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Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 42-49, Jan. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291646


BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were reported to be related to adversity stress and drought tolerance. Lea-3 from Arachis hypogaea L. (AhLea-3) was previously found to be related to salt tolerance according to the result of transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis. So, AhLea-3 was cloned and the salt tolerance was validated by transgenic peanut plants. RESULTS: AhLea-3 was isolated from M34, a salt-resistant mutant of peanut, with its cDNA as the template. AhLea-3 contains one intron and two extrons, and the full-length cDNA sequence contains 303 bp. AhLea3 was ligated to pCAMBIA1301 to obtain the overexpression vector pCAMBIA1301-AhLea-3, which was then transferred into peanut variety Huayu23. The expression level of AhLea-3, as determined by qRTPCR analysis, was >10 times higher in transgenic than in non-transgenic plants. Five days after they were irrigated with 250 mM NaCl, the transgenic plants showed less severe leaf wilting, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase), and lower malonic dialdehyde content than non-transgenic plants. Relative to non-transgenic plants, the transgenic plants had a higher photosynthetic net rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and a lower intercellular CO2 concentration after salt stress treatment (250 mM NaCl). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that overexpression of AhLea-3 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic peanut plants. AhLea-3 might become a useful gene resource for the variety breeding of salinity tolerance in peanut.

Arachis/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Salt Tolerance , Arachis/genetics , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Transformation, Genetic
Acta cir. bras ; 36(9): e360905, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345024


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the morphological, biochemical, and histological effects of aqueous extracts of peanut (skinless and added to 1% skin) in Swiss mice submitted to a high-fat diet. Methods: Forty male Swiss mice were divided into four groups (n=10 per group): GI) normocaloric diet; GII) high-fat diet; GIII) high-fat diet + 0.5 mL of peanut extract; GIV) high-fat diet + 0.5 mL of peanut extract + 1% peanut skin. The animals were weighed weekly and euthanized after 12 weeks for histopathological and biochemical analyses. The study was approved by the Animal Use Ethics Committee. Results: The animals in the GIV group had higher body weight when compared to the other ones. Increase in total cholesterol in GIII, increase in blood glucose in groups GII, GIII and GIV, decrease in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in groups GI and GIV and increase in serum concentration of C-reactive protein in GII were seen. The presence of vacuolar fat deposits was found in animal livers from GII. Conclusions: The extracts improved the plasma concentrations of animals that received a high-fat diet, including preventing morphological damage to liver tissue. These benefits were enhanced by the association of peanut shells with the extract.

Arachis , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Overweight , Liver
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 198-204, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090675


La masticación se ha estudiado desde diferentes puntos de vista, utilizando alimentos de prueba naturales y artificiales. La evidencia es escasa cuando se analizan alimentos a base de cereales, que van desde cereales para el desayuno hasta barras de granola. El investigar este tipo de alimentos, se vuelve importante para entender el comportamiento de la masticación frente a alimentos con diferentes composiciones y texturas, y como estas características pueden influir en el proceso masticatorio. Se analizó la masticación desde un punto de vista cinemático, en sujetos jóvenes dentados. El alimento de prueba utilizado fue granola prototipo y maní, este último se ha estudiado en sujetos con rehabilitación protésica y su consumo se recomienda en esta población. Se analizaron las características cinemáticas de la masticación como numero de ciclos, frecuencia masticatoria, velocidad de masticación de ascenso y descenso, y el área de masticación en los tres planos del espacio. Se relacionaron los movimientos masticatorios con los movimientos mandibulares bordeantes que conformaron el polígono de Posselt, este también se analizó en los tres planos espaciales. En todas las variables analizadas la granola presento valores mayores, excepto en el número de ciclos masticatorios, sólo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p= 0,03) al comparar la velocidad (ascenso y descenso) y el área de masticación en el plano horizontal.

Chewing has been studied from different points of view, using natural and artificial foods test. When analyzing cereal-based foods, from breakfast cereals to granola bars, the evidence is scarce. Investigate this type of food is important to understand the behavior of chewing, with foods of different compositions and textures, and how these characteristics can influence the chewing process. Chewing was analyzed from a cinematic point of view, in young subjects complete dental. The test food used was prototype granola and peanuts, last one has been studied in subjects with prosthetic rehabilitation and its consumption is recommended in this population. The kinematic characteristics of chewing were analyzed: number of cycles, chewing frequency, ascent and descent chewing speed, and the chewing area in the three planes of space. The masticatory movements were related to the bordering mandibular movements, that formed the Posselt polygon, which was also analyzed in the three spatial planes. In all the variables analyzed, granola showed higher values, except in the number of chewing cycles, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.03) were found when comparing speed (ascent and descent) and the chewing area in the horizontal plane.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Mandible/physiology , Mastication/physiology , Arachis , Edible Grain , Electromagnetic Phenomena
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-7, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1291803


Micotoxinas são substâncias tóxicas produzidas por fungos e encontradas nos alimentos. As micotoxinas mais tóxicas são as aflatoxinas, produzidas, principalmente por Aspergillus flavus. Estudos realizados no país demonstraram alta incidência dessas micotoxinas em produtos de amendoim, que representa risco à saúde da população. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a incidência de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 em amostras de amendoins comercializados na região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo nos períodos de 1994-2001 e 2016-2017. O método utilizado para analisar as amostras no primeiro período foi extração líquido-líquido e cromatografia em camada delgada e no segundo foi utilizando colunas de imunoafinidade, cromatografia líquida com derivatização pós- coluna e detector por fluorescência. No levantamento de 1994-2001 das 82 amostras, 39% tiveram contaminação de aflatoxinas variando de 11 a 1556 µg/kg com 37% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 µg/kg, enquanto na pesquisa de 2016-17, das 56 amostras, 38% apresentaram contaminação destas toxinas variando de 0,09 a 60,40 µg/kg com 13% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 µg/kg. Os resultados dos dois períodos estudados indicam que houve uma diminuição na incidência e nível das aflatoxinas estudadas, embora esta contaminação em amendoim permaneça um problema de saúde pública. (AU)

Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi found in food. The most toxic mycotoxins are the aflatoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus . Studies carried out in Brazil showed a high incidence of these mycotoxins in peanut products, a fact that represents public health problems. The aim of the study was to evaluate aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in samples of peanuts sold in cities of the Northeast of the State of São Paulo in the period from 1994 to 2001 and from 2016 to 2017. The samples of the first period were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction and thin-layer chromatography and the second using immunoaffinity columns, post-column derivative liquid chromatography and fluorescence detector. In the 1994-2001 survey, among 82 samples, 39% presented aflatoxins contamination ranging from 11 to 1556 µg/kg with 37% with levels greater than 20 µg/kg whereas, in the 2016-17 survey, 38% of the 56 samples presented contamination of aflatoxins ranging from 0.09 to 60.40 µg/kg and 7 samples 13% containing aflatoxins levels higher than 20 µg/kg. The results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence and level of aflatoxins, but the contamination of aflatoxins in peanuts remains a public health problem. (AU)

Arachis , Aspergillus flavus , Toxic Substances , Aflatoxins , Mycotoxins , Food Contamination
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 25-32, Mar. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087637


BACKGROUND: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea. L) represents one of the most important oil crops in the world. Although much effort has been expended to characterize microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in peanut, the quantity and quality of the markers in breeding applications remain limited. Here, genome-wide SSR characterization and marker development were performed using the recently assembled genome of the cultivar Tifrunner. RESULTS: In total, 512,900 microsatellites were identified from 2556.9-Mb genomic sequences. Based on the flanking sequences of the identified microsatellites, 7757 primer pairs (markers) were designed, and further evaluated in the assembled genomic sequences of the tetraploid Arachis cultivars, Tifrunner and Shitouqi, and the diploid ancestral species, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. In silico PCR analysis showed that the SSR markers had high amplification efficiency and polymorphism in four Arachis genotypes. Notably, nearly 60% of these markers were single-locus SSRs in tetraploid Arachis species, indicating they are more specific in distinguishing the alleles of the A and B sub-genomes of peanut. In addition, two markers closely related with purple testa color and 27 markers near to FAD2 genes were identified, which could be used for breeding varieties with purple testa and high-oleic acid content, respectively. Moreover, the potential application of these SSR markers in tracking introgressions from Arachis wild relatives was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported the development of genomic SSRs from assembled genomic sequences of the tetraploid Arachis Tifrunner, which will be useful for diversity analysis, genetic mapping and functional genomics studies in peanut

Arachis/genetics , Breeding/methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Markers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genome , Crops, Agricultural
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0052020, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145884


Arachis repens Handro (Fabales: Fabaceae) peanut grass shoots were collected at São Paulo State University, Campus of Registro, São Paulo, Brazil, in March 2017 to record a Lepidoptera that was injuring the plant. The species was identified as Biclonuncaria deutera Razowski & Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).(AU)

Folhas de grama-amendoim Arachis repens Handro (Fabales: Fabaceae) foram coletadas no Câmpus da Universidade Estadual Paulista, no município de Registro (SP), no mês de março de 2017, para registrar um Lepidoptera que causava injúrias à planta. A espécie foi identificada como Biclonuncaria deutera Razowski & Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).(AU)

Arachis , Fabaceae , Lepidoptera , Ants , Poaceae , Hymenoptera
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0582019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145879


The objective of this study was to collect information about peanut cultivation methods adopted by family farmers in the Bahian Recôncavo (region that surrounds the bay in the state of Bahia, Brazil), using a specific form and also direct information from farmers. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the mesoregion of the Bahian Recôncavo in the following municipalities: Conceição do Almeida, Cruz das Almas, Maragogipe, São Felipe, São Felix, Sapeaçú and Laje (Vale do Jequiriçá), where 60 local farmers answered a nonstructured questionnaire about peanut cultivation. The cultivation system was estimated based on technical coefficients related to peanut cultivation in the area evaluated. The peanut cultivation system is carried out by family farmers from the Bahian Recôncavo who employ outdated practices and do not use the required basic steps. The technical coefficients analyzed show that the cultivation of peanut is an unprofitable activity when considering the high cost of production in this region, even though productivity is higher than in the entire state as well as in the Northeast region. Farmers in the Bahian Recôncavo do not consider the actual production costs of peanuts since they use seeds from previous crops and do not account for the labor costs of family members. There is a lack of active and continuous technical assistance to family farmers, not only in relation to the cultivation system, but also the possibility of other destinations for peanuts produced in the region.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi levantar informações sobre os métodos de cultivo da cultura do amendoim, adotados por agricultores familiares do Recôncavo Baiano, utilizando-se de um formulário específico e de informações diretas dos agricultores. Foi realizado um levantamento etnobotânico nos municípios da mesorregião do Recôncavo Baiano: Conceição do Almeida, Cruz das Almas, Maragogipe, São Felipe, São Félix, Sapeaçú e no município de Laje (Vale do Jequiriçá), onde 60 agricultores foram entrevistados, por meio de um questionário não estruturado, referente ao cultivo do amendoinzeiro no Recôncavo Baiano. A estimativa do sistema de cultivo foi realizada com base em coeficientes técnicos referentes ao cultivo do amendoinzeiro na área de estudo. O sistema de cultivo do amendoim é realizado por agricultores familiares do Recôncavo Baiano utilizando práticas ultrapassadas, destituídas das etapas básicas necessárias. Os coeficientes técnicos analisados demonstram que o cultivo do amendoinzeiro é uma atividade pouco lucrativa ao se levar em consideração o alto custo de produção nessa região, mesmo a produtividade sendo maior quando comparada com a do estado, assim como com a da região Nordeste. Os agricultores do Recôncavo Baiano não consideram os custos de produção real do amendoim, uma vez que utilizam sementes de cultivos anteriores e não contabilizam os custos de mão de obra dos familiares. Falta aos agricultores familiares assistência técnica atuante e continuada, não só com relação ao sistema de cultivo como também com a possibilidade de outras destinações para o amendoim produzido na região.(AU)

Arachis , Agriculture/methods , Technical Cooperation , Data Collection , Costs and Cost Analysis , Efficiency , Farmers
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785459


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) among children has increased significantly over the past decade. Even though the prevalence of PA in Singapore is considered low, peanut is the top trigger for food-induced anaphylaxis in Singaporean children.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical features of children with PA.METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective review of children diagnosed with PA based on clinical history coupled with a positive skin prick test to peanut or positive oral food challenge results.RESULTS: There were 269 patients (53.9% males) with a clinical diagnosis of PA. The median age at first allergic presentation for the PA group was 24 months old, with interquartile range of 13–39 months. The most common form of peanut introduced was roasted peanut. The rate of peanut anaphylaxis was 7.1%. Concomitant tree nut sensitization was found in 32.3% of this cohort, predominantly to cashew nut. Majority of them have a personal history of atopy – 75.8% with eczema, 63.6% with allergic rhinitis, and 19.7% with asthma.CONCLUSION: This is the first large review of peanut-allergic children in Singapore. Prospective population-based studies are needed to establish the true prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of this potentially life-threatening condition.

Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asia , Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Eczema , Humans , Nuts , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Skin , Trees
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 277-282, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118937


The search for alternatives to increase productivity and sustainability of livestock production in the Amazon region without increasing deforestation is challenging. Mixed pastures of grasses with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi) have shown positive economic impacts. However, gaps in the knowledge of the reproductive biology of A. pintoi have limited the development of new cultivars adapted to the environmental variations in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture consortiums of Brachiaria humidicola with forage peanuts (cv. Mandobi) resulted in a 42% increase in weight gain productivity. New cultivars better adapted to the Amazon climate should bring even greater gains. We evaluated the mating system in twenty A. pintoi accessions, and approximately 40 offspring per accession genotyped with eight microsatellites (or markers). The parameters of genetic diversity and inbreeding, the outcrossing rate and coancestry were calculated. The observed heterozygosity was significantly higher and the fixation index was significantly lower in adults compared with the offspring. The crossing rate was variable among genotypes (2 to 80%), and the mean outcrossing rate was 36%. These results indicate that pollinator presence in pastures can influence gene flow in A. pintoi more than expected. Arachis pintoi presented a mixed mating system with a predominance of selfing, and families presented inbreeding and different levels of relatedness. New strategies of genotype conservation are needed to avoid pollinator-mediated crossing between accessions. (AU)

Arachis , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Breeding , Amazonian Ecosystem , Genotype
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 58-64, July. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053475


Background: Prodigiosin has been demonstrated to be an important candidate in investigating anticancer drugs and in many other applications in recent years. However, industrial production of prodigiosin has not been achieved. In this study, we found a prodigiosin-producing strain, Serratia marcescens FZSF02, and its fermentation strategies were studied to achieve the maximum yield of prodigiosin. Results: When the culture medium consisted of 16.97 g/L of peanut powder, 16.02 g/L of beef extract, and 11.29 mL/L of olive oil, prodigiosin reached a yield of 13.622 ± 236 mg/L after culturing at 26 °C for 72 h. Furthermore, when 10 mL/L olive oil was added to the fermentation broth at the 24th hour of fermentation, the maximum prodigiosin production of 15,420.9 mg/L was obtained, which was 9.3-fold higher than the initial level before medium optimization. More than 60% of the prodigiosin produced with this optimized fermentation strategy was in the form of pigment pellets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this phenomenon of pigment pellet formation, which made it much easier to extract prodigiosin at low cost. Prodigiosin was then purified and identified by absorption spectroscopy, HPLC, and LCMS. Purified prodigiosin obtained in this study showed anticancer activity in separate experiments on several human cell cultures: A549, K562, HL60, HepG2, and HCT116. Conclusions: This is a promising strain for producing prodigiosin. The prodigiosin has potential in anticancer medicine studies.

Prodigiosin/biosynthesis , Prodigiosin/pharmacology , Serratia marcescens/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Arachis/chemistry , Powders , Prodigiosin/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Cell Culture Techniques , Fermentation , Olive Oil/chemistry , Acetates , Nitrogen
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 997-1004, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011291


The objective of work was to study the productive profile of perennial peanut in a rotational stocking environment under different criteria. The treatments corresponded to pre-grazing height of 14 and 18cm or 95% of light interception (LI) distributed in a completely randomized design. The studied variables were forage mass, percentage of structural components, forage mass and the structural components in the lower and upper canopy strata. The entrance criterion of 18cm in height, despite having higher forage mass, presented lower percentage of leaves and higher percentage of stems and forage losses. The criteria of 14cm and 95% light interception presented similar production between them and the highest rate of forage accumulation. In all criteria, in the upper strata of pasture a higher percentage of leaves were found. The criteria of 95% LI and 14cm in height presented the best productive performances. The entry criterion of 18cm presented a higher mass of pre-grazing forage with lower percentage of dead material, but with higher forage losses, resulting from senescent leaves. Due to changes in the structural components, as grazing cycles increase, the interception of 95% of the incident light by the perennial peanut occurs at lower heights.(AU)

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o perfil produtivo do amendoim forrageiro em um ambiente rotacionado, sob diferentes critérios. Os tratamentos corresponderam à altura de pré-pastejo de 14 e 18cm ou 95% de intercepção de luz (LI), distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. As variáveis estudadas foram massa forrageira, porcentagem de componentes estruturais, densidade da massa forrageira e densidade dos componentes estruturais nos estratos do dossel inferior e superior. O critério de entrada de 18cm de altura, apesar de ter maior massa forrageira, apresentou menor porcentagem de folhas e maior porcentagem de hastes e perdas de forragem. Os critérios de interceptação de luz de 14cm e 95% apresentaram produção similar entre eles e a maior taxa de acumulação de forragem. Em todos os critérios, no estrato superior de pastagem, foi encontrada maior porcentagem de folhas. Os critérios de 95% LI e 14cm de altura apresentaram os melhores desempenhos produtivos. O critério de entrada de 18cm apresentou maior massa de forragem pré-pastagem com menor porcentagem de material morto, mas com maiores perdas de forragem, resultantes de folhas senescentes. Devido às mudanças nos componentes estruturais, à medida que os ciclos de pastagem aumentam, a intercepção de 95% da luz incidente pelo amendoim forrageiro ocorre em alturas mais baixas.(AU)

Arachis/growth & development , Sheep
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 741-752, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048643


Among the factors that may influence the germination process of seeds, water deficiency is considered the most important. The present study aims to evaluate the physiological response of peanut genotypes to water deficiency. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 12 x 7 factorial scheme with 12 peanut genotypes and seven polyethylene glycol 6000 concentrations corresponding to osmotic potentials of 0.00; -0.10; -0.20; -0.40; -0.60; -0.80 and -1.00 MPa. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's test at a 5% probability level and, when significant, to analysis of variance adjusted to a quadratic polynomial curve. The germination percentage, seed vigor evaluated by the speed germination index, mean germination time, root length and root dry matter of some genotypes were affected by the osmotic potentials. Among the genotypes, there is a differential response related to the water deficiency level. In relation to the physiological response of the seeds, the lineages 506, 599, and 870 and the cultivar IAC Tatu-ST have a higher tolerance of water deficit. The peanut genotypes begin to suffer the effects of water deficiency at the osmotic potential of -0.4 MPa

Entre os fatores externos que podem influenciar o processo germinativo das sementes, a deficiência hídrica é considerada o mais importante. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de genótipos de amendoim submetidos à deficiência hídrica. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 12 x 7, tendo como tratamentos sementes de 12 genótipos de amendoim submetidos a sete concentrações de polietilenoglicol 6000, nos potenciais osmóticos correspondentes a 0,00; -0,10; -0,20; -0,40; -0,60; -0,80; -1,00 MPa. Constatou-se que os genótipos são afetados pelos potenciais osmóticos e, entre os genótipos, há resposta diferenciada em relação ao nível de deficiência hídrica. Em relação à resposta fisiológica das sementes, as linhagens 506, 599, 870 e a cultivar IAC Tatu-ST possuem maiortolerância à deficiência hídrica. Todos os genótipos de amendoim começam a sofrerem os efeitos da deficiência hídrica a partir do potencial osmótico de -0,4 MPa para a maior parte das características avaliadas

Arachis , Seeds , Germination , Dehydration , Droughts
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 784-795, may./jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048656


Peanuts (Arachis hipogaea L.) have a great potential for grain production for feed and forage production, being an alternative for producers, as it grows a double product. Grains have excellent quality and contain a greater amount of protein with which to feed the herd. The present study is a cut-off effect study with an application of Stimulate® phytostimulant to determine grain quality and peanut fodder genotype. In the first planting, the peanuts were cultivated under field conditions in a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 × 2 subplot scheme, with four cultivars and two cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth), as well as non-flowering and harvesting seeds. For the second planting, a randomized block design was used with a subplot scheme of 3 × 2 × 2, with three cultivars and 2 cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth) and IAC 503 (prostrate growth). All cultivars contained a high percentage of hay protein in the two plantings. The cultivar IAC 503 was efficient in the production of protein and fiber in the grains in both plantings, demonstrated the potential of protein for animal supplementation, and also presented high grain yield in the summer planting.

A cultura do amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L.) apresenta grande potencial para produção de grão para alimentação e produção de forragem, sendo uma alternativa para os produtores, produzindo a cultura com duplo propósito, grãos de excelente qualidade e significativa quantidade de feno para alimentação do rebanho. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da época de corte com a aplicação do fitoestimulante Stimulate® sobre a qualidade do grão e forragem de genótipo de amendoim. No primeiro plantio o amendoim foi cultivado em condições de campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 4x2x2, sendo quatro cultivares, dois períodos de corte, com e sem fitoestimulante. As cultivares foramcompostas de IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical), IAC 886 e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado) e as épocas de corte foram no florescimento e na colheita. Para o segundo plantio foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 3x2x2 sendo três cultivares com e sem fitoestimulante e dois períodos de corte. As cultivares foram IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical) e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado). Todas as cultivares que receberam corte apresentaram alto percentual de proteína do feno nos dois plantios. A cultivar IAC 503, mostrou-se eficiente na produção de proteína e fibra nos grãos nos dois plantios, demonstraram potencial com fonte de proteína para suplementação animal, além de apresentar alta produtividade de grãos no plantio de verão.

Arachis , Proteins , Edible Grain , Dietary Fiber , Food Analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 82-90, may. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052045


BACKGROUND: The infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed coat by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus has highly negative economic and health impacts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such defense response remains poorly understood. This study aims to address this issue by profiling the transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur during the infection of the resistant peanut cultivar J11 by A. flavus. RESULTS: Transcriptomic study led to the detection of 13,539 genes, among which 663 exhibited differential expression. Further functional analysis found the differentially expressed genes to encode a wide range of pathogenesis- and/or defense-related proteins such as transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, and chitinases. Changes in the expression patterns of these genes might contribute to peanut resistance to A. flavus. On the other hand, the proteomic profiling showed that 314 of the 1382 detected protein candidates were aberrantly expressed as a result of A. flavus invasion. However, the correlation between the transcriptomic and proteomic data was poor. We further demonstrated by in vitro fungistasis tests that hevamine-A, which was enriched at both transcript and protein levels, could directly inhibit the growth of A. flavus. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in the study of pathogen defense and resistance in plants and the chitinase could play an important role in the defense response of peanut to A. flavus. The current study also constitutes the first step toward building an integrated omics data platform for the development of Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars

Arachis/genetics , Proteome/analysis , Transcriptome , Arachis/microbiology , Aspergillus flavus/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Gene Expression , Chitinases , Aflatoxins , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Seq
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 623-630, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011279


A grama missioneira gigante (Axonopus catharinensis Valls) é uma espécie forrageira que merece ser melhor investigada tanto pura como recebendo a inclusão de leguminosas. Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo de MS por ovinos pastejando grama missioneira gigante com ou sem acesso a pastos de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento prévio com cordeiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas, gerando-se uma equação para a estimativa do consumo tomando como base a excreção fecal de proteína bruta (PBf), que apresentou R2= 0,91. Em um segundo experimento, foi avaliado o consumo de forragem por ovinos em pastos de grama missioneira gigante com duas alturas de entrada (25 ou 35cm), com ou sem acesso a áreas de amendoim forrageiro por duas horas diárias. A altura de entrada na grama missioneira gigante não alterou o consumo total de MS, mas o acesso aos piquetes da leguminosa aumentou o consumo em aproximadamente 20%. Em conclusão, a grama missioneira gigante pode ser manejada com alturas de entrada entre 25 e 35cm, enquanto o acesso a áreas de amendoim forrageiro por duas horas diárias aumenta o consumo de MO por cordeiros pastejando a missioneira.(AU)

The missioneira gigante grass (Axonopus catharinensis Valls) is a grass that deserves to be better investigated both pure and receiving the inclusion of legumes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake by sheep grazing missioneira gigante grass with or without access to peanut grass (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). A previous experiment was conducted using lambs housed in metabolic cages, generating an equation for estimation of herbage intake as a function of faecal crude protein excretion (CPf). The equation presented a value of R 2 = 0.91. In the grazing experiment, the herbage intake was evaluated using missioneira gigante pastures with two pre-grazing sward heights (25 or 35cm), with or without access to peanut areas during two hours per day. The pre-grazing sward height of missioneira gigante did not change the total OM herbage intake, but the access to peanut pastures increased the herbage intake by approximately 20%. In conclusion, missioneira gigante grass has shown flexibility to be used with pre-grazing sward heights between 25 and 35cm, while the access to forage peanut pastures during two hours daily increases herbage OM intake by lambs grazing grass.(AU)

Animals , Male , Pasture , Sheep, Domestic , Diet/veterinary , Arachis , Poaceae
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e21-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750190


BACKGROUND: The predictive decision points for both peanut skin prick test (SPT) wheal size and serum IgE concentrations, in peanut-sensitized children, have not been evaluated in Singapore. OBJECTIVE: We aim to derive clinically useful predictive decision points to be used for risk stratification of oral food challenge (OFC) in peanut-sensitized patients. METHODS: Patients with a positive SPT to peanut, performed during a 4-year period between 2012 and 2016, were included in a retrospective chart review. The patients were assessed for their peanut allergy status based on a convincing clinical history. Their first SPT and serum IgE results done at presentation to our centre were used. RESULTS: There were 269 patients with a clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy based on recent immediate reaction to peanut and 59 patients whom were tolerating peanuts regularly. There were 251 patients sensitized to peanut, without prior known peanut exposure. A wheal size of ≥8 mm and a peanut-specific IgE of ≥6 kU/L each provided for a 95% positive predictive value of clinical reaction to peanuts; the larger the wheal size on SPT, the higher the probability. CONCLUSION: The cutoff values derived in this study can help clinicians in the risk assessment of OFC in peanut-sensitized patients. Prospective studies using OFCs for the diagnosis of peanut allergy are needed to confirm the diagnostic performance of these tests in predicting OFC outcomes.

Arachis , Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Singapore , Skin
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e1-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750173


BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is an increasing problem in Singapore and strict avoidance is difficult as peanut is ubiquitous in Asian cuisine. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with obvious peanut allergy in Singapore. METHODS: This was an open-label study of peanut OIT in children living in Singapore, with 2 weekly dose escalation until final maintenance dose of 3,000 mg of peanut protein and a maintenance phase of 12 months. An oral food challenge was performed at 6 months to assess for desensitisation and at 4 weeks after discontinuation of OIT having completed 12 months of maintenance therapy to assess for possible sustained unresponsiveness. The adverse events were monitored using the symptom diaries. RESULTS: Nine subjects were started on OIT, with 7 managing to complete maintenance phase of therapy. Of these 7, all were able to tolerate at least 3,000 mg of peanut protein by 6 months of maintenance therapy, showing that the OIT was effective. Of these 7, 3 patients complied with the 4-week abstinence period after completion of OIT before another peanut challenge; 2 of the 3 subjects showed a significant decrease from the initial ability to tolerate 3,000 mg of peanut protein. Side effects were mainly gastrointestinal in nature and were more common during the updosing phase than the maintenance phase. No episodes of anaphylaxis were observed in this study. CONCLUSION: Peanut OIT seemed to be effective and safe in our cohort of Singaporean children.

Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asian People , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunotherapy , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Pilot Projects , Probiotics , Singapore
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18135, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011636


In the present study, the occurrence of fungi and aflatoxins (AFs) in peanut and cashew nut samples was investigated. Mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 58.8% of samples, and assessment of AFs by chromatographic methods revealed that 52.9% were contaminated by AFs. AFB1 was the principal component in all AF-contaminated samples, with a mean level of 14.0, and 1.08 µg/kg in peanut and cashew nut, respectively. Eleven samples (32.4%) exceeded the total AF maximum level (4 µg/kg) and 8 samples (23.5%) exceeded the AFB1 (2 µg/kg) established by the European Commission. Our findings suggest that the incidence of AFs emphasizes the need for regular monitoring and a more stringent food safety system to control AFs at the lowest possible levels in peanuts and cashew nuts. The hypothetical dietary exposure suggests that the food products evaluated may significantly contribute to the overall human exposure

Arachis/parasitology , Risk Assessment , Aflatoxins/adverse effects , Fungi , Anacardium/parasitology , Food Security
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 126-137, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786389


OBJECTIVES: Tree pollen causes allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated children who diagnosed as rhinitis or asthma, living in Busan, for tree allergen sensitization, component allergen, oral allergy syndrome, and the relationship between pollen counts and allergen sensitization.METHODS: Pollen were collected in Busan, from January 1 to December 31, 2017, using a Rotorod sampler and enumerated using a microscope. We conducted a study of children with rhinitis or asthma at Busan St. Mary's Hospital in 2017, administered an ISAAC questionnaire, and an oral allergy syndrome survey. Serum specific Ig E tests were performed.RESULTS: Among the 57 patients, the mean age was 9.3 years. The pollen counts in decreasing order were as follows: pine, alder, oak, juniper, beech, ginkgo, and birch. For sensitization, birch and alder 35.1%, Japanese cedar 19.3%, juniper 17.5%, pine 10.5%, and Japanese cypress 8.2%. The component Ig E was tested in 27 patients. Bet v 1 had a high correlation with birch, alder, and peach. Bet v 2 showed a statistically significant correlation with all tree pollen except cypress. Bet v 4 did not have any apparent correlation. Bet v 6 had the same pattern as Bet v 2, but correlation coefficient was higher than that of Bet v 2. Oral allergy syndrome was noted in 7 patients, including peach, peanut, apple, tomato, kiwi, and sesame.CONCLUSIONS: Alder and juniper are clinically important tree pollens in Busan. These pollens cause sensitization to birch and Japanese cedar by cross-reaction.

Alnus , Arachis , Asian People , Asthma , Betula , Child , Cryptomeria , Cupressus , Fagus , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Juniperus , Solanum lycopersicum , Pollen , Prunus persica , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sesamum , Trees
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786114


PURPOSE: This study examined the prevalence of food allergies and allergenic factors in a selected sample of children living in Seoul, Korea, along with their dietary habits, environmental factors, and diseases as risk factors for food allergy. The results of this study will provide basic data for addressing food allergies.METHODS: We selected 3,004 pre-school and school-age children, aged 0 ~ 12, in the 25 districts of Seoul as the study sample. Structured self-report questionnaires were administered over a two-month period in July-August 2018, and the children's parents recorded the answers on their children's behalf. The research tools in this study included the Korean version of the questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).RESULTS: The physician-diagnosed prevalence rate of food allergies was 14.2%, while 20.4% of the children experienced allergic symptoms at least once and 17.4% reported symptoms within the previous 12 months. The children's symptoms included skin problems (88.1%), gastrointestinal issues (19.2%), oral issues (16.7%), respiratory issues (12.7%), and systemic issues (1.3%). The causes of allergies included eggs, peaches, milk, peanuts, and shrimps. The factors influencing the experience of food allergies were the consumption of cereal (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09 ~ 2.10; p = 0.013), potatoes (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33 ~ 2.65; p < 0.001), and fast food (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.10 ~ 2.72; p = 0.017). Having food allergy symptoms was associated with a higher risk of experiencing asthma (aOR, 4.22 95% CI, 3.10 ~ 5.76; p < 0.001), allergic rhinitis (aOR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.03 ~ 3.15; p < 0.001), and atopic dermatitis symptoms (aOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.88 ~ 4.40; p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Episodes of food allergies warrant examining regular food consumption and placing dietary restrictions through early diagnosis as these episodes may imply the presence of other allergies. Our findings offer basic insights into the patterns, prevalence and symptoms of children's food allergies in Seoul, and our findings will contribute to identifying effective interventions for food allergies.

Arachis , Asthma , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Early Diagnosis , Edible Grain , Eggs , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Parents , Prevalence , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Seoul , Skin , Solanum tuberosum