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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 406-415, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352429

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sever cognitive and memory impairments, huge increase in the prevalence of the disease, and lacking definite cure have absorbed worldwide efforts to develop therapeutic approaches. Since many drugs have failed in the clinical trials due to multifactorial nature of AD, symptomatic treatments are still in the center attention and now, nootropic medicinal plants have been found as versatile ameliorators to reverse memory disorders. In this work, anti-Alzheimer's activity of aqueous extract of areca nuts (Areca catechu L.) was investigated via in vitro and in vivo studies. It depicted good amyloid ß (Aß) aggregation inhibitory activity, 82% at 100 µg/mL. In addition, it inhibited beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) with IC50 value of 19.03 µg/mL. Evaluation of neuroprotectivity of the aqueous extract of the plant against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 neurons revealed 84.5% protection at 1 µg/mL. It should be noted that according to our results obtained from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, the extract reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats at concentrations of 1.5 and 3 mg/kg.


La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es un trastorno neurodegenerativo relacionado con la edad. Los severos deterioros cognitivos y de la memoria, el enorme aumento de la prevalencia de la enfermedad y la falta de una cura definitiva han absorbido los esfuerzos mundiales para desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos. Dado que muchos fármacos han fallado en los ensayos clínicos debido a la naturaleza multifactorial de la EA, los tratamientos sintomáticos siguen siendo el centro de atención y ahora, las plantas medicinales nootrópicas se han encontrado como mejoradores versátiles para revertir los trastornos de la memoria. En este trabajo, se investigó la actividad anti-Alzheimer del extracto acuoso de nueces de areca (Areca catechu L.) mediante estudios in vitro e in vivo. Representaba una buena actividad inhibidora de la agregación de amiloide ß (Aß), 82% a 100 µg/mL. Además, inhibió la beta-secretasa 1 (BACE1) con un valor de CI50 de 19,03 µg/mL. La evaluación de la neuroprotección del extracto acuoso de la planta contra la muerte celular inducida por H2O2 en neuronas PC12 reveló una protección del 84,5% a 1 µg/mL. Cabe señalar que, de acuerdo con nuestros resultados obtenidos de la prueba Morris Water Maze (MWM), el extracto revirtió el déficit de memoria inducido por escopolamina en ratas a concentraciones de 1,5 y 3 mg/kg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Areca/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , beta-Amylase/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/drug effects , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/drug effects , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Morris Water Maze Test , Medicine, Traditional
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879003

ABSTRACT

Arecae Semen, as the first place among "Four South Medicines" in China, has great dual-use value of medicine and food. The research of Arecae Semen was mainly focused on the active ingredients and efficacy value, and its potential safety hazards were also concerned. Until now, there is still a lack of clear boundaries between medicine and food, resulting in its safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish clear boundaries of medicine and food use and health risk assessment. In this paper, the differences of pretreatment and application methods of Arecae Semen were analyzed, and the research progress of Arecae Semen in chemical composition identification and toxicology research and safety evaluation were reviewed emphatically. Finally, the differences of quality control and safety evaluation of Arecae Semen in pharmacopoeias or standards were analyzed at home and abroad. It was expected to provide reference value for quality control, safety evaluation and international standardization research of Arecae Semen.


Subject(s)
Areca , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Seeds , Semen
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 143-148, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Post-operative pain is the major consequence of Ksarasutra, Seton technique employed in Ayurvedic management of Low anal fistula. Surgeons are forced to prescribe Opioids and NSAIDs with pronounced untoward effects. Non pharmacological measures like Balneotherapy are used to improve circulation and relieve spasm in contemporary sciences. Aim To compare the efficacy of Khadira (Acacia catechu) and Sphatika (Potash alum) hot sitzbath with plain hot sitzbath in patients of low anal fistula treated with Ksarasutra. Method The study was single blind, double armed; prospective, randomized control clinical trial in which 30 patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 each on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A received hot sitzbath using Acacia catechu and alum infusion twice daily for 21 days. Group B received hot sitzbath using warm water for 21 days. The assessments were made on pain, post-surgical satisfaction burning sensation, tenderness, discharge, constipation, itching and incontinence. Result The disease was prevalent in the 4th decade of life, more in males (86.67%) involved in sedentary work (53.33%) residing in urban domicile, consuming mixed diet (100%). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in outcome measures like pain, burning sensation, tenderness, discharge, constipation and itching. Conclusion On comparative analysis Acacia and Alum hot sitzbath was more effective in outcomes like pain, surgical satisfaction, burning sensation and discharge. There was no difference in the effect of both interventions with respect to outcome measures like constipation, itching and incontinence.


RESUMO Justificativa A dor pós-operatória é a principal consequência da técnica que utiliza seton de Ksarasutra no tratamento ayurvédico de fístula anal baixa. Os cirurgiões são impelidos a prescrever opiáceos e AINEs que possuem efeitos indesejáveis pronunciados. Medidas não farmacológicas como a balneoterapia são usadas nas ciências contemporâneas para melhorar a circulação e aliviar o espasmo. Objetivo Comparar a eficácia do banho quente de assento com Khadira (Acacia catechu) e Sphatika (Potash alum) com apenas banho de assento em pacientes com fístula anal baixa tratados com Ksarasutra. Método Estudo clínico prospectivo, cego e controlado de dois braços randomizados, no qual 30 pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 15 pacientes cada com base nos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. O Grupo A recebeu banho de assento com Acacia catechu e infusão de alume duas vezes ao dia por 21 dias. O Grupo B recebeu banho de assento com água morna por 21 dias. Os desfechos avaliados foram dor, satisfação pós-cirúrgica, sensação de queimação, sensibilidade, corrimento, constipação, prurido e incontinência. Resultado A doença foi prevalente na 4ª década de vida, mais frequente no sexo masculino (86,67%), nos envolvidos em trabalho sedentário (53,33%), nos residentes em domicílios urbanos e nos que consumiam dieta mista (100%). Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora estatisticamente significativa na avaliação dos resultados, tais como dor, sensação de queimação, sensibilidade, corrimento, constipação e prurido. Conclusão Na análise comparativa, o banho quente de assento com acácia e alume foi mais eficaz nos desfechos de dor, satisfação cirúrgica, sensação de queimação e corrimento. Não houve diferença em relação ao efeito de ambas as intervenções sobre os desfechos de constipação, prurido e incontinência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative , Baths , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Areca , Potassium , Aluminum Sulfate , Acacia
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781341

ABSTRACT

The relationship between areca nut as a primary carcinogen and oral cancer has been widely concerned. Areca can change the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy in cells, and the levels of ROS and autophagy are closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. This paper reviewed the relationships among areca nut, intracellular ROS, and autophagy.


Subject(s)
Areca , Autophagy , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Reactive Oxygen Species
5.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 311-315, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118954

ABSTRACT

We describe the anatomical structure of roots originating from the apocole of Attalea microcarpa compared to the primary root, by means of usual methods for optical microscopy. The adventitious roots are differentiated in the apocole associated to vascular bundles, and can remain as a single structure or branch. They have the basic root structure characteristic of Arecoideae palms, without schizogenous spaces, which are observed in the primary root, in addition to few air spaces. Mucilages, starch and proteins were present in both types of roots. Adventitious roots of the apocole are described for the first time in Arecaceae. (AU)


Subject(s)
Areca , Plant Roots , Germination , Amazonian Ecosystem , Seedlings , Anatomy
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1975-1982, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773941

ABSTRACT

Background@#Betel quid chewing has been a major risk factor for oral cancer (OC) in southern China. This study aimed to analyze the scientific publications on the relationship between betel quid chewing and OC and construct a model to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate pertinent publications from 1998 to 2017.@*Methods@#The publications from 1998 to 2017 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. Microsoft Excel, Thomson Data Analyzer, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace software were used to analyze the publication outcomes, journals, countries/regions, institutions, authors, research areas, and research frontiers.@*Results@#A total of 788 publications on the relationship between betel quid chewing and OC published until October 25, 2017, were identified. The top 4 related journals were Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine, Oral Oncology, Plos One, and International Journal of Cancer. The top five countries engaged in related research included China, India, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Malaysia. The corresponding disciplines, such as oncology, oral surgery, pathology, environmental and occupational health, and toxicology, were mainly concentrated in three disciplines. The subject terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, expression, oral submucous fibrosis, India, and p53 ranked first among research hotspots. The burst terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, and expression ranked first in research frontiers.@*Conclusions@#Research in this area emphasized hotspots such as squamous cell carcinoma, OC, oral submucosal fibrosis, betel quid, and tobacco. The annual number of publications steadily decreased from 1998 to 2017, with a lack of a systematic study from interdisciplinary perspectives, inadequate pertinent journals, limited regions with the practice of betel quid chewing, and insufficient participation of researchers, which indicate that as the prevalence of OC increases, particularly in China, research in this area warrants further expansion.


Subject(s)
Areca , Bibliometrics , China , Epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia , Epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , United Kingdom , Epidemiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Areca nut is widely consumed in many parts of the world, especially in South and Southeast Asia, where cardiovascular disease (CVD) is also a huge burden. Among the forms of CVD, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Research has shown areca nut chewing to be associated with diabetes, hypertension, oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers, and CVD, but little is known about mortality and re-hospitalization secondary to ACS among areca nut users and non-users. METHODS: A prospective cohort was studied to quantify the effect of areca nut chewing on patients with newly diagnosed ACS by categorizing the study population into exposed and non-exposed groups according to baseline chewing status. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of areca nut chewing with the risk of re-hospitalization and 30-day mortality secondary to ACS. RESULTS: Of the 384 ACS patients, 49.5% (n=190) were areca users. During 1-month of follow-up, 20.3% (n=78) deaths and 25.1% (n=96) re-hospitalizations occurred. A higher risk of re-hospitalization was found (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 3.27; p=0.002) in areca users than in non-users. Moreover, patients with severe disease were at a significantly higher risk of 30-day mortality (aHR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.67 to 4.59; p < 0.001) and re-hospitalization (aHR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.26; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day re-hospitalization rate among ACS patients was found to be significantly higher in areca users and individuals with severe disease. These findings suggest that screening for a history of areca nut chewing may help to identify patients at a high risk for re-hospitalization due to secondary events.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Areca , Asia, Southeastern , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Esophageal Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Mass Screening , Mastication , Mortality , Nuts , Pakistan , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies
8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017009-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721268

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Activation, Metabolic , Areca , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Deglutition , DNA , DNA Damage , Epithelium , Female , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Humans , Incidence , Lobeline , Male , Mastication , Mouth , Mouth Neoplasms , Nicotine , Nitrosamines , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Prevalence , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , RNA , Tobacco , Tobacco, Smokeless
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017009-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786809

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Activation, Metabolic , Areca , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Deglutition , DNA , DNA Damage , Epithelium , Female , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Humans , Incidence , Lobeline , Male , Mastication , Mouth , Mouth Neoplasms , Nicotine , Nitrosamines , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Prevalence , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , RNA , Tobacco , Tobacco, Smokeless
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309114

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (P<0.01). 2) The incidence within 5 years of OSF, OLK, OLP, and oral mucosa diseases in the dried betel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (P<0.01). 3) The incidence of cancer for oral mucosa disease in patients included in the dried betel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Chewing dried betel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Areca , Humans , Mastication , Mouth Diseases , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 193-200, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192318

ABSTRACT

This study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and melanogenesis inhibition activities of methanol extract and various organic solvent fractions of Arecae Pericarpium. We examined the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) scavenging activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin contents. The study showed that, among all tested fractions, methylene chloride fraction showed the strongest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells (IC₅₀ value 8.89 µg/mL) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC₅₀ value 21.39 µg/mL). Methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions similarly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity. Methanol extract exhibited strongest reduction of melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Based on the bioactivity assay results, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions were further separated. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated, which are dimeric syringol (1), catechol (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), vanillin (4), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (5), apocynin (6), protocatechuic acid (7) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8). Among the isolated compounds tested, catechol showed the strongest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Catechol also showed the concentration-dependent NF-κB inhibition activity. Arecae Pericarpium might have potentials to be developed as anti-inflammatory agent or dermatological product for skin-whitening agent.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Areca , Melanins , Melanoma , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Nitric Oxide , Phenol
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159514

ABSTRACT

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-recognized, potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity that can affect any part of the oral mucosa, characterized by mucosal rigidity of varying intensity caused by fibro elastic transformation of the juxta epithelial layer of connective tissue. OSMF occurs in Indians and other population of the Indian subcontinent with certain oral habits. Betel quid chewing is a popular oral habit with potential links to the occurrence of oral cancer. In patients with submucous fibrosis, the oral epithelium becomes atrophic and thereby becomes more vulnerable to carcinogens. Since the ingredients of betel quid, tobacco are crucial for tumor initiation, promotion and progression, exposure to these toxicants simultaneously has been shown to markedly potentiate the oral cancer incidence in OSMF patients. The rate of malignant transformation of OSMF has been estimated to be 2-10%. Most cases with malignant transformation in OSMF have occurred gradually over a long period of time. This paper presents a case of oral submucous fibrosis turning into malignancy in a 34-year-old male patient.


Subject(s)
Adult , Areca/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/etiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Humans , Male , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Mouth Neoplasms/secondary , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/complications , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/diagnosis , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects.


Subject(s)
Areca , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Outpatients , Saliva , Sialorrhea , Xerostomia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, premalignant condition of the oral mucosa and one of the commonest potentially malignant disorders amongst the Asian population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of etiologic factors with: age, frequency, duration of consumption of areca nut and its derivatives, and the severity of clinical manifestations. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi centric study was conducted over 8 years on clinically diagnosed OSMF cases (n = 765) from both public and private tertiary care centers. Sample size was determined by World Health Organization sample size calculator. Consumption of areca nut in different forms, frequency of daily usage, years of chewing, degree of mouth opening and duration of the condition were recorded. Level of significance was kept at P < or = 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 765 patients of OSMF were examined, of whom 396 (51.8%) were male and 369 (48.2%) female with a mean age of 29.17 years. Mild OSMF was seen in 61 cases (8.0%), moderate OSMF in 353 (46.1%) and severe OSMF in 417 (54.5%) subjects. Areca nut and other derivatives were most frequently consumed and showed significant risk in the severity of OSMF (P < or = 0.0001). Age of the sample and duration of chewing years were also significant (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of OSMF increased with duration and frequency of areca nut consumption especially from an early age of onset.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Areca , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Humans , Male , Mastication , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Pakistan , Sample Size , Tertiary Care Centers , World Health Organization
15.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Dec; 51(5_Suppl): s67-s72
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154357

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In 1999, an increase in mouth cancer incidence among young men (<50 years) in urban Ahmedabad was reported to be occurring along with decreasing mouth cancer incidence in older age groups and increasing oral submucous fibrosis incidence associated with areca nut consumption among young men in Gujarat. The aim was to investigate whether the increase in the incidence mouth cancer that had started among young men in the 1990s was continuing. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Ahmedabad urban population, comparison of reported mouth cancer cases in the population across four time period. METHODS: Age‑specific incidence rates of mouth cancer (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]‑9:143–5; ICD‑10:C03–06) in five year age groups among men aged ≥15 years for the city of Ahmedabad for years 1985, 1995, 2007 and 2010 were extracted from published reports. For comparison, lung cancer (ICD‑9:169; ICD‑10:C33–C34) rates were also abstracted. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A cohort approach was used for further analysis of mouth cancer incidence. Age adjusted incidence rates of mouth and lung cancer for men aged ≥15 years were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The age specific incidence rates of mouth cancer among men increased over the 25‑year period while lung cancer rates showed a net decrease. Using a cohort approach for mouth cancer, a rapid increase in younger age cohorts was found. CONCLUSIONS: Mouth cancer incidence increased markedly among men in urban Ahmedabad between 1985 and 2010, apparently due to increasing consumption of areca nut products, mawa and gutka. Gutka has now been banned all over India, but a more vigorous implementation is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Areca/adverse effects , Humans , India , Male , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/epidemiology , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/etiology , Tobacco, Smokeless/adverse effects
16.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Dec; 51(5_Suppl): s60-s66
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cigarettes and other tobacco products act 2003 (COTPA) is the principal law governing tobacco control in India. Government of Maharashtra in one of its landmark decisions also banned manufacturing, sale and distribution of gutka and pan masala since July 2012. The desired impact and level of enforcement of the COTPA legislation and the gutka and pan masala ban in Maharashtra State, however, needs assessment. Among the many provisions within COTPA, the present study seeks to assess compliance to implementation and enforcement of Section 5 and 6 of COTPA including compliance to gutka and pan masala ban in Mumbai, India. METHODOLOGY: Six educational institutes (EI) within the Mumbai metropolitan region were selected in a two stage random sampling process. Area around each EI was manually mapped and all the tobacco products selling outlets with in the 100 yards distance were listed by trained Field Social Investigators and were observed to determine compliance for Section 5 and Section 6 of the COTPA legislation and for gutka and pan masala ban. The vendors/shop owners manning these outlets were also interviewed for their personal sociodemographic details, self‑tobacco use, awareness and perception about ill‑effects of tobacco and existing tobacco control legislation in the country. RESULTS: A total of 222 tobacco retail outlets were listed within 100 yards of the EI in violation to the provisions of Section 6 of COTPA, of which 72 (32.4%) were selling tobacco products on mobile structures. About 53.2% of the tobacco vendors were also users of some form of tobacco. Whereas, nearly 217 (97.7%) vendors were aware about the gutka and pan masala ban in the State, only 48.2% were aware about the existence of COTPA legislation. None of the EI had a display board prohibiting the sale of tobacco products within a radius of 100 yards of their EI. Only 56.3% tobacco outlets had complied with the mandatory warning display boards indicating tobacco products will not be sold to people below 18 years of age. With regards to point of sale advertisement only 25.2% compliance was noted for display of health warning boards at the point of sale. Nearly 48.6% tobacco outlets exhibited >2 display boards and another 43.2% exhibited hoardings with brand pack photo, brand name in violation to the provision under Section 5. Violation by visible stacking and open display of tobacco products for sale was observed at 51.3% of tobacco outlets. While 41% of tobacco outlets were found displaying gutka and pan masala packets in violation to the ban. CONCLUSIONS: Enacting of the law without robust measures for enforcement has led to widespread noncompliance to the provisions with in the tobacco control legislation in the metropolitan city of Mumbai. Strong and sustainable measures needs to be incorporated both by civic administration and public health departments for its forceful implementation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Areca , Humans , India , Smoking/economics , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , SMOKING ---PREVENTION & , Tobacco, Smokeless/economics , Tobacco, Smokeless/supply & distribution , Tobacco Products/economics , Tobacco Products/supply & distribution , Tobacco Use/economics , Tobacco Use/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
17.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Dec; 51(5_Suppl): s3-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154340

ABSTRACT

Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7‑year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road‑side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.


Subject(s)
Areca , Adult , Humans , Myanmar , Prevalence , Tobacco, Smokeless/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Tobacco Use/trends
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 129-132
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gutkha and pan masala contain harmful and carcinogenic chemicals. Hence, Maharashtra Government banned their manufacture, storage, distribution and sale on 19th July 2012 for a year. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the impact of the ban on gutkha and pan masala on its users and vendors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross‑ sectional study was conducted among gutkha and/or pan masala users and tobacco vendors in the selected area of Mumbai city, 4‑6 months after the implementation of the ban. The parameters studied included knowledge regarding the ban, usage or discontinuation of use of the banned products, product availability, withdrawal symptoms among quitters, etc., RESULTS: A total of 68 users and five tobacco vendors were enrolled in this study. Although all users were aware about the ban on gutkha, very few knew about the ban on pan masala. Only 5.9% of users knew that currently the ban had been declared for only 1 year. Electronic media was the main source of information regarding the ban as reported by 45.6% users. All users and vendors were in favor of the ban. After the ban, 23.53% gutkha users quit their habit while 55.88% reduced their gutkha consumption. Non‑availability of gutkha was the most important reason stated by the gutkha users for quitting or reducing the consumption. In spite of the ban, gutkha is still available in the market, but at an increased cost or in a different form. CONCLUSION: Nearly 23.53% of gutkha users have quit their habit post‑ban despite its availability through illegal sources.


Subject(s)
Acacia , Adult , Areca , Carcinogens/supply & distribution , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Tobacco Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco, Smokeless/supply & distribution , Tobacco, Smokeless/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme can cause inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also involved in the inflammatory response through regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Areca catechu is one of the known fruit plants of the Palmaceae family. It has been used for a long time as a source of herbal medicine in Indonesia. In this study, we explored the effect of Indonesian Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract (ACE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and carrageenan-induced paw edema models. Recently, this natural extract has been in the spotlight because of its efficacy and limited or no toxic side effects. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effect remains to be elucidated. MATERIALS/METHODS: We measured NO production by using the Griess reagent, and determined the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins, such as iNOS, COX2, and NF-kappaB, by western blot. To confirm the effect of ACE in vivo, we used the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells treated with ACE showed reduced NO generation and reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression. We found that the acute inflammatory response was significantly reduced by ACE in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that ACE can inhibit inflammation and modulate NO generation via downregulation of iNOS levels and NF-kappaB signaling in vitro and in vivo. ACE may have a potential medical benefit as an anti-inflammation agent.


Subject(s)
Areca , Blotting, Western , Carrageenan , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Down-Regulation , Edema , Ethanol , Fruit , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Indonesia , Inflammation , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727683

ABSTRACT

Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nuts which are widely chewed by southeast Asian and it manifests various toxic effects in different organs of human and animals. In this work, mature mice were treated by vitamins C plus E, arecoline, or both daily for four weeks. The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissues. Additionally, the body weight, testis weight, sperm counts, motility and normal sperms also were significantly decreased. The supplement of vitamins C and E can bring the activities of ALP and GPT to normal levels and partially restore the sperm counts compared to the arecoline-treated group but have no other positive effects. In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline-induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline-induced testicular toxicity.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Areca , Arecoline , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Weight , Catalase , Glutamic Acid , Glutathione , Humans , Liver , Mice , Nuts , Oxaloacetic Acid , Pyruvic Acid , Sperm Count , Spermatozoa , Superoxide Dismutase , Testis , Vitamins
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