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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 20220622. 87 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1373159

ABSTRACT

A estimativa de idade à morte de indivíduos arqueológicos é um processo muito importante para a reconstrução do perfil demográfico de populações passadas, no entanto, é alvo de debates e discussões quanto à sua acurácia. A estimativa da idade de um indivíduo pelos dentes é um dos métodos mais confiáveis e simples para remanescentes esqueléticos, já que os dentes são altamente resistentes a impactos mecânicos, químicos, físicos e ao tempo. Os objetivos desta tese foram mapear os métodos de estimativa de idade dental utilizados em contexto arqueológico e estimar a idade de indivíduos de cinco sítios arqueológicos pré-coloniais do Estado de São Paulo: Buracão, Capelinha 1, Moraes, Piaçaguera e Tenório sob curadoria do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MAE-USP). Este volume apresenta um compilado de três capítulos que investigaram 1) os métodos de estimativa de idade aplicados em dentes permanentes em indivíduos arqueológicos através de uma revisão de escopo; 2) estimativa de idade a partir da avaliação da proporção das áreas polpa/dente em caninos de indivíduos de sambaquis brasileiros; 3) estimativa de idade a partir da análise dos estágios de mineralização de terceiros molares de indivíduos de sambaquis brasileiros. O primeiro capítulo (revisão de escopo) foi conduzido e relatado de acordo com as recomendações propostas pelo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) e com o referencial The Joanna Brigs Institute for Scoping Reviews. Para os dois últimos capítulos (realização de estimativa de idade), os dentes de interesse foram radiografados com o aparelho de raios X portátil de corrente direta Nomad e as imagens foram obtidas, exportadas e analisadas em extensão DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine). Os caninos (n=60) foram avaliados e as áreas mensuradas no software livre ImageJ por duas examinadoras calibradas e foi realizado o teste de reprodutibilidade, para toda a amostra, intra (ICC = 0,888 a 0,99) e inter examinadores (ICC = 0,842 a 0,908). Os terceiros molares (n=18) foram avaliados no software livre Stellar View a partir da análise dos estágios de Demirjian e o teste de confiabilidade intra examinador quanto à classificação dos estágios apresentou concordância quase perfeita (Kappa = 0,94). Com a revisão de escopo, foi possível notar uma predileção, na literatura, por métodos não-destrutivos para a estimativa da idade dental em indivíduos arqueológicos; dentre eles, a análise de características do desenvolvimento e maturação dental, a avaliação do depósito de dentina secundária na câmara pulpar e a análise do desgaste dental. A aplicação da proporção das áreas pulpar/dental obteve idades próximas ou que cruzaram os intervalos etários estimados anteriormente por outros métodos antropológicos pelo MAE-USP. A avaliação dos estágios de desenvolvimento apresentou bons resultados: dos 18 dentes avaliados, 15 tiveram a idade estimada dentro do intervalo etário anteriormente avaliado pelo MAE-USP e apenas três não coincidiram, sendo que dois ficaram poucos anos abaixo das idades estimadas anteriormente e o outro, oito anos. Após a realização do estudo, foi possível concluir que ambas as técnicas podem ser aplicadas em remanescentes arqueológicos.


Subject(s)
Paleodontology , Archaeology , Age Determination by Teeth
2.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 473-479, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342258

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sungbo Eredo Monument is an ancient public work with a system of defensive walls and ditches located in Eredo Local Council Development Area of Epe, Lagos State, southwest Nigeria. A huge section of the monument cuts through the Augustine University campus, forming two-sided vertical walls with a deep ridge in-between. The objective of this investigative study is to determine the microbial profile of soil samples from the monument in the University campus. Methodology: Soil samples were collected from the topsoil at a depth of 7.5cm from four randomly selected points along the edge of the monument. The samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences of Augustine University for analysis. Samples were cultured on Nutrient agar (NA) and incubated aerobically for 24-48 hours for bacteria isolation and on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar (SDA) for 72 hours for fungi isolation. Bacterial colonies on NA were preliminarily identified to genus level by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical test scheme for Gram-positive (catalase, coagulase, starch hydrolysis) and Gram-negative isolates (oxidase, urease test, indole, methyl red, Voges Proskauer and sugar fermentation tests). Fungi colonies on SDA were identified using conventional macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to selected antibiotics was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of twenty-three bacterial isolates in four genera; Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Cellobiococcus and Micrococcus and nine fungal isolates in three genera; Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Botrytis were identified from the cultures. The bacterial isolates were sensitive (>50% sensitivity) to only gentamicin and ofloxacin, with 65.2% and 78.3% sensitivity rates respectively, while they were largely resistant to all other antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, erythromycin, cefuroxime, cloxacillin, ceftazidime and augmentin, with resistance rates of 65.2%, 65.2%, 73.9%, 82.6%, 86.9%, 91.3% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this investigative study revealed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (mainly Gram-positive) and fungi on the archaeological monument of Augustine University, adding to the existing data on microbial spectrum of archaeological monuments that could be useful for unraveling human cultural habits and microbe-related human diseases. However, further studies on molecular identification of these microbial spectrum will be required to ascertain their genetic relatedness and ancestral phylogeny, which will be useful for archaeologists in their study of the Sungbo-Eredo ancestral monument.


Subject(s)
Humans , Archaeology , Soil , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Nigeria
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1676-1680, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134497

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke (FH) se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en laplaca timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad, denominándose como persistente su presencia a mayor edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura anatómica se presenta de manera escasa, debido a una muy baja presencia en poblaciones modernas, situación que cambia al estudiar poblaciones arqueológicas. El propósito de este estudio es describir la expresión del foramen de Huschke en una población arqueológica de Chile central. Fueron analizados 27 huesos temporales obtenidos de los restos óseos de la población del Monumento Arqueológico Cementerio Tutuquén, los cuales están depositados en el Museo Regional de Rancagua, Chile. Se evaluó presencia y ubicación del foramen, sexo, temporalidad y rango etáreo para cada muestra incluida. El FH se presentó en un 77,78% de los temporales, siendo 47,62% restos masculinos, 28,57% femeninos y 23,81% de sexo indeterminado. La totalidad de los restos de niños y subadultos presentaron FH, mientras que en adultos su expresión disminuye hasta un 68,42%. La ubicación fue un 38,10% en cuadrante inferomedial, 33,33% superolateral, 23,81% superomedial, 4,71% central. No se encontraron FH de ubicación inferolateral. El único temporal observable del período 10.000 AP (antes del presente, 1950) presentó FH, mientras que, en el período 7.000 AP se presentó en 6/7 temporales y en 14/19 temporales del período 1.000 AP. Los datos aportados complementan el conocimiento anatómico del proceso de osificación del hueso timpánico y la expresión de la dehiscencia timpánica como rasgo morfológico menor desde el estudio de poblaciones arqueológicas.


SUMMARY: The tympanic dehiscence or Foramen of Huschke (FH) is considered a transient minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone. Its expression is considered physiological until the age of five, and its presence is constant after that. This characteristic is seldom mentioned in anatomical literature since it is infrequent in modern populations. However, there is a difference when archaeological populations are studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the expression of the Huschke foramen in an archaeological population of central Chile. For this analysis, 27 temporal bones were obtained from human skeletal remains of the Tutuquén Cemetery Archaeological Monument. Presence and location of the foramen, sex, time period and age range were evaluated for each sample. The FH occurred in 77.78% of the temporal bones, with 47.62% male, 28.57% female and 23.81% of undetermined sex. All children and subadults presented FH, while in adults it decreased to 68.42%. The location was 38.10% in the inferomedial quadrant, 33.33 % superolateral, 23.81% superomedial, 4.71% central, and no FH was found at the inferolateral position. The only temporal bone identified in the 10,000 BP (before the present 1950) presented FH, while in the 7,000 BP period, it presented in 6/7 temporal bones and in the 1000 BP period, it was found in 14/ 19 temporal bones. The data provided complements anatomical knowledge of the tympanic bone ossification process, and in archaeological population studies, tympanic dehiscence presents as a lesser morphological characteristic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear Canal/anatomy & histology , Archaeology , Chile
4.
Rev. Subj. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 115-128, jan.-abr. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1041625

ABSTRACT

Este artigo objetiva analisar as formações discursivas e não discursivas que possibilitaram a abertura de um hospital psiquiátrico na Região do Cariri cearense, entre os anos 1970 e 2016. Propõe o uso dos conceitos foucaultianos de arqueologia e genealogia enquanto método e estratégia de análise. A hipótese de pesquisa defendida é de que a abertura desse hospital faz parte de um processo amplo de instalação de hospitais psiquiátricos no Brasil e aponta para o internamento enquanto lógica massiva de intervenção em Saúde Mental no Brasil, que, embora segregacionista e excludente, se manteve até o final da década de 1980.


This article aims to analyze the discursive and non - discursive formations that allowed the opening of a psychiatric hospital in the Cariri region of Ceará between 1970 and 2016. It proposes the use of the Foucaultian concepts of archeology and genealogy as a method and strategy of analysis. The research hypothesis defended is that the opening of this hospital is part of a wide process of installation of psychiatric hospitals in Brazil, and points to the hospitalization as a massive logic of intervention in Mental Health in Brazil, which, although segregationist and excluding, has remained until the late 1980s.


Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de analizar las formaciones discursivas y no discursivas que permitieron la apertura de un hospital psiquiátrico en la Región del Cariri cearense, entre los años de 1970 y 2016. Propone los conceptos de Foucault de arqueología y genealogía mientras método y estrategia de análisis. La hipótesis de investigación defendida es la de que la apertura de este hospital haz parte de un proceso amplio de instalación de hospitales psiquiátricos en Brasil y apunta para el internamiento mientras lógica masiva de intervención en Salud Mental en Brasil, que, aunque segregacionista y excluyente, se mantuvo hasta el final de la década de 1980.


Cet article vise à analyser les formations discursives et non discursives qui ont permis l'ouverture d'un hôpital psychiatrique dans la région du Cariri dans l'état du Ceará entre 1970 et 2016. On utilise les concepts "archéologie" et "généalogie" de Foucault comme méthode et stratégie de l'analyse. Notre hypothèse de recherche est que l'ouverture de cet hôpital fait partie d'un vaste processus d'installation d'hôpitaux psychiatriques au Brésil. Cela suggère que l'hospitalisation a été une logique d'intervention massive en matière de santé mentale au Brésil qui, bien que ségrégationniste et excluant, a demeuré jusqu'à la fin des années 1980.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Psychiatric , Archaeology , Mental Health
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786649

ABSTRACT

An archaeoparasitological analysis of the soil samples from Nadym Gorodok site of Western Siberia has been carried out in this study. The archaeological site was dated as the 13 to 18th century, being characterized as permafrost region ensuring good preservation of ancient parasite eggs. Parasite eggs as Opisthorchis felineus, Alaria alata, and Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in the archaeological soil samples, which made clear about the detailed aspects of Nadym Gorodok people's life. We found the Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs throughout the 14 to 18th century specimens, allowing us to presume that raw or undercooked fish might have been commonly used for the foods of Nadym Gorodok inhabitants and their dogs for at least the past 400 years. Our study on Nadym Gorodok specimens also demonstrate that there might have been migratory interactions and strong economic ties between the people and society in Western Siberia, based on archaeoparasitological results of Opisthorchis felineus in Western Siberia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Asia, Northern , Diphyllobothrium , Dogs , Eggs , Humans , Middle Aged , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Permafrost , Siberia , Soil
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786641

ABSTRACT

There is often the risk of confusing pollen grains with helminth eggs from archaeological sites. Thousands to millions of pollen grains can be recovered from archaeological burial sediments that represent past ritual, medication and environment. Some pollen grain types can be similar to parasite eggs. Such a confusion is represented by the diagnosis of enterobiasis in ancient Iran. The authors of this study confused a joint-pine (Ephedra spp.) pollen grain with a pinworm egg. This paper describes the specific Ephedra pollen morphology that can be confused with pinworm eggs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Archaeology , Burial , Diagnosis , Eggs , Enterobiasis , Enterobius , Ephedra , Female , Helminths , Humans , Iran , Ovum , Parasites , Pollen
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786640

ABSTRACT

The study of coprolites has been a theme of archaeology in the American Southwest. A feature of archaeoparasitology on the Colorado Plateau is the ubiquity of pinworm infection. As a crowd parasite, this ubiquity signals varying concentrations of populations. Our recent analysis of coprolite deposits from 2 sites revealed the highest prevalence of infection ever recorded for the region. For Salmon Ruins, the deposits date from AD 1140 to 1280. For Aztec Ruins, the samples can be dated by artifact association between AD 1182–1253. Both sites can be placed in the Ancestral Pueblo III occupation (AD 1100–1300), which included a period of cultural stress associated with warfare. Although neither of these sites show evidence of warfare, they are typical of large, defensible towns that survived this time of threat by virtue of large populations in stonewalled villages with easily accessible water. We hypothesize that the concentration of large numbers of people promoted pinworm infection and, therefore, explains the phenomenal levels of infection at these sites.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Artifacts , Colorado , Enterobius , Occupations , Parasites , Prevalence , Salmon , Violence , Virtues , Warfare , Water
9.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(4): 4-11, Dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009715

ABSTRACT

En el antiguo Perú, en la era preincaica, en la localidad de Sechín, sus habitantes dejaron grabados en piedras una serie de imágenes anatómicas, que tal vez constituyan los testimonios más antiguos de disecciones humanas realizadas en el mundo. (AU)


In Ancient Peru, in the pre-Inca era, in the town of Sechin, its habitants left engravings in stones a series of anatomical images, which may be the oldest testimonies of human dissections made in the world. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, Ancient , Anatomy/history , Medicine in the Arts/history , Peru , Archaeology , History of Medicine
10.
Cad. psicol. soc. trab ; 21(1): 45-59, jan.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1055654

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do texto é apresentar dados que constituíram a arqueologia da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho no Brasil. Metodologia: foram realizadas 16 entrevistas individuais com Dejours e outros pesquisadores brasileiros que contribuíram para a introdução e disseminação dela no país e que adotam a abordagem em suas pesquisas. Para as entrevistas, considerou-se como critério o levantamento dos pesquisadores que estiveram no CNAM e os componentes do GT (Grupo de Trabalho em Psicodinâmica do Trabalho) da ANPEPP (Associação Nacional de Pós-graduação e Pesquisa no Brasil). Os resultados são apresentados considerando quatro aspectos: as raízes da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho no Brasil; a expansão da Psicodinâmica no Brasil; divergências e convergências entre contexto francês e brasileiro; e críticas e limitações em relação à Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Seguem as considerações finais.


The purpose of the text is to present data that constituted the archeology of work psychodynamics in Brazil. Methodology: individual interviews were conducted with Dejours and 16 Brazilian researchers who contributed to the introduction and dissemination of it in the country and researchers that currently use this regard in their researches. For the interviews, the survey had considered as a criteria the researchers that had been in the CNAM and the components of the GT (working group) on Psychodynamics of the work of Anpepp (National Association of Postgraduate and Research in Brazil). Results are presented considering four aspects: the roots of the Psychodynamics in Brazil; the expansion of the Psychodynamic in Brazil; divergences and convergences between the French and Brazilian context; and critics and limits concerning the Psychodynamics. Afterwards conclusions are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychopathology , Work , Archaeology , Psychology, Social
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(2): 541-552, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953878

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper explores the methods used by Julio Tello to address the antiquity of syphilis in ancient Peru, examining his thesis La antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú to understand the logic behind the procedures he used to test his hypothesis. The contention presented here is that despite being a medical thesis, his text can actually be considered an exploration of the origins of syphilis using a truly anthropological method, making Tello a pioneer in the subfield of medical anthropology in the Andes.


Resumen Este artículo analiza el método utilizado por Julio Tello en la investigación de la antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú, examinando su tesis La antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú, con la finalidad de comprender la lógica detrás de los procedimientos utilizados para evaluar su hipótesis. A pesar de ser una tesis en medicina, el trabajo de Tello puede ser considerado como un trabajo en el cual se utiliza el método antropológico en la evaluación del origen de la sífilis, convirtiéndose Tello en un pionero en el campo de la antropología médica en los Andes.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , History, 20th Century , Syphilis/history , Anthropology, Medical/history , Peru , Archaeology/history , Ethnology/history
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740677

ABSTRACT

While radioactive isotope analysis has proved to be a useful method in disciplines such as archaeology and forensic anthropology, more recently, radiocarbon dating has allowed for a more nuanced biological profile of human skeletal remains. Radiocarbon dating has been made possible by the above ground nuclear bomb test conducted in 1963, which raised the level of atmospheric radiocarbon concentration to almost twice the natural level. Because the annually measured tropospheric ¹⁴C concentrations are integrated into the bomb peak curve, the time of birth and death of an individual can be estimated by comparing the radiocarbon content of a skeletal sample to the bomb-curve value. In July 2017, about 1,000 skeletal remains were excavated at the construction site of Sokcho. For medico-legal purposes, we conducted anthropological and odontological examinations of all the human remains. We then conducted the radiocarbon analysis on seven femora (head and body portions), five mandibular teeth, and soil from the site through a request to the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. The results demonstrated that the estimated year of birth or death was prior to the 1950s. Due to the diverse distribution of results, we deduced that the human remains were from the local mass grave. This study supports and suggests the use of radiocarbon dating more frequently in the analysis of human skeletal remains.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Bombs , Earth Sciences , Forensic Anthropology , Humans , Korea , Methods , Miners , Parturition , Radiometric Dating , Soil , Tooth
13.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 22(2): 235-246, June 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-891935

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo discutimos como as propostas de redução da idade penal no Brasil tensionam o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. A partir da genealogia e da arqueologia propostas por Michel Foucault analisamos as Propostas de Emenda Constitucional apresentadas pela Câmara de Deputados entre os anos de 1993 e 2013. Nossa análise indica que as propostas criticam o critério cronológico adotado pelo Estatuto e propõem sua substituição pelo que chamam de critério subjetivo-psicológico. Postos em oposição aos direitos sociais, os direitos civis são tomados como balizadores de uma responsabilização dos sujeitos jovens, tornando-os mais penalizáveis. Por fim, as propostas fazem uma série de críticas à ineficácia do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Essas críticas não são produzidas no sentido de ampliar a efetivação das atuais políticas, mas de instrumentar o recrudescimento punitivo a partir da desqualificação do Estatuto.


This paper discusses how the proposals to reduce the age of criminal responsibility in Brazil strain the Statute of Children and Adolescents. Applying the archaeological and genealogical methods of Michel Foucault we analyze the constitutional amendment proposals presented by the country's Chamber of Deputies between 1993 and 2013. Our analysis points out that the proposals criticize the chronological criteria adopted by the Statute and propose replacing it with the so-called subjective-psychological criteria. Placed in opposition to social rights, civil rights are used as a reference to hold young subjects responsible, thereby making them more penalizable. Finally, the proposals critique the ineffectiveness of the Statute of Children and Adolescents. These critiques are not the result of attempts to expand the efficacy of current policies, but rather to implement a punitive upsurge starting with the disqualification of the Statute.


En este artículo discutimos cómo las propuestas de reducción de la edad penal en Brasil tensionan el Estatuto del Niño y del Adolescente. A partir de la arqueología y de la genealogía propuestas por Michel Foucault analizamos las Propuestas de Enmienda a la Constitución presentadas por la Cámara de Diputados entre los años 1993 y 2013. Nuestro análisis indica que las propuestas critican el criterio cronológico adoptado por el Estatuto y proponen su sustitución por lo que califican de criterio subjetivo/psicológico. Puestos en oposición a los derechos sociales, los derechos civiles son utilizados como referenciales de una responsabilización de los sujetos jóvenes, volviéndolos más penalizables. Finalmente, las propuestas hacen críticas a la ineficacia del Estatuto del Niño y del Adolescente. Estas críticas no son producidas en el sentido de ampliar la efectuación de las actuales políticas, pero de instrumentar el recrudecimiento punitivo a partir de la descalificación del Estatuto.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , Brazil , Child , Child Advocacy/psychology , Adolescent/legislation & jurisprudence , Archaeology/methods , Civil Rights/psychology , Criminal Liability , Legislation as Topic
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 307-316, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886628

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Fossils , Archaeology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Age Factors , Sex Distribution
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(6): 70-78, Nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840316

ABSTRACT

Background: Many buildings in Egypt e.g. museums, mosques and churches, do not possess controlled environments for minimizing the risks of damage of wooden artifacts due to the growth of fungi. Fungal damage usually appears as change in wood color, appearance of stains, and sometimes deformation of wooden surfaces. In this study we focused on the effect that some fungi exert on the properties of wooden artifacts and evaluated the effectiveness of different concentrations of chitosan on their protection against damage by mold fungi. Results: Samples were collected from different monuments and environments, and fungi growing on them were isolated and identified. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus and /Aspergillus niger strains were used for the infestation of new pitch pine samples. The results revealed that the lightness of samples infected with any of the tested fungi decreased with increasing incubation times. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of incubated samples treated individually with the different concentrations of chitosan was lower than the crystallinity of infected samples. The crystallinity index measured by the first and the second method decreased after the first and second months but increased after the third and fourth months. This may due to the reducing of amorphous part by enzymes or acids produced by fungi in wooden samples. Conclusions: The growth of fungi on the treated wood samples decreased with increasing the concentration of chitosan. Hence, it was demonstrated that chitosan prevented fungal growth, and its use could be recommended for the protection of archeological wooden artifacts.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Fungi/drug effects , Wood/microbiology , Archaeology , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Chitosan/pharmacology , Crystallization , Penicillium chrysogenum/drug effects , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207497

ABSTRACT

Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Asians , Burial , Cestoda , China , Clonorchis sinensis , Communicable Diseases , Enterobius , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolidae , Helminths , Humans , Mummies , Parasites , Prevalence , Schistosoma japonicum , Silk , Soil , Taenia , Toilet Facilities , Trematoda
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207495

ABSTRACT

Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the transmission ecology of the site.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea , Archaeology , Brazil , Chagas Disease , Diet , Echinostoma , Ecology , Mummies , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Trematoda , Trypanosoma
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 9(1): 59-64, Apr. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747478

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) and the occlusal tooth wear in a pre-Columbian sample (n= 67, adults) from San Pedro de Atacama (North of Chile, 400-1300 BCE). The cervical regions of tooth were observed for loss of enamel and/or dentine in order to identify them as NCCLs and the tooth wear was characterized by the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. None of the individuals analyzed presented NCCLs, whereas the 98.5% (66/67) of them showed occlusal wear. The mean BEWE index was 2.5, indicating severe dental wear (3 being the highest possible score of BEWE). This lack of relation among severe tooth wear and NCCLs gives support to the idea of loss of crown height reduces cervical stress and develop of NCCLs in archaeological populations.


Este estudio evalúa las lesiones cervicales no cariosas (NCCLs) y el desgaste dental oclusal en una muestra precolombina (n= 67, adultos) de San Pedro de Atacama (Norte de Chile, 400-1300 AEC). Se analizó la perdida de esmalte y/o dentina en las áreas cervicales de los dientes con el propósito de identificarlas como NCCLs y el desgaste dental fue evaluado según el índice Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE). Ninguno de los individuos analizados presentó NCCLs, mientras el 98,5% (66/67) de ellos mostró desgaste oclusal. El promedio del índice BEWE fue de 2,5, indicando severo desgaste dental (siendo 3 el puntaje más alto posible). La falta de relación entre severo desgaste dental y NCCLs apoya la idea que la pérdida de altura de las coronas reduce el estrés cervical y el desarrollo de NCCLs en poblaciones arqueológicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Cervix/pathology , Dentin Sensitivity/pathology , Tooth Wear/pathology , Archaeology , Chile , History, Ancient , DNA, Ancient
19.
Rev. polis psique ; 5(2): 48-68, 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-869967

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo, pretende-se realizar uma descrição de algumas ferramentas de análise de documentos, na pesquisa-intervenção em direitos humanos. Traz-se a contribuição de Michel Foucault, Paul Veyne, Gilles Deleuze, Arlete Farge, Le Goff e Chartier para conversarem conosco nessa narrativa operadora de tramas históricas. Focalizam-se os arquivos orais, como as entrevistas; escritos, como os diários de campo, formulários, declarações, planos de trabalho, projetos e programas, cartas, cartazes, leis, livros; em formato de imagens, como fotos, pinturas, caricaturas; em prontuários de equipamentos em que funcionam políticas de atenção; em formato de construções arquitetônicas; arquivos artísticos, tais como músicas, danças, performances e as marcas corporais, que trazem as histórias de vida. Busca-se apresentar linhas e pistas que formam um dispositivo analítico de práticas concretas com a paciência do genealogista e do arquivista, além de fazer ranger a perspectiva diagramática da cartografia.


This article offers a description of a toolbox for discourse analysis in research-intervention in human rights. We enmesh contributions by Michel Foucault, Paul Veyne, Gilles Deleuze, Arlete Farge, Jacques Le Goff and Émile Chartier into a conversation within the operative narrative of the weave of history. We focus on a variety of historical source materials: oral documentary, such as interviews; written texts, such as field diaries, printed forms, work plans, projects and programs, letters, posters, legal papers, books; images, such as photographs, paintings, caricatures; equipment operator records which reveal workplace safety practices; and artistic documentary materials such as songs, dances, performances and body marks which convey the stories of life. With the patience of the genealogist or the archivist, we seek to present lines and pathways that create an analytical assemblage (dispositif) of concrete practices while going against the grain of the diagrammatic perspective of cartography.


En este artículo, nos proponemos llevar a cabo una descripción de algunas de las herramientas para el análisis de documentos de investigación de la intervención en materia de derechos humanos. Abre la aportación de Michel Foucault, Paul Veyne, Gilles Deleuze, Arlete Farge, Le Goff y Chartier para hablar con nosotros en este relato teje operador histórico. Archivos orales, tales como entrevistas, escritos como el diario de campo declaraciones formas funcionan los planes, proyectos y programas, cartas, carteles, las leyes, los libros, en las imágenes, como fotografías, pinturas, dibujos animados, formato de los registros de los equipos las polí- ticas de atención que trabajan, en los edificios de la forma arquitectónica, archivos artísticos tales como canciones, danzas, performances y marcas en el cuerpo que traen las historias a la vida. Tratamos de ofrecer líneas y los carriles que forman un dispositivo analítico prácticas específicas de la paciencia de genealogista y archivero.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Records , Historiography , Human Rights , Methodology as a Subject , Psychology, Social
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36878

ABSTRACT

Harappan Civilization is well known for highly sophisticated urban society, having been flourished in extensive regions of northwestern part of Pakistan and northeastern part of Afghanistan as its heyday around 4500 years ago. Most archaeologists agree on the periodization of this civilization as three different phases (Early, Mature and Late), which represent its cultural process of origin, development and decline. From the Harappan sites, one can note that there were about more than fifty burial sites discovered so far related with the civilization. In this article, we are trying to introduce the brief picture of the Harappan burials from the archaeological as well as anthropological perspectives.


Subject(s)
Afghanistan , Anthropology , Archaeology , Burial , Civilization , Humans , India , Pakistan
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