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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880732

ABSTRACT

With the number of cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) increasing rapidly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be released from quarantine without nucleic acid retesting, and self-isolate in the community. This may pose a potential virus transmission risk. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the duration of viral shedding for individual COVID-19 patients. This retrospective multicentric study enrolled 135 patients as a training cohort and 102 patients as a validation cohort. Significant factors associated with the duration of viral shedding were identified by multivariate Cox modeling in the training cohort and combined to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of viral shedding at 9, 13, 17, and 21 d after admission. The nomogram was validated in the validation cohort and evaluated by concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC), and calibration curve. A higher absolute lymphocyte count (


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 415-424, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The current deep learning diagnosis of breast masses is mainly reflected by the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions. In China, breast masses are divided into four categories according to the treatment method: inflammatory masses, adenosis, benign tumors, and malignant tumors. These categorizations are important for guiding clinical treatment. In this study, we aimed to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) for classification of these four breast mass types using ultrasound (US) images.@*METHODS@#Taking breast biopsy or pathological examinations as the reference standard, CNNs were used to establish models for the four-way classification of 3623 breast cancer patients from 13 centers. The patients were randomly divided into training and test groups (n = 1810 vs. n = 1813). Separate models were created for two-dimensional (2D) images only, 2D and color Doppler flow imaging (2D-CDFI), and 2D-CDFI and pulsed wave Doppler (2D-CDFI-PW) images. The performance of these three models was compared using sensitivity, specificity, area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-), and the performance of the 2D model was further compared between masses of different sizes with above statistical indicators, between images from different hospitals with AUC, and with the performance of 37 radiologists.@*RESULTS@#The accuracies of the 2D, 2D-CDFI, and 2D-CDFI-PW models on the test set were 87.9%, 89.2%, and 88.7%, respectively. The AUCs for classification of benign tumors, malignant tumors, inflammatory masses, and adenosis were 0.90, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.89, respectively (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.87-0.91, 0.89-0.92, 0.87-0.91, and 0.86-0.90). The 2D-CDFI model showed better accuracy (89.2%) on the test set than the 2D (87.9%) and 2D-CDFI-PW (88.7%) models. The 2D model showed accuracy of 81.7% on breast masses ≤1 cm and 82.3% on breast masses >1 cm; there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The accuracy of the CNN classifications for the test set (89.2%) was significantly higher than that of all the radiologists (30%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The CNN may have high accuracy for classification of US images of breast masses and perform significantly better than human radiologists.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR1900021375; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=33139.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , China , Deep Learning , Humans , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#An antenatal scoring system for vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) categorises patients into a low or high probability of successful vaginal delivery. It enables counselling and preparation before labour starts. The current study aims to evaluate the role of Grobman nomogram and the Kalok scoring system in predicting VBAC success in Singapore.@*METHODS@#This is a retrospective study on patients of gestational age 37 weeks 0 day to 41 weeks 0 day who underwent a trial of labour after 1 caesarean section between September 2016 and September 2017 was conducted. Two scoring systems were used to predict VBAC success, a nomogram by Grobman et al. in 2007 and an additive model by Kalok et al. in 2017.@*RESULTS@#A total of 190 patients underwent a trial of labour after caesarean section, of which 103 (54.2%) were successful. The Kalok scoring system (area under curve [AUC] 0.740) was a better predictive model than Grobman nomogram (AUC 0.664). Patient's age (odds ratio [OR] 0.915, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.844-0.992), body mass index at booking (OR 0.902, 95% CI 0.845-0.962), and history of successful VBAC (OR 4.755, 95% CI 1.248-18.120) were important factors in predicting VBAC.@*CONCLUSION@#Neither scoring system was perfect in predicting VBAC among local women. Further customisation of the scoring system to replace ethnicity with the 4 races of Singapore can be made to improve its sensitivity. The factors identified in this study serve as a foundation for developing a population-specific antenatal scoring system for Singapore women who wish to have a trial of VBAC.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Trial of Labor , Vaginal Birth after Cesarean
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 502-508, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249959

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Con la escala de Glasgow-Blatchford (EG-B) se califica mediante datos clínicos, el riesgo de resangrado después de hemorragia del tubo digestivo alto (HTDA); y con las escalas de Forrest y Dagradi, mediante endoscopia. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad de la EG-B para identificar riesgo de resangrado a 30 días después de una HTDA; el estándar de oro de comparación fue la endoscopia. Método: Se analizaron 129 expedientes de pacientes con HTDA y endoscopia. Se cuantificaron las escalas de Glasgow-Blatchford, Forrest y Dagradi; se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad y área bajo la curva ROC (ABC-ROC) del riesgo de resangrado reportado por EG-B. Resultados: La EG-B identificó a 53 pacientes con riesgo bajo de resangrado (41.09 %) y 76 con riesgo alto (58.91 %). Con la endoscopia se identificó a 107 pacientes con hemorragia no variceal (82.94 %), 98 con riesgo bajo (89.9 %) y 11 con riesgo alto (10.09 %); además, 22 pacientes con hemorragia variceal (17.05 %), 12 con riesgo bajo (54.54 %) y 10 con riesgo alto (45.45 %). La EG-B mostró sensibilidad de 0.857, especificidad de 0.462 y ABC-ROC de 0.660. Conclusiones: La EG-B es sencilla, objetiva y útil para identificar riesgo de resangrado después de HTDA; se sugiere como herramienta de triaje en urgencias.


Abstract Introduction: The Glasgow-Blatchford scale (GBS) classifies the risk of re-bleeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) using clinical data, whereas the Forrest and Dagradi scales do it by endoscopy. Objective: To assess GBS’s ability to identify re-bleeding risk within 30 days of an UGIB, using endoscopy as the gold standard for comparison. Method: 129 medical records of patients with UGIB and endoscopy were analyzed. The Glasgow-Blatchford, Forrest and Dagradi scales were quantified; sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC) of GBS-reported re-bleeding risk were calculated. Results: GBS identified 53 patients with low re-bleeding risk (41.09 %) and 76 with high risk (58.91 %). Endoscopy identified 107 patients with non-variceal bleeding (82.94 %): 98 with low risk (89.9 %) and 11 with high risk (10.09 %); in addition, it identified 22 patients with variceal hemorrhage (17.05 %): 12 with low risk (54.54 %) and 10 with high risk (45.45 %). GBS showed a sensitivity of 0.857, specificity of 0.462 and an AUC-ROC of 0.660. Conclusions: GBS is simple, objective and useful to identify the risk of re-bleeding after UGIB; it is suggested as a triage tool in the emergency department.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Recurrence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Risk Assessment/methods , Area Under Curve
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: Clinicaltrials.gov (N° NCT03018522).


Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: Clinicaltrials.gov (n° NCT03018522)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 432-437, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249942

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La presión de pulso ampliada (PPA) se asocia a un filtrado glomerular calculado ≤ 60/mL/minuto/1.73 m2, por lo que puede ser útil como prueba diagnóstica para identificar a personas con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) estadio K/DOQI III-b. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la PPA como prueba diagnóstica de IRC estadio K/DOQI III-b. Método: Estudio de prueba diagnóstica que incluyó a pacientes adultos sin comorbilidades, registrados en la Cohorte de Trabajadores de la Salud. Se utilizó la fórmula CKD-EPI para calcular la filtración glomerular. Se determinó la presión de pulso restando la presión arterial diastólica a la presión arterial sistólica. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo y prevalencia. Se elaboró una curva ROC para determinar el área bajo la curva. Resultados: Se incluyeron 6215 pacientes. Se observó que una PPA ≥ 50 mm Hg tuvo sensibilidad de 74 %, especificidad de 70 %, valor predictivo positivo de 1 %, valor predictivo negativo de 100 % y prevalencia de 1 %. El punto de inflexión en la curva ROC para identificar IRC K/DOQI III-b fue de 0.71. Conclusión: La PPA ≥ 50 mm Hg es útil como prueba diagnóstica para identificar a personas con IRC estadio K/DOQI III-b.


Abstract Introduction: Increased pulse pressure (IPP) is associated an estimated glomerular filtration ≤ 60/mL/min/1.73 m2; thus, it can be useful as a diagnostic test to identify people with K/DOQI stage III-b chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: To determine the usefulness of IPP as a diagnostic test for K/DOQI stage III-b CKD. Method: Diagnostic test study that included adult patients without comorbidities, registered in the Health Workers Cohort. The CKD-EPI formula was used to calculate glomerular filtration. Pulse pressure was determined by subtracting diastolic from systolic blood pressure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and prevalence were calculated using standard formulas. A ROC curve was generated to determine the area under the curve. Results: A total of 6,215 patients were included. An IPP ≥ 50 mmHg was observed to have a sensitivity of 74 %, specificity of 70 %, positive predictive value of 1 %, negative predictive value of 100 % and a prevalence of 1 %. The inflection point in the ROC curve to identify K/DOQI III-b CKD was 0.71. Conclusion: An IPP ≥ 50 mmHg is useful as a diagnostic test to identify people with K/DOQI stage III-b CKD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology
8.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

ABSTRACT

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triglycerides , Power, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Classification , Area Under Curve , Courtship , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucose , Goals , Insulin , Persons , Organization and Administration , Association , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Discriminant Analysis , Risk , Regression Analysis , Waist Circumference
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
10.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e963, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126763

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La escala de Alvarado es una herramienta útil para estratificar pacientes pediátricos con dolor abdominal según riesgo de apendicitis aguda. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias en el desempeño diagnóstico de la escala de Alvarado para la apendicitis aguda pediátrica según grupos de edad y sexo. Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y prospectivo, en 452 pacientes de 5 a 18 años de edad que ingresaron en el servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital Pediátrico Docente Centro Habana, con diagnóstico de dolor abdominal o apendicitis aguda, entre enero de 2016-2017. La muestra se dividió en dos grupos: con apendicitis y sin apendicitis. Se usó el diagnóstico histológico como principal elemento discriminante. Resultados: El 54,8 por ciento de los pacientes con diagnóstico negativo de apendicitis aguda fueron adolescentes femeninas. A los 7 puntos de la escala como patrón de corte, para estas pacientes hubo menor sensibilidad con respecto a los adolescentes de sexo masculino y a los escolares de ambos sexos (44,9 por ciento vs. 64,1 por ciento 72,3 por ciento, y 71,2 por ciento, respectivamente). El área bajo la Curva de Características Operativas del Receptor fue de 0,918 para los escolares masculinos, significativamente superior al grupo de edad adolescente, en particular respecto a las adolescentes femeninas, con área bajo la curva de 0,802. Conclusiones: En los pacientes sin apendicitis hubo un predominio significativo de adolescentes femeninas. La escala tuvo un buen valor discriminativo en los escolares masculinos, comparativamente superior al grupo de edad adolescente, encontrándose el desempeño discriminativo más pobre en las adolescentes de sexo femenino(AU)


Introduction: The Scale of Alvarado is a useful tool to stratify pediatric patients with abdominal pain according to the risk of acute appendicits. Objective: To determine the differences in the diagnostic performance of the scale of Alvarado for acute apendicitis in children according to age and sex groups. Methods: Observational, analytic and prospective study in 452 patients in the ages from 5 to 18 years that were admitted with abdominal pain or acute appendicitis in the Pediatric Surgery service of Centro Habana Teaching-Pediatric Hospital from January 2016 to January 2017. The sample was divided in two groups: with appendicitis and without appendicitis. It was used the hystological diagnosis as the main differentiation element. Results: The 54.8 percent of the patients with negative diagnosis of acute apendicitis were female adolescents. For these patients, in the 7 points of the scale as a cut pattern there was less sensitivity than in the case of male adolescents and school chlidren of both sexes (44.9 percent vs. 64.1 72.3 percent and 71.2 percent), respectively. The area under the Curve of Operative Characteristics of the Receptor was of 0,918 for male school children, significantly superior to the group of adolescents age, particularly in comparisson with the female adolescents that had an area under the curve of 0,802. Conclusions: In the patients without appendicitis there was a significative predominance of female adolescents. The scale had a good value of differentiation in male school children, comparatively higher to the group of adolescents age, finding the poorest differentiattion performance in the female adolescents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Organ Dysfunction Scores , ROC Curve , Area Under Curve
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 277-283, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138494

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os níveis plasmáticos e o comportamento farmacocinético da micafungina em pacientes tratados com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea. Métodos: As amostras foram colhidas por meio de pontos de acesso antes e depois da membrana, em dois hospitais espanhóis de nível terciário. Os momentos para o cálculo das curvas farmacocinéticas foram antes da administração do fármaco, e 1, 3, 5, 8, 18 e 24 horas após o início da infusão nos dias 1 e 4 de tratamento. Calcularam-se a área sob a curva, a depuração do fármaco, o volume de distribuição e a meia-vida plasmática por meio de análise farmacocinética não compartimental. Resultados: Os valores farmacocinéticos analisados no primeiro e quarto dias de tratamento não mostram qualquer diferença de concentração entre amostras colhidas antes da membrana e após a membrana, e o comportamento farmacocinético foi similar na vigência de diferentes falências de órgãos. A área sob a curva antes da membrana no dia 1 foi de 62,1 (IC95% 52,8 - 73,4) e a área sob a curva após a membrana nesse mesmo dia foi de 63,4 (IC95% 52,4 - 76,7), com p = 0,625. A área sob a curva antes da membrana no dia 4 foi de 102,4 (IC95% 84,7 - 142,8), enquanto a área sob a curva após a membrana nesse mesmo dia foi de 100,9 (IC95% 78,2 - 138,8), com p = 0,843. Conclusão: Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos da micafungina não foram alterados significantemente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine micafungin plasma levels and pharmacokinetic behavior in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Methods: The samples were taken through an access point before and after the membrane in two tertiary hospitals in Spain. The times for the calculation of pharmacokinetic curves were before the administration of the drug and 1, 3, 5, 8, 18 and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion on days one and four. The area under the curve, drug clearance, volume of distribution and plasma half-life time with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic data analysis were calculated. Results: The pharmacokinetics of the values analyzed on the first and fourth day of treatment did not show any concentration difference between the samples taken before the membrane (Cin) and those taken after the membrane (Cout), and the pharmacokinetic behavior was similar with different organ failures. The area under the curve (AUC) before the membrane on day 1 was 62.1 (95%CI 52.8 - 73.4) and the AUC after the membrane on this day was 63.4 (95%CI 52.4 - 76.7), p = 0.625. The AUC before the membrane on day 4 was 102.4 (95%CI 84.7 - 142.8) and the AUC was 100.9 (95%CI 78.2 - 138.8), p = 0.843. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic parameters of micafungin were not significantly altered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Micafungin/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Tissue Distribution , Prospective Studies , Area Under Curve , Tertiary Care Centers , Micafungin/administration & dosage , Half-Life , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 732-736, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136278

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE A previous study has reported that miR-1204 exerted oncogenic effects in breast cancer (BC). The purpose of our paper was to evaluate the expressions of tissue and serum miR-1204 in patients with BC and further investigate its biomarker potential. METHODS The expressions of tissue and serum miR-1204 were investigated by qRT-PCR in 144 BC patients and 38 healthy controls. Chi-square tests were conducted to examine the associations between miR-1204 expressions and clinicopathological factors. Then, the associations of miR-1204s level with the survival of BC patients were determined by performing the Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the OC curve (AUC) were obtained to validate the diagnostic values of miR-1204. RESULTS We found that the expressions of miR-1204 were increased in both tissue and serum samples from BC patients. Multivariate assays identified tissue and serum miR-1204 overexpression as an independent poor prognostic factor. In addition, ROC curve assays indicated that tissue and serum miR-1204 are potential diagnostic markers of BC. CONCLUSIONS Detection of tissue and serum miR-1204 levels could have clinical potential as a novel prognostic/diagnostic biomarker for BC patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Um estudo anterior indicou que o miR-1204 exerce efeitos oncogênicos no Câncer de Mama (CM). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as expressões de miR-1204 sérico e em tecidos em pacientes com CM e investigar o seu potencial biomarcador. METODOLOGIA As expressões de miR-1204 sérico e em tecidos foram investigadas por qRT-PCR em 144 pacientes com CM e 38 controles saudáveis. Testes qui-quadrados foram realizados para examinar as associações entre as expressões de miR-1204 e os fatores clinicopatológicos. Em seguida, as associações entre nível de miR-1204s e sobrevida de pacientes de CM foram determinadas através de análises de Kaplan-Meier e multivariadas. A Curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (ROC) e área sob a curva (AUC) foram obtidas para validar o valor diagnóstico do MIR-1204. RESULTADOS Descobrimos que as expressões do MIR-1204 estavam aumentadas em amostras de tecido e séricas de pacientes com CM. Análises multivariadas identificaram a superexpressão de miR-1204 sérico e em tecidos como um fator independente de prognóstico ruim. Além disso, as curvas ROC indicaram que o miR-1204 sérico e em tecidos é um possível marcador de diagnóstico de CM. CONCLUSÃO A detecção dos níveis MIR-1204 em tecidos e séricos pode ter potencial clínico como um novo biomarcador de prognóstico/diagnóstico para pacientes de CM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , MicroRNAs/blood , Prognosis , Breast Neoplasms/blood , ROC Curve , Area Under Curve , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 99-105, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126095

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Vancomicina es un antimicrobiano ampliamente utilizado para infecciones por Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa en neonatos; sin embargo, no existe claridad sobre la dosis empírica que asegure su eficacia terapéutica. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre las dosis iniciales de vancomicina utilizadas en una Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal (UCIN) con la eventualidad de alcanzar el objetivo terapéutico de área bajo la curva sobre concentración inhibitoria mínima (ABC/CIM) mayor a 400 µg/h/mL. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, realizado entre febrero 2016 y marzo 2018. Se incluyeron neonatos en tratamiento con vancomicina por sospecha/confirmación de infección por cocáceas grampositivas y medición de concentraciones plasmáticas de vancomicina al inicio del tratamiento. La probabilidad de alcanzar el objetivo terapéutico se evaluó mediante re-muestreo de valores de ABC y CIM. Resultados: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes con 49 concentraciones plasmáticas de vancomicina. Los aislados microbiológicos se confirmaron en 94,7% de los pacientes (n = 36). Los valores de ABC/CIM en dos grupos (según niveles valle de vancomicina < 10 µg/mL y ≥ 10 µg/mL), fueron de una mediana de 327 (IQ 25-75 = 174-395) y 494 (IQ 25-75 = 318-631), respectivamente (p = 0,035). Las dosis empíricas utilizadas logran logran un objetivo terapéutico (ABC/CIM > 400) de sólo 47,7% considerando CIMs en nuestra institución. Conclusiones: Teniendo en cuenta las sensibilidades institucionales, no es posible asegurar alcanzar ABC/CIM > 400 µg/h/mL. Se debe seguir investigando para replantear las actuales estrategias de dosificación y así determinar la más apropiada para neonatos.


Abstract Background: Vancomycin is used for treating coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections in neonates. However, concerns about the appropriate empirical dosing required for optimal efficacy, still remain. Aim: To assess the relationship between the initial doses of vancomycin used in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with the possibility of achieving therapeutic target of AUC024h/MIC > 400 µg/h/mL. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study carried out between February 2016 and March 2018. All neonates treated with vancomycin for suspected/proven Gram-positive infection and with at least one trough serum concentration level were included. Probability of target attainment (PTA) was evaluated through resampling of AUC and MIC values. Results: Final dataset included 38 patients and 49 trough vancomycin levels; 94.7% of these cases (n = 36) were confirmed Gram-positive infections. The median AUC/MIC values for the trough values vancomycin < 10 µg/mL group and for the ≥ 10 µg/mL group were 327 (IQR 174-395) and 494 (IQR 318-631) respectively (p = 0.035). Current empirical dosing strategy has a 47.7% PTA (AUC/MIC > 400) when taking institutional MICs into account. Conclusions: It is not possible to assure achieving a AUC/MIC > 400 µg/h/mL when considering institutional sensibilities. Current empiric dosing strategies should be reconsidered and further investigation needs to be done to help determine the appropriate empirical dosing required for optimal efficacy in neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Staphylococcal Infections , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Area Under Curve , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190736, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132171

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obesity is the most common chronic disease, due to its ignorance in society. It gives birth to other diseases such as endocrine. The objective of this research is to analyze the different trends of each BMI category and predict its related serious consequences. Data mining based Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique has been applied for this and the accuracy of each BMI category has been calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), which is an effective method and potentially applied to medical data sets. The Area Under Curve (AUC) of ROC and predictive accuracy have been calculated for each classified BMI category. Our analysis shows interesting results and it is found that BMI ≥ 25 has the highest AUC and Predictive accuracy compares to other BMI, which claims a good rank of performance. From our trends, it has been explored that at each BMI precaution is mandatory even if the BMI < 18.5 and at ideal BMI too. Development of effective awareness, early monitoring and interventions can prevent its harmful effects on health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , ROC Curve , Obesity/diagnosis , Area Under Curve , Data Mining , Support Vector Machine
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of 3, 29-Dibenzoyl Karounitriol (3, 29-DK) from sustained- release pellets and extracts of Trichosanthes at different time points in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).@*METHODS@#Healthy male SD rats were given a single gavage of Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets or Trichosanthes extract, and orbital blood samples were taken at different time points within 48 h after drug administration in the pellet group and within 5 h in Trichosanthes extract group for determination of the plasma concentrations of 3, 29-DK using LC-MS/MS. The standard curve of 3, 29-DK content was established, and the specificity, minimum detection limit, precision and accuracy, extraction recovery, stability and matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis were assessed. The mean plasms levels of 3, 29-DK at different time points after the drug administration were determined and its pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Das 2.0 software.@*RESULTS@#LC-MS/MS analysis showed a good linearity of 3, 29-DK concentration within the range of 0.5-32 ng/mL, and the results of methodological validation confirmed the validity of this method for biological sample determination. Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets and Trichosanthes extract showed significant differences in their AUC, AUC, MRT, MRT, t and T of 3, 29-DK after administration in rats ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets are capable of sustained-release of 3, 29-DK in rats, and thus provides a basis for the study of new dosage forms of Trichosanthes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Benzoates , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Delayed-Action Preparations , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trichosanthes , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828122

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common bloody disease with a high incidence in children, but its diagnostic method is exclusive diagnosis, and the existing detection techniques are mostly invasive, which may cause secondary injury to patients and also may increase the risk of disease. In order to make up for the lack of the detection method, this study made a preliminary exploration on the diagnosis of children's ITP from the perspective of infrared thermography. In this study, a total of 11 healthy children and 22 ITP children's frontal infrared thermal images were collected, and the pattern characteristic (PFD), average temperature (Troi) and maximum temperature (MAX) characteristics of 7 target areas were extracted. The weighted PFD parameters were correlated with the platelet count commonly used in clinical diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity of the weighted PFD parameters for children's ITP were calculated through the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The final results showed that the difference of the weighted PFD parameters between healthy children and ITP children was statistically significant, and the parameters negatively correlated with platelet count. Under the ROC curve, the area under the curve (AUC) of this parameter is as high as 92.1%. Based on the research results of this paper, infrared thermography can clearly show the difference between ITP children and healthy children. It is hoped that the methods proposed in this paper can non-invasively and objectively describe the characteristics of ITP infrared thermal imaging of children, and provide a new ideas for ITP diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Child , Humans , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thermography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether various immune-related plasma proteins, alone or in combination with conventional clinical risk factors, can predict spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD) and intra-amniotic infection in women with premature cervical dilation or a short cervix (≤ 25 mm).METHODS: This retrospective study included 80 asymptomatic women with premature cervical dilation (n = 50) or a short cervix (n = 30), who underwent amniocentesis at 17–29 weeks. Amniotic fluid (AF) was cultured, and maternal plasma was assayed for interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, and complements C3a and C5a, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The primary outcome measures were SPTD at < 32 weeks and positive AF cultures.RESULTS: The plasma levels of IL-6, C3a, and C5a, but not of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, were significantly higher in women with SPTD at < 32 weeks than in those who delivered at ≥ 32 weeks. The women who delivered at < 32 weeks had more advanced cervical dilatation, and higher rates of antibiotic and tocolytic administration and were less likely to be given vaginal progesterone than those who delivered at ≥ 32 weeks. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a combined prediction model was developed, which included the plasma IL-6 and C3a levels, and cervical dilatation (area under the curve [AUC], 0.901). The AUC for this model was significantly greater than that for any single variable included in the predictive model. In the univariate analysis, plasma IL-6 level was the only significant predictor of intra-amniotic infection.CONCLUSION: In women with premature cervical dilation or a short cervix, maternal plasma IL-6, C3a, and C5a levels could be useful non-invasive predictors of SPTD at < 32 weeks. A combination of these biomarkers and conventional clinical factors may clearly improve the predictability for SPTD, as compared with the biomarkers alone. An increased plasma level of IL-6 predicted intra-amniotic infection.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , Blood Proteins , Cervix Uteri , Complement System Proteins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Labor Stage, First , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Plasma , Pregnancy , Progesterone , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782214

ABSTRACT

14 cm, and HOB >7.8 cm were 10.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57–74.94), 5.26 (95% CI, 1.06–26.19), and 10.50 (95% CI, 1.03–107.12), respectively. Areas under the curve (AUCs) for AFI, HOB, and parity were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.54–0.78), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.64–0.85), and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62–0.76), respectively. HOB had the largest AUC, but there were no significant differences among the AUCs of other factors. The cut-off value of HOB was 6 cm.CONCLUSION: This study showed that the AUC of HOB was greater than that of parity and AFI, although it was not statistically significant. As HOB is a noninvasive and comprehensive marker to predict successful ECV, consideration of HOB would be helpful before conducting ECV. Further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Area Under Curve , Breech Presentation , Buttocks , Female , Humans , Odds Ratio , Parity , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Pubic Symphysis , Ultrasonography , Version, Fetal
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