryopreservation procedures by encapsulation-vitrification technique. Sodium alginate capsules containing lateral buds were pre-cultured in liquid WPM supplemented with 1.0 M glycerol, and subsequently exposed to different concentrations of sucrose (0.3; 0.75 and 1.0 M) for 24 or 48 hours. The capsules were subjected to dehydration in silica gel or airflow hood for 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours before different incubation times in PVS2 (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) at 0°C. A high regeneration percentage of lateral buds was observed after cryopreservation of capsules treated with 0.75 M sucrose plus 1.0 M glycerol (24 hours), associated with dehydration in an airflow hood (1 hour) and immersion in PVS2 (15 minutes). Encapsulation-vitrification allowed the long-term conservation, and provided high plant material survival rates after cryopreservation of Hancornia speciosa sensitive explants.


Hancornia speciosa é uma frutífera do Cerrado com elevado potencial econômico. Entretanto, o extrativismo desordenado causou a redução populacional em sua área endêmica. Além disso, a recalcitrância da semente afeta negativamente sua conservação convencional. Buscando alternativas de conservação para essa espécie, objetivou-se avaliar a regeneração das gemas laterais após a técnica de encapsulamento-vitrificação. Cápsulas de alginato de sódio contendo gemas laterais foram pré-cultivadas em meio WPM acrescido de 1,0 M de glicerol e, posteriormente, imersas em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0,3; 0,75 e 1,0 M) por 24 ou 48 horas. As cápsulas foram submetidas à desidratação em sílica gel ou em fluxo laminar por 0, 1, 2 e 3 horas antes de sua incubação em diferentes tempos de PVS2 (0, 15, 30, 60 e 120 minutos). Elevada porcentagem de regeneração de gemas laterais foi observada após a criopreservação de cápsulas tratadas com 0,75 M de sacarose + 1,0 M de glicerol por 24 horas, associado com a desidratação em fluxo laminar (1 hora) e imersão em PVS2 (15 minutos). O encapsulamento-vitrificação é eficiente para a conservação de longo prazo e permite a obtençao de altas taxas de sobrevivência após a criopreservação de explantes sensíveis (gemas laterais) de Hancornia speciosa.


Subject(s)
Apocynaceae , Cryopreservation , Dehydration , Grassland
18.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 27(1): 30-36, enero-marzo de 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-879626

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la actividad gastroprotectora del decocto obtenido de las hojas de Araujia sericifera Brot. var hortorum (E.Fourn.) Malme (Apocynaceae), especie vegetal sudamericana de interés medicinal que se desarrolla en el sudoeste bonaerense, utilizando un modelo de inducción de úlceras gástricas con etanol en ratones. Se determinó la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres mediante el método del 2,2'-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). Se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico para detectar la presencia de compuestos que podrían ser responsables de la actividad farmacológica de la planta. Los ensayos demostraron que el decocto de la planta, administrado por vía oral en dosis de 100, 450 y 900 mg/kg, ejerció una significativa actividad protectora frente al daño gástrico inducido (P<0,05). Se detectó una actividad atrapadora de radicales libres de 89,3%, superior a la sustancia de referencia (BHT). El estudio fitoquímico reveló la presencia de sustancias antioxidantes tales como polifenoles y flavonoides, entre otros constituyentes. Es sabido que estos compuestos ejercen efectos protectores en diferentes modelos experimentales de inducción de úlceras a través de mecanismos que involucran la neutralización de radicales libres, lo que podría explicar, al menos en parte, la actividad gastroprotectora de la planta. Estos resultados promisorios avalan un estudio químico y farmacológico más profundo de A. sericifera como una posible fuente de compuestos antiulcerosos.


The gastroprotective activity of the decoction from the leaves of Araujia sericifera Brot. var. hortorum (E.Fourn.) Malme (Apocynaceae), a native South American plant species of medicinal interest growing in South West Buenos Aires, was evaluated in an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. The free radical scavenging activity of the plant was determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Phytochemical screening was carried out in order to determine the presence of compounds that could be responsible for the pharmacological effects of the plant. The assays demonstrated that the decoction, orally administered at 100, 450, and 900 mg/kg doses, exerted a significant protective activity against gastric injury (P<0,05). A free radical scavenging activity of 89.3% -higher than the reference substance (BHT)- was detected. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of antioxidant substances such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids, among other constituents. It is known that these compounds exert protective effects in different experimental models of ulcer induction that involves free radical neutralization, which could explain, at least in part, the gastroprotective activity of the plant. These promising results support a deeper chemical and pharmacological study of A. sericifera as a potential source of antiulcerogenic compounds.


Subject(s)
Mice , Plants, Medicinal , Apocynaceae , Stomach Ulcer , Digestive System Diseases
19.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 113-126
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185748

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of intestinal alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus [DM]. Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton [Zingiberaceae] and Piper cubeba L. f. [Piperaceae] and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. [Apocynaceae] are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties [DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents]. In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 [0.03], 95.19 [0.01], and -2.92 [0.03], while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 [0.02], 92.77 [0.01], and -0.98 [0.01], respectively. The % inhibition of alpha-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 [0.01], 64.35 [0.01], and 20.28 [0.02], while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 [0.01], 31.06 [0.02], and 39.40 [0.01], respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect


Subject(s)
Phytotherapy , Antioxidants , Hypoglycemic Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Piper , Apocynaceae
20.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 413-424, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Murva is an important drug in Ayurveda. Wattakaka volubilis is used as one of the botanical sources of Murva. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the alcohol extract of W. volubilis root in streptoztocin (STZ) induced diabetes and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by the administration of STZ (45 mg/kg, i.p). DM was induced within 72 h. Diabetic animals were treated with glimepiride (0.5 mg/kg) and ethyl alcohol extract 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 d. After determining the changes in fasting serum glucose and lipid profile, animals were further treated for a period of 15 d to determine the protective effect of extract against diabetic neuropathy. All the alcohol extract treated animals, showed a significant decrease in serum glucose level (P<0.001), and overall decrease in the severity of diabetic neuropathy. Alcohol extract of W. volubilis root showed antihyperglycemic activity and beneficial protection against diabetic neuropathy and hence can be a promising agent for treatment and prevention of diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Apocynaceae/classification , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Plant Roots , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies
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