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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11156, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285646

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of human esophageal fibroblast-derived exosomal miR-21 on cisplatin sensitivity against esophageal squamous EC9706 cells. EC9706 cells were co-cultured indirectly with human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF) or miR-21 mimics transfected-HEF in the transwell system. The exosomes in HEF-culture conditioned medium were extracted by differential ultracentrifugation. EC9706 cells were co-cultured with HEF-derived exosomes directly. The cisplatin sensitivity against EC9706 cells was revealed via half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values using MTT assay. The expressions of miR-21, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mRNA, and gene of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) mRNA were determined by qRT-PCR. The changes of the protein level were detected using western blot assay. IC50 values of cisplatin against EC9706 cells were increased after EC9706 cells were co-cultured with either HEF or exosomes derived from miR-21 mimics-transfected HEF. Following the increased level of miR-21, the mRNA expression and protein levels of PTEN and PDCD4 were decreased in EC9706 cells. The cisplatin sensitivity to EC9706 cells was reduced by HEF-derived exosomal miR-21 through targeting PTEN and PDCD4. This study suggested that non-tumor cells in the tumor micro-environment increased the tumor anti-chemotherapy effects through their exosomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cisplatin/pharmacology , RNA-Binding Proteins , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Fibroblasts/metabolism
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 504-510, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286551

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a multifactorial disease that constitutes a serious public health problem worldwide. Prostate cancer advanced stages are associated with the development of androgen-independent tumors and an apoptosis-resistant phenotype that progresses to metastasis. By studying androgen-independent lymphoid nodule carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells induced to apoptosis by serum elimination, we identified the activation of a non-selective cationic channel of 23pS conductance that promotes incoming Ca2+ currents, as well as apoptosis final stages. arp2cDNA was isolated and identified to be of the same cell type, and mRNA was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which was found to be associated with the activation of incoming Ca2+ currents and induction to apoptosis. cDNA, which encodes the ARP2 protein, was overexpressed in LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, which induced apoptosis. Our evidence suggests that protein ARP2 overexpression and transit to the cell membrane allows an increased Ca2+ incoming current that initiates the apoptosis process in epithelial-type cells whose phenotype shows resistance to programmed cell death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Ovum/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Xenopus laevis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cricetulus , CHO Cells , DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/isolation & purification
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 629-637, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated histopathological changes, morphometric and expression of proteins CASPASE-3, BCL-2 and XIAP related to apoptosis in the cerebellum after induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, with or without a model of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used and divided into: control group (C), sham group (S), ischemic group (I), alcoholic group (A), and ischemic and alcoholic group (IA). The cerebellum samples collected were stained for histopathological and morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry study. RESULTS: Histopathological changes were observed a greater degree in animals in groups A and IA. The morphometric study showed no difference in the amount of cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum between the groups. The expression of CASPASE-3 was higher than BCL-2 and XIAP in the groups A and IA. CONCLUSION: We observed correlation between histopathological changes and the occurrence of apoptosis in cerebellar cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcoholism/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(6): e5020, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951681

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor. NP tissues were collected from 20 intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) patients, and from 5 patients with traumatic spine fracture. MiR-21 expressions were tested. NP cells from IDD patients were collected and divided into blank control group, negative control group (transfected with miR-21 negative sequences), miR-21 inhibitor group (transfected with miR-21 inhibitors), miR-21 mimics group (transfected with miR-21 mimics) and PDCD4 siRNA group (transfected with PDCD4 siRNAs). Cell growth was estimated by Cell Counting Kit-8; PDCD4, MMP-2,MMP-9 mRNA expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR; PDCD4, c-Jun and p-c-Jun expressions were tested using western blot. In IDD patients, the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were respectively elevated and decreased (both P<0.05). The miR-21 expressions were positively correlated with Pfirrmann grades, but negatively correlated with PDCD4 mRNA (both P<0.001). In miR-21 inhibitor group, cell growth, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, and p-c-Jun protein expressions were significantly lower, while PDCD4 mRNA and protein expressions were higher than the other groups (all P<0.05). These expressions in the PDCD4 siRNA and miR-21 mimics groups was inverted compared to that in the miR-21 inhibitor group (all P<0.05). MiR-21 could promote the proliferation of human degenerated NP cells by targeting PDCD4, increasing phosphorylation of c-Jun protein, and activating AP-1-dependent transcription of MMPs, indicating that miR-21 may be a crucial biomarker in the pathogenesis of IDD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/analysis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has achieved impressive success since the development of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate. Nevertheless, resistance to imatinib has been observed, and a substantial number of patients need alternative treatment strategies. METHODS: We have evaluated the effects of deferasirox, an orally active iron chelator, and imatinib on K562 and KU812 human CML cell lines. Imatinib-resistant CML cell lines were created by exposing cells to gradually increasing concentrations of imatinib. RESULTS: Co-treatment of cells with deferasirox and imatinib induced a synergistic dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of both CML cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed an accumulation of cells in the subG1 phase. Western blot analysis of apoptotic proteins showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib induced an increased expression of apoptotic proteins. These tendencies were clearly identified in imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. The results also showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib reduced the expression of BcrAbl, phosphorylated Bcr-Abl, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and beta-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: We observed synergistic effects of deferasirox and imatinib on both imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive cell lines. These effects were due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by down-regulated expression of NF-kappaB and beta-catenin levels. Based on these results, we suggest that a combination treatment of deferasirox and imatinib could be considered as an alternative treatment option for imatinib-resistant CML.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Benzoates/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Triazoles/pharmacology
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1150-1154, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76549

ABSTRACT

NADPH oxidase produces a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric epithelial cells. Even though ROS mediate apoptotic cell death, direct involvement of NADPH oxidase on H. pylori-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Besides, H. pylori isolates show a high degree of genetic variability. The predominant genotype of H. pylori in Korea has been reported as cagA+, vacA s1b, m2, iceA genotype. Present study aims to investigate whether NADPH oxidase-generated ROS mediate apoptosis in human gastric epithelial AGS cells infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate. AGS cells were pretreated with or without an NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and cultured in the presence of H. pylori at a bacterium/cell ratio of 300:1. Cell viability, hydrogen peroxide level, DNA fragmentation, and protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, and Bax were determined. Results showed that H. pylori inhibited cell viability with the density of H. pylori added to the cells. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by DPI suppressed H. pylori-induced cell death, increased hydrogen peroxide, DNA fragmentation, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and p53 induction in AGS cells dose-dependently. The results suggest that targeting NADPH oxidase may prevent the development of gastric inflammation associated with H. pylori infection by suppressing abnormal apoptotic cell death of gastric epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Helicobacter Infections/metabolism , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Humans , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Onium Compounds/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Republic of Korea , Stomach/cytology
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(3): 252-258, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704618

ABSTRACT

Beclin 1 plays a critical role in autophagy and functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The expression and prognostic significance of beclin 1 in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the expression of beclin 1, Bcl-2, and p53 in head and neck ACC tissue. Tissue samples from 35 cases (15 females, 20 males) of head and neck ACC were utilized for immunohistochemistry. Beclin 1 expression was observed in 32 cases (91.4%) and considered to be high in 15 cases (42.9%) and low in 20 cases (57.1%). Beclin 1 expression was significantly correlated with a histological growth pattern (P=0.046) and histological grade (P=0.037). Beclin 1 expression was inversely correlated with Bcl-2 expression (P=0.013) and significantly associated with overall survival (P=0.006). Bcl-2 and p53 expression were observed in 21 cases (60.0%) and 16 cases (45.7%). Bcl-2 expression was significantly correlated with perineural invasion (P=0.041) and not associated with overall survival (P=0.053). p53 expression was directly correlated with beclin 1 expression (P=0.044). Our results indicated that beclin 1 may be a novel, promising prognostic factor for clinical outcome in head and neck ACC patients and may play a part in the development of head and neck ACC by interacting with Bcl-2 and p53.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , /metabolism , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/metabolism , /analysis , Autophagy/physiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Prognosis
8.
Caracas; s.n; ene. 2014. 168 p. ilus, graf. (Ift4872014610197).
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1179273

ABSTRACT

En Venezuela y el mundo, el cáncer es la segunda causa de morbi-mortalidad, y la leucemia es uno de los tipos de cáncer que afecta a nuestra población. La principal características de las celulas linfoides y mieloides presentes en la leucemia es que son pocos funcionales y además no responden a las señales proapoptóticas. Por lo tanto, en la búsqueda de compuestos de mejor perfil terapéutico, se evaluó el efecto de compuestos de tipo seco ent-kauranos aislados de plantas terrestres en las lineas celulares jurka E6.1 y HL60 sobre el crecimiento celular a través del método colorimétrico del MTT, la inducción de apoptosis a través del uso de la microscopia confocal, la citometría de flujo y los micro arreglos de proteínas; y sobre el ciclo celular, la actividad de la vía del NFkB y la diferenciación celular también a través de la citometría de flujo. Se determino que el ácido de casacasina, y la caracasina, disminuyeron la proliferación cecular, indujeron el arresto del ciclo celular, provocaron la externalización de la fosfatidilserina y la activación de las capasas 3, 7, 8 y 9, a la vez que promovieron la disminución del potencial mitocondrial, incrementaron la expresión de las proteínas proapoptóticas en ambas líneas celulares, disminuyeron la activación de la vía de señalización del NFkB en la línea celular Jurkat E6.1, y ademas indujeron la expresión de la proteína CD40 e incrementaron la producción de especies reactivas de oxigeno en la línea celular HL60, por lo que estos compuestos ent-kauranos poseen un alto potencial anticancerígeno para la leucemia linfocítica aguda de células T y para la leucemia promielocítica


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Diterpenes, Kaurane/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/pathology , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/prevention & control , Leukemia, T-Cell/pathology , Leukemia, T-Cell/prevention & control , Cell Differentiation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Jurkat Cells , Diterpenes, Kaurane/metabolism , Diterpenes, Kaurane/therapeutic use , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 15(5): 2-2, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657661

ABSTRACT

Background: Altering target cell apoptosis is one of the challenging ideas of biotechnological applications. There are several applications of over expressing Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein from recombinant protein production to DNA vaccination strategies. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-apoptotic efficacy of Bcl-xL expressing dual promoter plasmid system as a candidate to be used for recombinant protein production and DNA vaccination approaches. For this purpose, Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein gene was inserted in a dual expressing vector system in frame with EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) after IRES (internal ribosomal site). The plasmid has a multiple cloning site after CMV (cytomegalovirus promoter) left empty to be inserted a biopharmaceutical protein gene region or DNA vaccine antigens. Results: In order to determine the anti-apoptotic efficacy of Bcl-xL inserted dual expressing vector, BHK-21 cells were transfected both with this plasmid and empty vector as control. Apoptosis was stimulated by several apoptosis inducing agents and serum deprivation in the transfected cells for 48 hrs. Cells expressing Bcl-xL protein in frame with EGFP were determined by flow cytometry as an indicator of cell viability. Additionally, apoptosis were determined by intracellular cleaved Casp 3 staining in Bcl-xL expressing EGFP positive cells. The dual expression plasmid bearing Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein prolonged the cell survival rate and protected cells from apoptosis upon apoptosis induction by doxorubicin and camptothecin in which the anti-apoptotic efficacies are inhibited through over expressing of Bcl-xL. pIRES2EGFP/Bcl-xL transfected cell ratio was significantly higher compared to empty vector transfected cells (P < 0.001). In contrast, apoptotic cell ratio was significantly lower in pIRES2EGFP/Bcl-xL transfected cell population compared to empty vector transfected cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion...


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , bcl-X Protein/metabolism , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism
10.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 49(1): 60-65
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144553

ABSTRACT

Aim: The clinical significance of Fas and FasL in hormone-sensitive carcinomas has been reported. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-regulating genes Fas and FasL in Indian breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients in relation to hormone receptor status. Study Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 63 untreated female patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 32 female patients with fibroadenoma were studied. Expression of Fas and FasL was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining method. Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact test and nonparametric correlation test (Spearman rank correlation test) were performed. Result: Fas was detected in 97% of the fibroadenomas and there was a slight decrease in levels of expression with histological grades of IDC. The expression of FasL was detected in 75% fibroadenomas and its expression increased in IDC. There was no correlation between Fas, FasL expression and hormone receptor status. Strong expression of Fas in myoepithelial cells was noted in 12 out of 32 fibroadenoma cases. Conclusion: Expression of Fas and FasL alone is unlikely to be important as a predictive factor as they express in both normal and malignant breast epithelium. But strong expression of Fas in myoepithelial cells along with strong nuclear expression of FasL in epithelial cells of fibroadenoma could be useful as an early predictive factor for onset of malignancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Epithelium/metabolism , Fas Ligand Protein/genetics , Fas Ligand Protein/metabolism , Female , Fibroadenoma/genetics , Fibroadenoma/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Middle Aged , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Invest. clín ; 52(3): 274-290, sep. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659218

ABSTRACT

La apoptosis es un proceso genéticamente controlado mediante el cual las células inducen su propia muerte. Mensualmente y en forma cíclica, el ovario, el endometrio y la glándula mamaria atraviesan por ciclos de proliferación celular y apoptosis respondiendo a los cambios en la secreción hormonal. Durante el desarrollo embrionario, la apoptosis está implicada en procesos relacionados con la escultura de los diferentes órganos, a través de la eliminación de estructuras innecesarias y con el control de las células defectuosas. Asimismo, la apoptosis juega un papel fundamental en la función ovárica. La reserva folicular se establece durante la vida fetal y luego se va eliminando gradualmente. La apoptosis está involucrada tanto en la muerte celular durante el proceso de reclutamiento del folículo dominante, como en la luteólisis. Durante la pubertad la apoptosis contribuye a la formación del espacio luminal de los ductos terminales de la mama. A su vez, el proceso de involución mamaria luego de la lactancia se caracteriza por una apoptosis masiva de las células epiteliales secretoras. Así como la apoptosis está involucrada en los cambios fisiológicos que ocurren a nivel endometrial, también se ha asociado a la muerte celular programada con procesos patológicos, especialmente en aquellos caracterizados por el incremento en el crecimiento celular como es el caso de la endometriosis. El delicado balance entre la apoptosis y la proliferación celular es fundamental ya que permite que los tejidos puedan responder en forma cíclica a los cambios hormonales fisiológicos y prevenir procesos de transformación neoplásica.


Apoptosis is a genetically controlled form of cell suicide. Due to the cyclic nature of the female reproductive system, the ovary, the endometrium and the mammary gland sustain continuous cycles of cell growth and apoptosis in response to hormonal changes. Apoptotic cell death plays multiple roles during embryonic and organ development. It is involved in sculpturing tissues and serves to delete structures that are no longer required. It is clear that apoptosis plays an active and important role in ovarian physiological functions. Apoptosis plays a major role during folliculogenesis and dominant follicle selection and also plays part in corpus luteum regression. In addition, it has been shown that programmed cell death plays important roles in the mammary gland development and ductal morphogenesis. During puberty, lumen formation is associated with the selective apoptosis of centrally located cells. In turn, postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by the secretory epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death. Apoptosis has also been associated with physiological, as well as pathological, endometrial processes such as cancer and endometriosis. The delicate balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation is essential in controlling the cyclical growth of the reproductive tissues and plays an important role in the prevention of neoplastic transformation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Apoptosis , Breast/cytology , Genitalia, Female/cytology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology , Caenorhabditis elegans/ultrastructure , Corpus Luteum/cytology , Embryonic Development , Endometriosis/pathology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/pathology , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology , Lactation , Menstrual Cycle , Morphogenesis , Ovulation , Ovarian Follicle/cytology , Puberty
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47187

ABSTRACT

This study describes the expression of heat shock protein70 (HSP70) and alpha-basic-crystallin (alpha-BC) and their association with apoptosis and some related adaptor proteins in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-induced myocarditis in lambs. HSP70 was generally overexpressed in the myocardial tissues and inflammatory cells of FMDV-induced myocarditis with differential accumulation and localization in same hearts when compared to non-foot-and-mouth disease control hearts. alpha-BC immunolabeling showed coarse aggregations in the Z line of the cardiomyocytes in FMDV-infected hearts in contrast to control hearts. Overall, the results of this study show that the anti-apoptotic proteins, HSP70 and alpha-BC, were overexpressed with increased apoptosis in FMDV-infected heart tissues. Both proteins failed to protect the cardiomyocytes from apoptosis as defense mechanisms to the FMDV during the infection, suggesting that the virus is able to increase apoptosis via both downregulation and/or upregulation of these anti-apoptotic proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/complications , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/classification , Gene Expression , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Myocarditis/complications , Myocardium/pathology , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/virology , Turkey , alpha-Crystallin B Chain/metabolism
13.
Clinics ; 65(12): 1371-1377, 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris on hepatoma cell line HepG2. INTRODUCTION: The search for food and spices that can induce apoptosis in cancer cells has been a major study interest in the last decade. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, its chemopreventive effects in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells have not been studied in great detail. METHODS: HepG2 liver cancer cells and WRL68 normal liver cells were treated with various concentrations (0-4 mg/ml) of hot water extract of C. vulgaris after 24 hours incubation. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by TUNEL assay while DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay. Apoptosis proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Chlorella vulgaris decreased the number of viable HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05), with an IC50 of 1.6 mg/ml. DNA damage as measured by Comet assay was increased in HepG2 cells at all concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris tested. Evaluation of apoptosis by TUNEL assay showed that Chlorella vulgaris induced a higher apoptotic rate (70 percent) in HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells, WRL68 (15 percent). Western blot analysis showed increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins P53, Bax and caspase-3 in the HepG2 cells compared to normal liver cells WRL68, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella vulgaris may have anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis signaling cascades via an increased expression of P53, Bax and caspase-3 proteins and through a reduction of Bcl-2 protein, which subsequently lead to increased DNA damage and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry , DNA Damage/physiology , /drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Hot Temperature , /cytology , /metabolism , Water
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162253

ABSTRACT

An abrupt increase of intracellular Ca2+ is observed in cells under hypoxic or oxidatively stressed conditions. The dysregulated increase of cytosolic Ca2+ triggers apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial swelling and activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a Ca2+-dependent enzyme that catalyzes transamidation reaction producing cross-linked and polyaminated proteins. TG2 activity is known to be involved in the apoptotic process. However, the pro-apoptotic role of TG2 is still controversial. In this study, we investigate the role of TG2 in apoptosis induced by Ca2+-overload. Overexpression of TG2 inhibited the A23187-induced apoptosis through suppression of caspase-3 and -9 activities, cytochrome c release into cytosol, and mitochondria membrane depolarization. Conversely, down-regulation of TG2 caused the increases of cell death, caspase-3 activity and cytochrome c in cytosol in response to Ca2+-overload. Western blot analysis of Bcl-2 family proteins showed that TG2 reduced the expression level of Bax protein. Moreover, overexpression of Bax abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of TG2, indicating that TG2-mediated suppression of Bax is responsible for inhibiting cell death under Ca2+-overloaded conditions. Our findings revealed a novel anti-apoptotic pathway involving TG2, and suggested the induction of TG2 as a novel strategy for promoting cell survival in diseases such as ischemia and neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Calcimycin/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Down-Regulation , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Ionophores/pharmacology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Transglutaminases/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
15.
Biocell ; 31(1): 1-12, abr. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491532

ABSTRACT

Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of the treatment are vital to preserve function and/or to slow down renal injury. Obstructive uropathy effects -decline in the plasmatic renal flow and glomerular filtration rate, interstitial infiltrate of leukocytes, significant decrease of the urine concentration, loss of the capacity to concentrate urine as well as fibrosis and apoptosis- are a consequence of a variety of factors that work in complex ways and are still not fully understood. Mediators as angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-beta) and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in congenital obstructive nephropathy. The renin-angiotensin system is regulated in different ways, affecting both renal structure and function, and that it in turn depends upon the duration of the obstruction. On the other hand, the role of nitric oxide in renal injury remains somewhat controversial due to the fact that it can exert opposite effects such as cytoprotective and prooxidant / proapoptotic efects as well as proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, reactive oxidative species (ROS) might contribute to the progression of renal disease. During unilateral ureteral obstruction induced uncoordinated and aberrant growth may lead to the loss of cellular phenotype and apoptosis. Promoting inflammatory responses, the oxidizers can regulate the adherence of certain molecules and proinflammatory mediators, transcription factors and fibrogenic cytokines, that are clearly involved in the progression of renal disease. The congenital obstructive nephropathy is characterized by tubular atrophy, cellular proliferation, apoptosis and fibrosis; immature kidney is more susceptible than adult kidney to showing the above mentioned alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Adult , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin II/urine , Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/urine , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/urine , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/urine , Apoptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/urine , Biomarkers/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Ureteral Obstruction/physiopathology , Ureteral Obstruction/metabolism , Ureteral Obstruction/urine
16.
J Biosci ; 2007 Mar; 32(2): 261-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110746

ABSTRACT

We report here the isolation of a homologue of the potential anti-apoptotic gene, defender against apoptotic death (dad1 )from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR),we investigated its expression in the execution process of programmed cell death (PCD)in UV-C exposed dying C.reinhardtii cells.Reverse- transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that C.reinhardtii dad1 amplification was drastically reduced in UV-C exposed dying C.reinhardtii cells.We connect the downregulation of dad1 with the upregulation of apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1)and the physiological changes that occur in C.reinhardtii cells upon exposure to 12 J/m 2 UV-C in order to show a reciprocal relationship between proapoptotic and inhibitor of apoptosis factors.The temporal changes indicate a correlation between the onset of cell death and dad1 downregulation.The sequence of the PCR product of the cDNA encoding the dad1 homologue was aligned with the annotated dad1 (C_20215)from the Chlamydomonas database (http://genome.jgi-psf.org:8080/annotator/servlet/jgi.annotation.Annotation?pDb=chlre2); Annotation?pDb=chlre2 );this sequence was found to show 100% identity,both at the nucleotide and amino acid level. The 327 bp transcript showed an open reading frame of 87 amino acid residues.The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative C.reinhardtii DAD1 homologue showed 54% identity with Oryza sativa, 56 identity with Drosophila melanogaster, 66% identity with Xenopus laevis, and 64% identity with Homo sapiens,Sus scrofa,Gallus gallus,Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/metabolism , Base Sequence , Blotting, Western , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Down-Regulation/radiation effects , Molecular Sequence Data , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Ultraviolet Rays
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37954

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a physiological process by which genetically damaged cells or undesired cells can be eliminated. Various morphological and molecular changes undergoing during the process of apoptosis are the formation of apoptotic blebs of the cell membrane, cell shrinkage, condensation of chromatin and the disruption of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into typical fragments of multiples of 180 base pairs. These changes can be detected in a number of ways. DNA ladder formation, which is observed following gel electrophoresis technique although is widely accepted but does not reflect the DNA breakdown in individual cell and also may miss contributions from small sub-populations in a heterogeneous cell population. Alkaline comet assay as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis, on the other hand, accurately measures DNA fragmentation on a single cell level and allows analysis of subpopulation of cells. The assay was originally developed for measuring DNA damage of cells exposed to any genotoxic agent. However, the comet image generated by an apoptotic cell is different from that obtained with a cell treated for a short time with a genotoxic agent. Correlation of comet formation with various other established parameters of apoptosis is very important. The present study aims to correlate different features of apoptosis with the formation of comet tail in human leukemia K-562 cells using tea extracts. Apoptosis as measured by formation of apoptotic bodies, flow cytometric analysis, activation of caspase 3 and 8, and expressions of apoptosis related genes such as bcl-2 and bax showed high degree of correlation with comet tail moment. This indicates that comet assay can accurately reflect measure of DNA fragmentation and hence can be used to detect a cell undergoing apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Camellia sinensis , Cell Culture Techniques , Comet Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute/metabolism , Plant Extracts , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(3): 327-333, Mar. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-421362

ABSTRACT

The expression of P53, Bcl-2, Bax, Bag-1, and Mcl-1 proteins in CD5/CD20-positive B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells from 30 typical CLL patients was evaluated before and after 48 h of incubation with 10-6 M fludarabine using multiparametric flow cytometric analysis. Protein expression was correlated with annexin V expression, Rai modified clinical staging, lymphocyte doubling time, and previous treatment. Our main goal was to determine the predictive value of these proteins in CLL cells in terms of disease evolution. Bcl-2 expression decreased from a median fluorescence index (MFI) of 331.71 ± 42.2 to 245.81 ± 52.2 (P < 0.001) after fludarabine treatment, but there was no difference between viable cells (331.57 ± 44.6 MFI) and apoptotic cells (331.71 ± 42.2 MFI) before incubation (P = 0.859). Bax expression was higher in viable cells (156.24 ± 32.2 MFI) than in apoptotic cells (133.56 ± 35.7 MFI) before incubation, probably reflecting defective apoptosis in CLL (P = 0.001). Mcl-1 expression was increased in fludarabine-resistant cells and seemed to be a remarkable protein for the inhibition of the apoptotic process in CLL (from 233.59 ± 29.8 to 252.04 ± 35.5; P = 0.033). After fludarabine treatment, Bag-1 expression was increased in fludarabine-resistant cells (from 425.55 ± 39.3 to 447.49 ± 34.5 MFI, P = 0.012), and interestingly, this higher expression occurred in patients who had a short lymphocyte doubling time (P = 0.022). Therefore, we could assume that Bag-1 expression in such situation might identify CLL patients who will need treatment earlier.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Apoptosis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/physiopathology , /metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , /metabolism , Vidarabine/pharmacology , /metabolism
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37685

ABSTRACT

Induction of apoptosis is one of the most active strategies in cancer chemoprevention and the ability of medicinal plants in this regard has attracted major research interest. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptosis inducing capacity of an ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis using the apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3 as markers. Topical application of DMBA to the hamster cheek pouch for 14 weeks resulted in well developed squamous cell carcinomas associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3. Administration of ENLE inhibited DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis, as revealed by the absence of neoplasms, with induction of Bim and caspases 8 and 3 and inhibition of Bcl-2 expression. Our results suggest that the chemopreventive effects of ENLE may be mediated by induction of apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Azadirachta , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases/metabolism , Cheek , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mesocricetus , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism
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