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1.
Educ. med. super ; 36(3): e3144, jul.-set. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404563

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enseñanza de la reanimación cardiopulmonar se basa en el estudio de conceptos, teorías y prácticas que son evaluados con el objetivo de medir el nivel de retención de los individuos. Objetivo: Caracterizar el impacto de las tendencias actuales en la enseñanza de la reanimación cardiopulmonar básica. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos científicos pertenecientes a las bases de datos Medline, PubMed, SciELO Regional y SciELO Cuba. Se utilizaron descriptores en español e inglés y se revisaron 29 citas. Resultados: Las tendencias actuales implican la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías, la autopreparación y el poco desarrollo de entornos presenciales. Se consideran las escuelas como lugares clave para las nuevas formas de enseñanza. Los simuladores permiten la formación bajo situaciones clínicas reales. El autoaprendizaje garantiza la consolidación de las habilidades prácticas trasmitidas por el instructor y asimiladas por el estudiante. Conclusiones: La reanimación cardiopulmonar garantiza una mejor calidad de vida de la población en general. Con el avance tecnológico se ha abierto una nueva etapa en la formación de habilidades, donde ha primado la autonomía; aunque existen notables desventajas. Entonces se necesita un asesoramiento con instructor, que ofrezca los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos básicos compaginados con un nivel de autonomía del aprendizaje. Este proceso debe seguirse y controlarse. A la vez que la formación no se detiene ahí, la formación sistemática en cualquier lugar permite la reafirmación de lo aprendido. De este modo, los avances tecnológicos desempeñarán su mejor beneficio(AU)


Introduction: The teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is based on the study of concepts, theories and practices evaluated with the aim of measuring the retention level of individuals. Objective: To characterize the impact of current trends in the teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods: A bibliographic review of scientific articles from Medline, PubMed, SciELO Regional and SciELO Cuba databases was carried out. Descriptors in Spanish and English were used, as well as 29 citations were reviewed. Results: Current trends involve the application of new technologies, self-training and little development of face-to-face settings. Schools are considered as key places for new forms of teaching. Simulators allow training under real clinical situations. Self-learning guarantees the consolidation of practical skills transmitted by the instructor and assimilated by the student. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation guarantees better quality of life for the general population. Technological progress has opened a new stage in the training of skills, in which autonomy has prevailed; however, there are significant disadvantages. Therefore, there is a need for instructor-led counseling, offering basic theoretical and practical knowledge combined with a level of learning autonomy. This process must be monitored and controlled. While training does not stop at such point, systematic training at any location allows reaffirmation of what has been learned. In this way, technological advances will permit to take the best advantage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Teaching , Technological Development , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/trends , Professional Training , High Fidelity Simulation Training , Learning , Aptitude , Manikins
2.
Educ. med. super ; 36(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404555

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El desarrollo científico técnico mundial impone nuevos retos sociales y económicos, y responde a una educación de calidad, que permita la aplicación de este avance en las nuevas tecnologías. Objetivo: Exponer el desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología en el mejoramiento de la enseñanza de las habilidades teórico-prácticas en los estudiantes de medicina del internado rotatorio de Cirugía General. Métodos: El estudio empleó la contrastación de métodos teóricos como el histórico-lógico, el análisis documental y la sistematización teórica, para la recolección de información, la construcción, el desarrollo y la conformación final del producto. Conclusiones: Se actualizaron los fundamentos filosóficos, y los conocimientos teóricos del aprendizaje y las nuevas tecnologías para el mejoramiento de la enseñanza de las habilidades teórico-prácticas en los estudiantes de medicina del internado rotatorio de Cirugía General. El desarrollo tecnológico, la enseñanza y la práctica de la ética médica permiten solucionar los problemas de salud de la población en los distintos niveles de atención, lo cual contribuye con la formación integral del futuro médico general(AU)


Introduction: The global scientific-technical development imposes new social and economic challenges, as well as it responds to a quality education, which allows for the application of this advance to new technologies. Objective: To expose the development of science and technology for improving the theoretical-practical skills of medical students during a general surgery rotatory internship. Methods: The study used the opposition of theoretical methods such as the historical-logical, document analysis and theoretical systematization, for the collection of information, construction, development and final conformation of the product. Conclusions: The philosophical foundations were updated, together with the theoretical knowledge about learning and new technologies for improving the teaching of theoretical-practical skills among medical students during a general surgery rotatory internship. Technological development, teaching and practice of medical ethics allow solving the health problems of the population at different levels of care, which contributes to the integral formation of the future general physician(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , General Surgery , Technological Development , Clinical Competence , Learning , Students, Medical , Internship and Residency/methods
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 657-661, jun. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385668

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anthropometry is essential to understand the predisposition of an athlete to practice a specific sporting activity, to assess their fitness, and in association with functional parameters, to identify any correlations between their anthropometric profile and their sport performance. Here, we present the anthropometric profiles of athletes of the Italian national teams, who represented Italy in the 2019-2020 competitive season in the following sports: artistic (n=4) and rhythmic (n=12) gymnastics; distance swimming (speciality: 100 m freestyle) (n=14); synchronized swimming (n=10); and basketball (n=6). We also consider a group of sedentary women (n=22) for comparisons. The following anthropometric measurements were taken for each woman: stature; anterior trunk height (i.e., suprasternal- symphysion distance); chest circumference passing through the mesosternal point; biacromial diameter (i.e., akromion-akromion distance); wrist circumference; abdominal circumference passing through the omphalion and the lumbale; hip circumference; height of lower limb (i.e., epitrochanter-planta distance). Height was a selective factor in both basketball, which requires tall athletes, and artistic gymnastics, where in contrast, well-muscled athletes of small stature are required. In aquatic sports, the constitutional habitus is characterized by good development of the upper body compared to the lower limbs. The selection of elite athletes takes place primarily through anthropometric analyses, although other functional and psychological factors also influence their sports performance.


RESUMEN: La evaluación antropométrica de un atleta es fundamental para conocer su predisposición en la práctica de un determinado deporte, evaluar su estado de forma y, junto a los parámetros funcionales, identificar posibles relaciones entre el perfil antropométrico y el rendimiento. A continuación, presentamos el perfil antropométrico de las atletas de los Equipos Nacionales que representaron a Italia en la temporada 2019-2020 en las siguientes disciplinas deportivas: gimnasia rítmica (n=12), gimnasia artística (n=4), nado sincronizado (n=10), natación (especialidad: 100 m estilo libre) (n=14), baloncesto (n=6). A cada atleta le fueron efectuadas las siguientes mediciones: altura, altura anterior del torso (distancia supraesternal-symphysion), circunferencia torácica en el punto mesosternal, diámetro biacromial (distancia acromion-acromion), circunferencia de la muñeca, circunferencia abdominal a nivel umbilical, circunferencia pélvica, altura del miembro inferior (distancia epitrocantérea-planta). La altura es el factor selectivo en el baloncesto, que exige atletas altas, así como en la gimnasia artística que, al contrario, requiere atletas no muy altas y con una buena musculatura. En los deportes acuáticos, el rasgo característico es un buen desarrollo de la parte superior del cuerpo respecto a la parte inferior. La selección de los atletas de elite se realiza en primer lugar a través de estudios antropométricos, aunque el rendimiento depende también de otros factores funcionales y psicológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sports , Anthropometry , Athletic Performance , Athletes , Aptitude , Italy
4.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e55697, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396785

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A consciência fonológica é uma habilidade muito importante para leitura, escrita e matemática em muitos anos escolares. A sua investigação e avaliação tem sido realizada em diversos contextos com populações típicas ou atípicas para entender como ela se desenvolve e, consequentemente, contribuir para pesquisas sobre desempenho acadêmico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho éestudar a influência da consciência fonológica no desempenho acadêmico em estudos brasileiros e apresentar os principais instrumentos padronizados utilizados na avaliação desta habilidade. Métodos: Realizou-se busca de artigos dos últimos cinco anos, nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO usando descritores em português: "consciência fonológica" e "leitura" ou "escrita" ou "matemática" ou "desempenho acadêmico" ou "habilidade acadêmica", assim como descritores em inglês usando mesmas expressões. Foram selecionados estudos de acesso livre, realizados no Brasil, publicados em português, inglês ou espanhol, que utilizaram um instrumento padronizado e apresentaram os descritores mencionados no título ou resumo. Resultados: Dos 18 artigos analisados, 17 concluíram que a consciência fonológica foi importante para a leitura, escrita e matemática, sendo que a leitura e escrita foram as habilidades mais investigadas. Os instrumentos usados avaliam principais componentes da consciência fonológica e foram desenvolvidos por autores brasileiros. Conclusão: Os achados evidenciam que a consciência fonológica é uma habilidade muito importante para o desempenho acadêmico em diversas séries escolares. Reforça-se a necessidade de monitoramento, avaliação e estimulação precoce com a habilidade em crianças típicas e atípicas.


Introduction: Phonological awareness is a very important skill for reading, writing and math in many school years. Its investigation and evaluation has been carried out in different contexts with typical or atypical populations to understand how it develops and consequently contribute to research on academic performance. Objective: The aim of this paper is to study the influence of phonological awareness on academic performance in Brazilian studies and to present the main standardized instruments used in the assessment to this skill. Methods: Articles from the last five years were searched in LILACS and SciELO databases using descriptors in English: "phonological awareness" and "reading" or "writing" or "mathematics" or "academic performance" or "academic ability", as well as descriptors in Portuguese using the same expressions. Open access studies carried out in Brazil, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which used a standardized instrument and presented the descriptors mentioned in the title or abstract, were selected. Results: Of the 18 articles analyzed, 17 concluded that phonological awareness was important for reading, writing and mathematics, with reading and writing being the most investigated skills. The instruments used assess the main components of phonological awareness and were developed by Brazilian authors. Conclusion: The findings show that phonological awareness is a very important skill for academic performance in different grades. It reinforces the need for monitoring, assessment, and early intervention with skill in typical and atypical children.


Introducción: La conciencia fonológica es una habilidad muy importante para la lectura, la escritura y las matemáticas en muchos años escolares. Su investigación y evaluación se ha realizado en diferentes contextos con poblaciones típicas o atípicas para comprender cómo se desarrolla y consecuentemente contribuir a la investigación sobre el rendimiento académico. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la influencia de la conciencia fonológica en el rendimiento académico en los estudios brasileños y presentar los principales instrumentos estandarizados utilizados en la evaluación de esta competencia. Métodos: Se buscaron artículos de los últimos cinco años en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO utilizando descriptores en portugués: "consciência fonológica" e "leitura" ou "escrita" ou "matemática" ou "desempenho acadêmico" ou "habilidade acadêmica", así como descriptores en Inglés usando las mismas expresiones. Se seleccionaron estudios de acceso abierto realizados en Brasil, publicados en portugués, inglés o español, que utilizaron un instrumento estandarizado y presentaron los descriptores mencionados en el título o resumen. Resultados: De los 18 artículos analizados, 17 concluyeron que la conciencia fonológica es importante para la lectura, la escritura y las matemáticas, siendo la lectura y la escritura las habilidades más investigadas. Los instrumentos utilizados evalúan los principales componentes de la conciencia fonológica y fueron desarrollados por autores brasileños. Conclusión: Los hallazgos muestran que la conciencia fonológica es una habilidad muy importante para el desempeño académico en los diferentes grados. Refuerza la necesidad de seguimiento, evaluación e intervención temprana con habilidad en niños típicos y atípicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Aptitude , Awareness , Academic Performance , Language Development , Reading , Phonetics , Handwriting , Mathematics
5.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 29-35, ene.-mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391836

ABSTRACT

Durante la última década las escuelas de medicina han incorporado herramientas de educación a distancia, existiendo numerosas áreas de intervención. El razonamiento clínico es un área que requiere una ejercitación continua y una retroalimentación efectiva. Dado esto se plantea la interrogante de la recepción de una herramienta de aprendizaje lúdico del razonamiento clínico médico que entregue la retroalimentación efectiva con fines de estimulación del aprendizaje. Para ello se desarrolló una herramienta multiplataforma compatible con dispositivos de escritorio y móviles basada en Ren'Py, la cual fue distribuida a estudiantes de cuarto y quinto año. Posteriormente, se aplicó una encuesta de percepción para evaluar la recepción de la herramienta. Dentro de los puntos evaluados destaca ser una forma motivante de reforzar los estudios, con entrega de información atingente y facilidad de uso. Permite además reconocer debilidades y es considerada un aporte a la formación por parte de los estudiantes. A raíz de esta implementación se pudo confirmar utilidad de la retroalimentación efectiva entregada de forma instantánea dentro de casos clínicos estructurados, abriendo nuevas posibilidades al abanico de herramientas disponibles en educación superior.


Over the last decade, medical schools have incorporated distance learning tools, with numerous intervention areas available. Clinical reasoning is an area that requires continuous training and effective feedback. Given this, arises the question about the reception of a gamified learning tool for medical clinical reasoning that delivers effective feedback intended for the stimulation of learning. For this, a multiplatform tool compatible with desktop and mobile devices was developed based on Ren'Py, which was distributed to fourth and fifth year students. Subsequently, a perception survey was applied to evaluate the reception of the tool. Among the points evaluated, it stands out to be a motivating way of reinforcing the studies, with delivery of pertinent information and ease of use. It also allows the recognition of weaknesses and is considered a contribution to training by the students. As a result of this implementation, it was possible to confirm the usefulness of the effective feedback delivered instantly within structured clinical cases, opening new possibilities to the range of tools available in higher education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Learning , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Competence , Feedback , Clinical Reasoning , Gamification
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 78, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1395084

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an instrument for measuring the home cooking skills of health professionals involved with guidelines for promoting adequate and healthy food in primary health care. METHODS This is a methodological study with a psychometric approach, carried out in the city of São Paulo between January and November 2020, to develop and validate a self-applied online instrument. The data of the 472 participants were presented by descriptive statistics. Content validation was performed by expert judgment using the two round Delphi technique and empirical statistics for consensus evidence. Exploratory factor analysis was used for construct validation and reliability analysis, and the model adjustment rates and composite reliability were analyzed. RESULTS The instrument presented satisfactory content validity for CVRc indices and �� in the two rounds of the Delphi technique. After the factor analysis, the final model of the Primary Health Care Home Cooking Skills Scale presented 29 items with adequate factorial loads (> 0.3). Bartlett's and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin's (KMO) tests of sphericity performed in exploratory factorial analysis suggested interpretability in the correlation matrix, the parallel analysis indicated four domains and explained variance of 64.1%. The composite reliability of the factors was adequate (> 0.70) and the H-index suggested replicable factors in future studies. All adjustment rates proved to be adequate. CONCLUSIONS The Primary Health Care Home Cooking Skills Scale presented evidence of validity and reliability. It is short and easy to apply and will make it possible to reliably ascertain the need for qualification of the workforce, favoring the planning of actions and public policies of promotion of adequate and healthy food in primary health care.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Desenvolver e validar instrumento para mensuração de habilidades culinárias domésticas de profissionais de saúde envolvidos com orientações de promoção da alimentação adequada e saudável da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo metodológico com abordagem psicométrica, realizado no município de São Paulo entre janeiro e novembro de 2020, para desenvolvimento e validação de instrumento on-line autoaplicável. Os dados dos 472 participantes foram apresentados por estatística descritiva. A validação de conteúdo foi realizada por julgamento de especialistas utilizando técnica Delphi de dois rounds e estatísticas empíricas para evidência de consenso. Empregou-se análise fatorial exploratória para validação de constructo e análise de confiabilidade, analisados índices de ajuste do modelo e fidedignidade composta. RESULTADOS O instrumento apresentou validade de conteúdo satisfatória para índices de CVRc e �� nos dois rounds da técnica Delphi. Após análise fatorial, o modelo final da Escala de Habilidades Culinárias Domésticas da Atenção Primária à Saúde apresentou 29 itens com cargas fatoriais adequadas (> 0,3). Os testes de esfericidade de Bartlett e Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) realizados em análise fatorial exploratória sugeriram interpretabilidade na matriz de correlação, a análise paralela indicou quatro domínios e variância explicada de 64,1%. A fidedignidade composta dos fatores foi adequada (> 0,70) e o índice H sugeriu fatores replicáveis em estudos futuros. Todos os índices de ajustes mostraram-se adequados. CONCLUSÕES A Escala de Habilidades Culinárias Domésticas da Atenção Primária à Saúde apresentou evidências de validade e confiabilidade. É curta e de fácil aplicação e possibilitará a averiguação de forma fidedigna da necessidade de qualificação da força de trabalho, favorecendo o planejamento de ações e políticas públicas de promoção da alimentação adequada e saudável na atenção primária à saúde.


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Primary Health Care , Psychometrics , Food and Nutrition Education , Cooking , Validation Study
7.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220005821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: This study aimed to analyze the difference between tactical, technical, and physical variables in selected and unselected top players of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Methods: A sample data of 1049 soccer players were collected by the multiple-camera computerised tracking system. Subsequently, data were analyzed and divided into two groups: selected (man of the match and top 10 players of the World Cup) and unselected players (other players). Twenty-six performance variables were used to assess tactical (passing), technical (goals, assist, shots, and fouls), and physical variables (height, distance covered, distance with and without the ball, number of sprints, maximal speed, and intensities zone 1 [low] to 5 [high]). Results: The selected players had more tactical (performed and completed more long, middle, and short pass), technical (goal for, assist, shots, shots on goal, fouls committed on them), and physical variables (covered more distance and distance with the ball, more sprints, greater speed and distance in low intensity [zone 1]). However, they were shorter in height and covered less distance in moderate intensity [zones 2 and 3] when compared to unselected players (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that the selected players have more tactical, technical, and physical variables than the unselected players. Our findings could be used as a trustworthy tool (performance variables) to characterize the top players of the World Cup.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Soccer , Employee Performance Appraisal , Athletes , Analysis of Variance , Data Analysis
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 219 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397382

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Habilidades culinárias domésticas (HCD) são valorizadas pelo Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (GAPB) e parecem ser importantes tanto para o profissional de saúde, no ato de suas orientações, quanto para o frequentador da rede de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), que deve sentir-se confiante a fazer escolhas alimentares saudáveis, com autonomia. Embora a quantidade de estudos sobre essa temática tenha aumentado nos últimos anos, poucos descreveram o desenvolvimento e validação de instrumentos para avaliação das HCD, especialmente entre profissionais de saúde da APS. Objetivo: Elaborar instrumento que permita aferir as HCD de profissionais de saúde na APS e materiais instrucionais para estímulo ao desenvolvimento de tais habilidades em consonância com as recomendações do GAPB e do Marco de EAN para Políticas Públicas. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão de literatura sobre o fenômeno latente e uma revisão sistemática para identificação de estudos nacionais e internacionais que reportaram o desenvolvimento de instrumentos para avaliar habilidades culinárias em adultos, com análise crítica de suas qualidades psicométricas. A seguir, foi desenvolvida a Escala de Habilidades Culinárias Domésticas da APS (EHAPS), apresentada nesta pesquisa. 44 itens baseados em domínios teóricos foram inicialmente idealizados. Para validação de conteúdo da EHAPS, utilizou-se Técnica Delphi de 2 rounds e analisou-se a Razão Crítica de Validade de Conteúdo (CVRc) de cada item do instrumento. O coeficiente Kappa também foi apresentado para avaliar a concordância entre especialistas e o índice de validade de conteúdo (IVC) foi apresentado para avaliação do conteúdo do instrumento como um todo. Um pré-teste foi conduzido para avaliação da operacionalização do instrumento. Para análise da validade de constructo e de confiabilidade da EHAPS, 472 profissionais de saúde atuantes em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Município de São Paulo responderam a escala. A Análise Fatorial foi realizada, utilizando-se o programa estatístico FACTOR versão 10.10.03. Apresentadas as evidências de validade e confiabilidade do instrumento, foram desenvolvidos materiais educativos digitais, baseados nos domínios de HCD avaliados pela EHAPS, nas recomendações do GAPB e do Marco de EAN para Políticas Públicas. Os resultados da condução de grupos focais com profissionais de saúde participantes da etapa de validade de constructo e confiabilidade da EHAPS que apresentaram alto nível de HCD subsidiaram o desenvolvimento de 5 vídeos educativos, e materiais digitais complementares, submetidos à análise de validade de conteúdo por especialistas, empregando-se técnica Delphi de 2 rounds. Analisou-se a CVRc dos materiais educativos e coeficiente Kappa para avaliar a concordância entre especialistas. Resultados: A busca bibliográfica identificou 1148 estudos potencialmente relevantes, dos quais 12 foram incluídos na revisão sistemática. Somente quatro estudos apresentaram resultados satisfatórios para validade de constructo, quatro estudos apresentaram adequada consistência interna e nenhum estudo apresentou classificação adequada para validade de conteúdo. Desta forma, a EHAPS foi desenvolvida e validada: A taxa de resposta para o primeiro round da técnica Delphi foi de 72,7% (8/11) e 87,5% (7/8) para o segundo round. A avaliação dos especialistas resultou em 43 itens válidos quanto ao conteúdo. O préteste identificou adequada operacionalização da EHAPS. Após análise fatorial, o modelo final da EHAPS apresentou 29 itens com cargas fatoriais adequadas (> 0,3). Os testes de esfericidade de Bartlett e KMO sugeriram interpretabilidade da matriz de correlação, a análise paralela indicou quatro domínios e variância explicada de 64,1%. A fidedignidade composta dos fatores foi adequada (> 0,70) e o índice H sugeriu fatores replicáveis em estudos futuros. Todos os índices de ajustes mostraram-se adequados. Foram desenvolvidos os materiais educativos digitais cujo conteúdo versava sobre planejamento de refeições, habilidades multitarefas, confiança culinária, combinação, seleção e preparo de ingredientes e orientações para estimular as HCD em consultas e ações educativas junto à comunidade. A taxa de resposta nos dois rounds da técnica Delphi foi de 100% (n=9). Especialistas sugeriram adequações de informações, substituição de termos e revisão das ilustrações que resultaram em materiais válidos quanto ao conteúdo, com linguagem decodificada, ilustrações lúdicas e personagens representativos da população-alvo. Conclusão: A EHAPS foi desenvolvida perante necessidade de um novo instrumento para avaliação fidedigna de HCD, apontada pela revisão sistemática e apresentou evidências satisfatórias de validade e confiabilidade. É curta e de fácil aplicação e possibilitará a averiguação da necessidade de qualificação da força de trabalho, favorecendo o planejamento de ações e políticas públicas de promoção da alimentação adequada e saudável na APS. Os materiais educativos digitais apresentaram forte evidência de validade de conteúdo. Sua disponibilização exige poucos recursos e possibilita ampliar a disseminação das HCD em ações de educação permanente em saúde e de EAN direcionadas aos beneficiários do SUS.


Introduction: Domestic Cooking skills (DCS) are considered important by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population (DGBP), both for the health professional and for the attender of the Primary Health Care (PHC), who should feel confident to make healthy and autonomous food choices. Although the number of studies on cooking skills has increased in recent years, few of them have described the assessment of cooking skills based on the use of validated instruments, nor were we able to identify instruments measuring this phenomenon among PHC personnel. Objective: To develop an instrument to measure the DCS of health professionals in PHC and instructional materials to encourage the development of such skills in accordance with the recommendations of the DGBP and the Food and Nutrition Education Framework for Public Policies. Methods: For the elaboration of the instrument, we conducted a literature review, as well as a systematic review on the psychometric quality of existing instruments. Next, we developed the instrument presented in this research, entitled Scale of Domestic Cooking Skills in Primary Health Care (EHAPS). Initially, we designed 44 items based on theoretical domains of DCS, identified in a theoretical framework. For EHAPS content validity appraisal, we conducted a 2-round Delphi Technique and we analyzed the Critical Content Validity Ratio (CVRc) of each instrument item. We calculated the Kappa coefficient to assess the agreement between experts and the content validity index (CVI) to assess the content of the instrument as a whole. We conducted a pre-test to assess the instrument's operationalization. In order to analyze the EHAPS construct validity and reliability, 472 health professionals working in PHC Centers in the Municipality of São Paulo, responded to the scale. We conducted Factor Analysis, using the statistical program FACTOR version 10.10.03. After reporting the evidence of validity and reliability of the instrument, we developed digital educational materials, based on the domains of DCS evaluated by the EHAPS and on the recommendations of the DGBP and the Food and Nutrition Education Framework for Public Policies. The results of focus groups with health professionals responding to the EHAPS during the construct validity and reliability stage of this research, with high level of cooking skills, reported in previous studies supported the development of 5 educational videos, and complementary digital materials, submitted to content validity analysis by experts, using the 2- round Delphi technique. We analyzed the CVRc of the educational materials and calculated the Kappa coefficient to assess inter-expert agreement. Results: The literature search identified 1148 potentially relevant studies, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. Four studies presented satisfactory results for at least one type of construct validity; the internal consistency reliability was adequate in four studies and no study presented adequate classification for content validity. Therefore, we developed and validated the EHAPS: The response rate for the first round of the Delphi technique was 72.7% (8/11) and 87.5% (7/8) for the second round. The experts' assessment resulted in 43 items with valid content. The pre-test identified adequate operationalization of the EHAPS. After factor analysis, the final model of the EHAPS presented 29 items with adequate factor loadings (> 0.3). The Bartlett and KMO sphericity tests performed in AFE suggested interpretability in the correlation matrix; the parallel analysis indicated four domains and explained variance of 64.1%. The composite reliability was adequate (> 0.70) and the H index suggested replicable factors in future studies. All fit indices proved adequate. We developed digital educational materials about meal planning, multitasking skills, culinary confidence, combination, selection and preparation of ingredients, as well as guidelines to encourage the use of DCS during counseling and educational actions aimed at the community. Response rates for the first and second rounds of the Delphi technique were 100% (n=9). The experts suggested information adjustments, replacement of terms and revision of illustrations that resulted in valid materials in terms of content, with decoded language, playful illustrations and representative characters of the target population. Conclusion: The EHAPS was developed in view of the need for a new instrument for the reliable assessment of HCD, identified by the systematic review, and presented satisfactory evidence of validity and reliability. It is short and easy to apply and will enable the investigation of the need for qualification of the workforce, favoring the planning of actions and public policies to promote adequate and healthy food in PHC. Digital educational materials showed strong evidence of content validity. Its availability requires few resources and makes it possible to expand the dissemination of DCS in permanent health education actions and food and nutrition education actions aimed at PHC beneficiaries.


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Primary Health Care , Psychometrics , Food and Nutrition Education , Cooking , Validation Study
9.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220002822, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386385

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RAE in soccer players from different positions in Series A and B in 2020 Brazilian soccer, as well as the impact of RAE on the estimated market value of these players. Methods: Data from 1080 male elite soccer athletes were analyzed. Athletes were grouped according to birth quarters: Q1 (January-March), Q2 (April-June), Q3 (July-September), and Q4 (October-December) and the competitive level (Series A or B). Chi-square tests (χ2) were performed to compare the birthdates' distribution of athletes according to a competitive level and playing positions. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the market values of players born in each of the quarters of the year across competitive levels and playing positions. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: The overall analyses showed the prevalence of RAE in Series A and B, with an overrepresentation of athletes born in the first two quarters of the year. The RAE analysis based on playing positions showed different from expected distributions for forwards, midfielders, and defenders in Series A. In Series B, only midfielders showed a difference from the expected distribution. As for the market values analyses, no differences were found based on the athletes' birth quarters, regardless of competitive level or playing position. Conclusion: Our results indicate that, although RAE is prevalent in Series A and B of elite Brazilian soccer, it does not seem to influence players' estimated market values.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aptitude , Soccer/economics , Age Factors , Athletes , Data Analysis
10.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220019921, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To identify and describe the manipulative actions of typical children ages between 4 and 6 years, and the games performed while exploring cubes with different sensorial stimuli. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and exploratory study. Sixteen typical children aged 4 to 6 years (mean age: 5.78 ± 1.04 years) were filmed, from different angles, during the exploration of six cubes with different sensorial stimuli (transparent, black, tactile, auditory, luminous, and high-contrast). The cubes were delivered in random order and the children explored the cubes for 40 s each. At the end of the explorations, they were asked about what kind of game they could play with that object. The images were observed by the BS Player Profile. Results: Seventeen different types of interactions with the cubes were registered, such as: pushing, shaking, reaching for (bimanual and unimanual), bringing closer to the eyes, knocking, touching with the fingers/hand, throwing upwards, and others. The tactile cube was the favorite among the children (9 children), followed by the luminous cube (6 children). They proposed games with all of the cubes, standing out playing dice (all cubes), building towers, and castles. Conclusion: In the observed group of children, 17 manipulative skills were identified. The games performed during the exploration of the cubes were based on association with other similar objects previously known, related to the visual stimuli provided by the cubes, verbal description of actions that could be performed with that cube, imagination related games using figurative images, and sports-related activities/games.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Aptitude , Play and Playthings , Motor Skills , Child Behavior/psychology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation
11.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220002022, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To investigate the existence of relative age effect (RAE) in Brazilian water polo athletes according to sex and age category. Methods: The birthdate of 574 Brazilian water polo athletes were organized according to the athletes' birthdates into quarters of the year (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4), and classified according to sex (male and female) and age category (U16, U18, U20, and senior). To verify the existence of RAE, the Chi-Square tests (χ2) were performed, and the effect sizes (ω) were calculated for each of the tests. We also calculated odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, setting the level of significance to 0.05. As post hoc analysis, multiple comparisons between quarters were performed, with Bonferroni's correction (significance level set to 0.0083 in these cases). Results: The results indicated an uneven distribution of birthdates for male water polo athletes (χ2 = 12.257; p = 0.007; ω = 0.173), with an overrepresentation of athletes born in the first (p < 0.006) and second (p < 0.002) quarters. When sex and age category were considered, male athletes presented uneven distributions in U20 (χ2 = 10.747; p = 0.013; ω = 0.345) and senior (χ2= 12.614; p = 0.006; ω = 0.383) categories. In females, no differences were found. Conclusion: We conclude that there is an uneven distribution of birthdates in male Brazilian water polo athletes, indicating the presence of RAE in this group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Age Factors , Athletes , Water Sports/trends , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
12.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220017121, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: This study investigated the impact of a handball-teaching program through the understanding of the TGfU on motor coordination (MC) and technical skills of students. Methods: The sample consisted of 43 students of both genders, with a mean age of 14.3 years (± 0.46), divided into two groups, G1 - Teaching Games of Understanding (TGfU) and G2 - TGfU + MC, and both received 20 classes. We used the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) for the assessment of MC and the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) for technical skills in handball. Results: The categorization confirmed the reliability of the application of teaching programs and the results showed that, after the intervention, both groups presented meaningful improvements in MC, considering time and gender effect. The female students presented a larger impact on MC in both teaching programs, while the male students obtained a larger impact in the technical skill execution index when received the TGfU + MC model. Still, the relative frequency for the classification of a good MC increased in both groups after the intervention, and the normal MC was the one with the highest frequency in both groups and genders after the proposed program. Conclusion: We concluded that the teaching program was able to provide meaningful improvements in MC considering both groups and that the proposal of the inclusion of specific MC elevated the impact of technical skills for male students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Aptitude , Sports , Learning , Motor Activity , Epidemiology, Descriptive
13.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220005921, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To compare muscular and cardiorespiratory parameters between Brazilian professional futsal athletes from different competitive levels (national versus regional). A secondary aim was to explore the correlation of physical fitness variables between both competitive levels. Methods: Twenty-two futsal players (24.7 ± 3.7 years), 11 from a regional team and 11 from a national team, were evaluated with countermovement jump test (lower limbs muscle power), square test (the speed with change direction), RSSA (anaerobic power), and YOYOIR1 (aerobic power). Tests were performed in the middle of the season for both teams. Results: The speed with change direction (p = 0.001) and mean anaerobic power (p = 0.04) were higher for national than the regional players. Sprint performance decreased similarly for national and regional level players (p < 0.001), but the latter had poorer performance (p = 0.044). From the fourth sprint on, sprints for the national level players were slower than the first three, while for the regional level players, each sprint speed was slower than the subsequent. A significant correlation was found between anaerobic power with jump height (r = −0.50; p = 0.01), speed with change direction (r=0.65; p = 0.001) and distance covered in the YOYOIR1 (r = −0.54; p = 0.01). Conclusion: National-level athletes were more agile and presented a higher mean anaerobic power than regional ones. Moreover, national-level athletes presented better performance along with repeated sprint tests, maintaining this performance for a longer time during the test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Soccer/physiology , Exercise Test , Athletic Performance , Athletes
14.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220004521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: This study analyzed the influences of ACE and ACTN3 gene variants in sprinters, jumpers, and endurance young athletes of track and field. Methods: 36 school-level competitors of both sex (15 girls and 21 boys; aged 16.4 ± 1.2 years; training experience 4 ± 1.2 years) practitioners of different sport disciplines (i.e., sprint, jump, and endurance athletes) participated in the study. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from peripheral blood using a standard protocol. Anthropometric measurements, 30 m sprint, squat jump (SJ), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests were measured. Results: Genotype distribution of the ACE and ACTN3 genes did not differ between groups. In ACE DD and ACTN3 RX genotypes, the SJ test was bigger in sprinters and jumpers than in the endurance runners. In contrast, when analyzing the ACE ID genotype, sprinters had higher SJ than endurance athletes. Moreover, in the ACE DD genotype, the sprinters and jumpers' athletes had lower time in 30 m tests compared to endurance runners. However, the ACE ID and ACTN3 RX genotypes was greater aerobic fitness in endurance runners than in jumpers' athletes. Conclusion: Although the genetic profile is not a unique factor for determining athletic performance, the ACE DD and ACTN3 RX genotypes seem to favor athletic performance in power and sprint versus endurance sports. Thus, this study evidenced that assessing genetic variants could be used as an auxiliary way to predict a favorable profile for the identification of young talents of track and field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Track and Field , Athletes , Genetic Profile , DNA/analysis
15.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220011521, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The relative age effect is prevalent in different elite team sports. However, little is known about this phenomenon in high-level adult male futsal players. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of relative age effect in Brazilian male elite futsal players, and its relationship with playing position and goals scored on Brazil National Futsal Leagues (BNFL) from 2016 to 2020. Methods: The distribution of birth dates, playing positions, and goals scored by male participants of the Brazil National Futsal Leagues were analyzed. Chi-squared tests were used to analyze the birth dates distribution based on quarters and semesters of the year, according to playing position (defender, winger, pivot, and goalkeeper) and scoring performance (high and low). Results: The overall analysis indicated that the relative age effect is prevalent on the pool of athletes analyzed. However, this effect was position-dependent, since relatively older athletes were overrepresented only in wingers and defenders playing positions. On the other hand, scoring performance was not associated with the relative age effect, since this effect was found in both performance levels. Conclusion: Relative age effects are prevalent in Brazilian male elite futsal athletes, especially for defenders and wingers. Considering the high level of competitiveness for spots in elite futsal teams, coaches and sports administrators must be educated about the prevalence of the relative age effect in this sporting context. This is necessary in order to reduce the inequalities generated by age categories based on arbitrary cut-off dates, which may reduce potential talent loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aptitude , Soccer , Age Factors , Athletes , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
16.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE00596, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1393714

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Investigar a relação das crenças de pais de recém-nascidos prematuros em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, com variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas, sobre sua capacidade de cuidado, utilizando-se a Escala de Crenças dos Pais. Métodos Estudo transversal com 97 pais e/ou mães de prematuros hospitalizados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e Unidade de Cuidados Intermediários, de hospital universitário de médio porte, na região Oeste do Paraná. A coleta de dados ocorreu de outubro de 2015 a maio de 2016, utilizando-se a Escala de Crença dos Pais, validada para o Brasil, e instrumento sóciodemográfico e de variáveis clínicas do recém-nascido. A análise foi estatística descritiva e inferencial e avaliou a associação entre os escores da escala, por meio do teste de qui-quadrado para independência, com as variáveis categóricas sociodemográficas e clínicas. Resultados Responderam a escala 86 (88,7%) mães e 11 (11,3%) pais, sendo encontrada associação significativa para a idade dos outros filhos, além do prematuro, com as categorias da escala, e relação inversa para os escores da escala diante da renda familiar, idade e escolaridade materna, com associação estatística significativa para a renda familiar. Dentre os participantes, quanto a capacidade de cuidado, 35 pais e/ou mães foram identificados com suficiência, 49 pais e/ou mães com suficiência moderada e 13 pais e/ou mães com insuficiência moderada. Conclusão A escala apresentou adequada aplicação diante das crenças na capacidade de cuidado dos pais de prematuros, indicando os fatores sociodemográficos influentes. A maioria dos cuidadores demonstrou capacidade para o cuidado.


Resumen Objetivo Investigar la relación entre las creencias de padres de recién nacidos prematuros en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales y variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, respecto a su capacidad de cuidado, utilizando la Escala de Creencias de Padres. Métodos Estudio transversal con 97 padres o madres de prematuros hospitalizados en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales y Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios, de un hospital universitario de porte mediano, en la región oeste del estado de Paraná. La recopilación de datos se realizó de octubre de 2015 a mayo de 2016 y se utilizó la Escala de Creencias de Padres validada para Brasil y el instrumento sociodemográfico y de variables clínicas del recién nacido. El análisis fue estadístico descriptivo e inferencial y evaluó la relación entre la puntuación de la escala, mediante la prueba χ2 de Pearson para la independencia, y las variables categóricas sociodemográficas y clínicas. Resultados La escala fue respondida por 86 (88,7 %) madres y 11 (11,3 %) padres, donde se encontró relación significativa entre la edad de otros hijos, además del prematuro, y las categorías de la escala, y relación inversa entre la puntuación de la escala y los ingresos familiares, edad y escolaridad materna, con relación estadística significativa en los ingresos familiares. Respecto a la capacidad de cuidado, se identificaron entre los participantes 35 padres o madres con suficiencia, 49 padres o madres con suficiencia moderada y 13 padres o madres con insuficiencia moderada. Conclusión La escala presentó una aplicación adecuada ante las creencias de la capacidad de cuidado de los padres de prematuros y se indicaron los factores sociodemográficos influyentes. La mayoría de los cuidadores demostró tener capacidad para el cuidado.


Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between the beliefs of parents of premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit with sociodemographic and clinical variables regarding their care capacity using the Parental Belief Scale. Methods Cross-sectional study of 97 fathers and/or mothers of preterm infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Intermediate Care Unit of a medium-sized university hospital in the western region of Paraná. The data collection period was between October 2015 and May 2016 using the Parental Belief Scale validated for Brazil, and a sociodemographic instrument and of newborns' clinical variables. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyzes were performed and the association between the scale scores was evaluated using the chi-square test for independence with sociodemographic and categorical clinical variables. Results The scale was answered by 86 (88.7%) mothers and 11 (11.3%) fathers. A significant association with the age of the other children in addition to the premature with categories of the scale was found. An inverse relationship for scores of the scale related to family income, maternal age and schooling was found, with a statistically significant association with family income. Regarding participants' care capacity, 35 fathers and/or mothers were identified with sufficiency, 49 fathers and/or mothers with moderate sufficiency and 13 fathers and/or mothers with moderate insufficiency. Conclusion The scale presented appropriate application in view of the beliefs in the care capacity of parents of preterm infants, indicating the influential sociodemographic factors. Most caregivers demonstrated care capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Parents , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Child Care , Aptitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demographic Indicators
17.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 28-40, March 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400307

ABSTRACT

Objective: This paper establishes levels and patterns of ability and willingness to pay (AWTP) for contraceptives, and associated factors. Study design: A three-stage cluster and stratified sampling was applied in selection of enumeration areas, households and individuals in a baseline survey for a 5-year Family planning programme. Multivariable linear and modified Poisson regressions are used to establish factors associated with AWTP. Results: Ability to pay was higher among men (84%) than women (52%). A high proportion of women (96%) and men (82%) were able to pay at least Ug Shs 1000 ($0.27) for FP services while 93% of women and 83% of men who had never used FP services will in future be able to pay for FP services costed at least Shs 2000 ($0.55). The factors independently associated with AWTP were lower age group (<25 years), residence in urban areas, attainment of higher education level, and higher wealth quintiles. Conclusion: AWTP for FP services varied by different measures. Setting the cost of FP services at Shs 1000 ($0.27) will attract almost all women (96%) and most of men (82%). Key determinants of low AWTP include residence in poor regions, being from rural areas and lack of/low education. Implications statement: Private providers should institute price discrimination for FP services by region, gender and socio-economic levels. More economic empowerment for disadvantaged populations is needed if the country is to realise higher contraceptive uptake. More support for total market approach for FP services needed


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Cleavage Stage, Ovum , Contraceptive Agents , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Uganda , Women , Men
18.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210288, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360435

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos analisar a estimativa condicional do conhecimento, adaptação e preparo nas competências de idosos que exercem o papel de cuidadores informais de pessoas dependentes de cuidado em assistência domiciliar. Método estudo transversal, realizado com idosos cuidadores informais, residentes no município de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada entre maio e julho de 2019 com um instrumento que avalia as competências cognitivas, psicomotoras, emocionais e relacionais de cuidadores informais de pessoas dependentes de cuidado em assistência domiciliar. O instrumento é constituído por 14 itens e três construtos: conhecimento, adaptação e preparo, sendo a escala de resposta Likert de cinco pontos. Utilizou-se análise de regressão linear para tratamento das variáveis. Resultados participaram do estudo 101 idosos cuidadores informais, e as estimativas condicionais das competências cognitiva e relacional apresentaram maior correlação com adaptação e o preparo. O melhor conhecimento estima maior desenvolvimento da competência psicomotora e cognitiva nas práticas de cuidado. Conclusão e implicações para a prática os conceitos hipotéticos de conhecimento, adaptação e preparo explicam o melhor desempenho das competências cognitiva, relacional e psicomotora de idosos cuidadores informais. Este resultado possibilita o desenvolvimento de novas intervenções educativas aos idosos que desempenham o papel de cuidador informal.


Resumen Objetivos analizar la estimación condicional del conocimiento, adaptación y preparación en las habilidades de personas mayores que desempeñan el papel de cuidadores informales de personas dependientes de cuidados en el hogar. Método estudio transversal realizado con personas mayores que se desempeñan como cuidadores informales, residentes en la ciudad de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó entre mayo y julio de 2019 a través de un instrumento construido y validado que evalúa las habilidades de los cuidadores informales de personas dependientes de cuidados en el hogar. Se utilizó análisis de regresión lineal para tratar las variables. Resultados participaron del estudio 101 personas mayores, que obran como cuidadores informales y las estimaciones condicionales de las habilidades cognitivas y relacionales de las personas mayores mostraron mayor correlación con la adaptación y preparación. Un mejor conocimiento estima un mayor desarrollo de la competencia psicomotora y cognitiva de las personas mayores en las prácticas asistenciales. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los conceptos hipotéticos de conocimiento, adaptación y preparación explican el mejor desempeño de las habilidades cognitivas, relacionales y psicomotoras de las personas mayores que actúan como cuidadores informales. Este resultado permite el desarrollo de nuevas intervenciones educativas para las personas mayores que desempeñan el papel de cuidadores informales.


Abstract Objectives to analyze the conditional estimate of knowledge, adaptation and preparation in the skills of aged people who play the role of informal caregivers of assistance-dependent individuals in home care. Method a cross-sectional study carried out with aged informal caregivers who live in the city of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Data collection was carried out between May and July 2019 through a constructed and validated instrument that assesses the skills of informal caregivers of assistance-dependent individuals in home care. Linear regression analysis was used to treat the variables. Results the study participants were 101 aged informal caregivers, in which the conditional estimates of the cognitive and relational skills of the aged person showed a greater correlation with adaptation and preparation. Better knowledge estimates greater development of the psychomotor and cognitive competence of the elderly in care practices. Conclusion and implications for the practice the hypothetical concepts of knowledge, adaptation and preparation explain the better performance of the cognitive, relational and psychomotor skills of aged informal caregivers. This result enables the development of new educational interventions for the elderly who play the role of informal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health of the Elderly , Caregivers , Home Nursing , Aptitude , Quality of Life , Self Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Adaptation, Psychological , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Conexões (Campinas, Online) ; 20: e022004, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371057

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a avaliação do potencial esportivo é uma etapa importante na descoberta de novos talentos e deve utilizar preditores relevantes do desempenho. Objetivo: investigar a importância atribuída por treinadores aos determinantes do desempenho no atletismo, analisando diferenças entre os tipos de prova. Metodologia: participaram 12 treinadores brasileiros de atletismo (11 homens; 83% de Minas Gerais; 75% com experiência no alto rendimento e 42% com títulos internacionais). Aplicou-se um questionário contendo seis fatores e 51 indicadores do desempenho no atletismo. Os treinadores responderam em relação a importância atribuída aos fatores antropométrico, físico-motor, técnico, tático, psicológico e socioambiental, numa escala Likert (1-nada importante e 5-extremamente importante) e a ordem de importância, considerando do 1º ao 6º mais importante. Avaliaram ainda a importância para o desempenho de velocistas, fundistas, saltadores, lançadores e provas combinadas. Resultados e discussão: a ordem de importância dos fatores de desempenho foi: 1º) Físico-motor, 2º) Técnico, 3º) Psicológico, 4º) Antropométrico, 5º) Tático e 6º) Socioambiental. O fator tático, entretanto, foi o mais importante para os fundistas e atletas de provas combinadas. Conclusão: a opinião dos treinadores revelou que as características físico-motoras, técnicas e psicológicas são, nesta ordem, os principais fatores determinantes do desempenho no atletismo. Porém, é preciso considerar as diferenças observadas em relação aos grupos de provas, pois cada um apresenta particularidades que caracterizam um perfil específico.


Introduction: Assessing sporting potential is an important step in discovering new talent and should use relevant performance predictors, which vary by modality. Objective: investigate the importance attributed by coaches to the determinants of performance in athletics, analyzing differences between the events groups. Methodology: Twelve Brazilian coaches participated (11 men, 83% from Minas Gerais, 75% had high-level experience and 42% from international titles). A questionnaire containing six factors and 51 performance indicators in athletics was applied. The coaches answered the importance attributed to anthropometric, physicomotor, technical, tactical, psychological and socio-environmental factors, on a Likert scale, being 1-nothing important and 5-extremely important. Then, they informed the order of importance of these factors for the performance in athletics, considering from the 1st to the 6th most important. Finally, they evaluated the importance of factors and performance indicators for sprinters, long-distance runners, jumpers, throwers and, track and field combined events. Results and discussion: The order of importance of the performance factors was: 1º) Physicomotor, 2º) Technical, 3º) Psychological, 4º) Anthropometric, 5º) Tactical and 6º) Socio-environmental. The tactical factor was the most important for the long-distance runners and athletes of combined events. Conclusion: In the opinion of the coaches, physicomotor, technical and psichologycal characteristics are, in this order, the main determinant factors of performance in athletics. However, it is necessary to consider the differences between events groups. Each event group shows particular characteristics that result in a specific profile.


Introducción: La evaluación del potencial deportivo es un paso importante para descubrir nuevos talentos y debe utilizar predictores de rendimiento relevantes, que varían según la modalidad. Objetivo: Investiga la importancia de los entrenadores para los determinantes del rendimiento en el atletismo, analizando las diferencias entre los grupos de eventos. Metodología: Asistieron doce entrenadores brasileños (11 hombres, 83% de Minas Gerais, 75% con experiencia de alto nivel y 42% de títulos internacionales). Se aplicó un cuestionario que contenía seis factores y 51 indicadores de rendimiento en atletismo. Los entrenadores respondieron la importancia de los factores antropométricos, fisicomotores, técnicos, tácticos, psicológicos y socioambientales, en escala Likert, siendo 1-nada importante y 5-extremadamente importante. Luego, informaron el orden de importancia de estos factores para el desempeño en atletismo, considerando del 1º al 6º más importantes. Finalmente, evaluaron la importancia de factores e indicadores de desempeño para velocistas, corredores de fondo, saltadores, lanzadores y eventos combinados de pista y campo. Resultados e discusión: El orden de importancia de los factores de desempeño fue: 1º) Fisicomotor, 2º) Técnico, 3º) Psicológico, 4º) Antropométrico, 5º) Táctico y 6º) Socioambiental. El factor táctico fue el más importante para los corredores de fondo y los atletas de eventos combinados. Conclusión: En opinión de los entrenadores, las características físico-motoras, técnicas y psicológicas son, por este orden, los principales factores determinantes del rendimiento en el atletismo. Sin embargo, es necesario considerar las diferencias entre los grupos de eventos. Cada grupo de eventos muestra personajes particulares que dan como resultado un perfil específico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Track and Field , Employee Performance Appraisal , Athletes , Sports , Methodology as a Subject , Teacher Training , Learning , Methods
20.
Conexões (Campinas, Online) ; 20: e022005, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390875

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Regular aerobic exercise (AE) can reduce the cognitive losses typically experienced with aging can be blunted by regular aerobic exercise (AE). AE also induces acute improvement of cognitive function among older adults; and AE practice with blood flow restriction (BFR) addss other benefits to elderly health, such as improvements in aerobic fitness, and increase in muscle mass and strength, however, it is not clear which EA protocol is more efficient to cognitive function. Objectives: Thus, the aimof this study was to compare AE protocols with and without BFR on the inhibitory control of the elderly. Methodology: Twenty-one elderly performed the Stroop test before and after three AE sessions in a repeated measure, cross-over design: AE with high load (70% VO2max), AE with low load (40% VO2max), and AE with blood flow restriction (AE-BFR) BFR (40% VO2max and 50% of BFR). Results and discussion: There was no significant effect from experimental sessions on cognitive function, assessed by inhibitory control in Stroop test. Perhaps, the load applied was not proper to stimulate cognitive function improvements, as seen the moderate loads have been more efficient to increase cerebral blood flow, among other physiological mechanisms encompassed. Final Considerations: Moreover, we observed very heterogeneous responses among individuals and sessions, suggesting that future research also considers biological individuality.


Introdução: As perdas cognitivas tipicamente experimentadas com o envelhecimento podem ser atenuadas por exercícios aeróbicos (EA) regulares. EA também induz melhora aguda da função cognitiva em idosos; e a prática de EA com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo (RFS) agrega outros benefícios à saúde do idoso, como melhorias na aptidão aeróbia e aumento da massa e força muscular. No entanto, não está claro qual protocolo de EA é mais eficaz para a funcao cognitiva. Objetivos: Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar diferentes protocolos de EA com e sem RFS no controle inibitório de idosos. Metodologia: Vinte e um idosos realizaram o teste de Stroop antes e após três sessões de EA em medida repetida, desenho cruzado: EA com alta carga (70% VO2máx), EA com baixa carga (40% VO2máx) e EA com RFS (40% VO2máx e 50% do RFS). Resultados e discussão: Não houve efeito significativo das sessões experimentais na função cognitiva avaliada pelo controle inibitório no Stroop Test. Talvez, as cargas aplicadas não tenham sido adequadas para estimular melhorias no controle inibitório, visto que as cargas moderadas têm sido mais eficientes para aumentar o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral, entre outros mecanismos fisiológicos Considerações Finais: Além disso, observamos respostas bastante heterogêneas entre indivíduos e sessões, sugerindo que pesquisas futuras considere também a individualidade biológica.


Introducción: El ejercicio aeróbico regular (EA) puede reducir la perdida cognitiva tipicamente experimentada durante el envejecimiento. EA puede tambien inducir mejora en la funcion cognitiva entre adultos mayores, ademas, la practica de resticcion de flujo sanguíneo (RFS) agrega otros beneficios para la salud en los ancianos, así como mejoras en la aptitud aeróbica, aumento de la masa muscular y la fuerza, sin embargo, no está claro qué protocolo de EA es más eficiente para la función cognitiva. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los protocolos de EA con y sin RFS en el control inhibitorio de los ancianos. Metodología: Veintiún ancianos realizaron la prueba de Stroop antes y después de tres sesiones de EA en medida repetida, diseño cruzado: EA con carga alta (70% VO2max), EA con carga baja (40% VO2max) y EA con restricción del flujo sanguíneo (EA-RFS) RFS (40% VO2max y 50% de RFS). Resultados y discusión: No hubo efecto significativo de las sesiones experimentales sobre la función cognitiva, evaluada por el control inhibitorio en la prueba de Stroop. Quizás, la carga aplicada no fue la adecuada para estimular mejoras en la función cognitiva, ya que las cargas moderadas han sido más eficientes para aumentar el flujo sanguíneo cerebral, entre otros mecanismos fisiológicos englobados. Consideraciones finales: Además, nosotros observamos respuestas muy heterogéneas entre individuos y sesiones, lo que sugiere que para futuras investigaciones también se debe considerar la variabilidad biológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aptitude , Aging , Exercise , Clinical Protocols , Health of the Elderly , Cognition , Stroop Test , Health , Methodology as a Subject , Muscle Strength , Metallothionein 3
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