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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30811

ABSTRACT

Remarkable improvements in public health, nutrition, hygiene, and availability of medical services in the last 20 years have significantly reduced infant and childhood mortality in Thailand. Therefore, many rare and previously unidentified genetic disorders, which, in the past, usually led to the death of affected infants before a definitive diagnosis, have now been increasingly recognized. Recently, we identified three unrelated patients from Thailand who suffered from citrullinemia, one of five inherited types of urea cycle disorders. All were diagnosed within their first few weeks of life. Biochemical analyses, including plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles, are consistent with argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) deficiency. Extensive mutation study by direct genomic sequencing of ASS demonstrated a homozygous G117S mutation in one patient and homozygous R363W mutations in the other two families.


Subject(s)
Argininosuccinate Synthase/deficiency , Citrullinemia/diagnosis , Comorbidity , DNA Mutational Analysis , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44237

ABSTRACT

Urea Cycle Disorders (UCD) is an inborn error of urea synthesis in which ammonium and other nitrogenous precursors of urea accumulate leading to episodic coma and a high mortality rate. Therapy with peritoneal dialysis, essential amino acids or their nitrogen-free analogues has increased survival. The authors report 5 cases of urea cycle disorders, all of whom developed and were rescued from hyperammonemic coma. However, the eventual outcome was quite variable. Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ALD) Case 1. A 2 month old male infant, a product of a consanguineous marriage (Suphanburi province); developed poor feeding on day 7, lethargy, convulsion, hepatomegaly and respiratory alkalosis leading to respiratory failure and coma. Hyperammonemia, elevation of glutamic acid and argininosuccinic acid and its anhydrides confirmed the diagnosis of ALD. He is now 9 years old and severely retarded. Case 2. A male infant with history of lethargy, poor feeding on day 3, treated as sepsis and required respiratory support for 6 days; subsequently readmitted at age 2 weeks with vomitting, lethargy, seizure activity and hyperammonemia, and was treated by a local pediatrician in Songkhla province. There was a history of parental consanguinity and he was referred to Siriraj Hospital on day 64 with severe essential amino acid deficiency and acrodermatitis enteropathica with markedly elevated plasma citrulline level. In spite of aggressive treatment; the patient developed sepsis and he expired on day 78. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC) Case 3. An eleven-month-old male infant, the product of a non-consanguineous marriage, developed neonatal onset of hyperammonemia on day 5 after poor feeding, lethargy, hypothermia, seizure, apnea and coma. He was rescued from neonatal hyperammonemic coma on day 9 after aggressive treatment, but expired at eleven months of age after overwhelming sepsis. Case 4. A male infant, sibling of case 3 was referred to Siriraj Hospital on day 8 with hyperammonemia and coma. In spite of intensive genetic counseling given after the birth of their first child with OTC, the couple chose to have another baby without informing any physician. The baby developed vomiting and lethargy on day 2; subsequently hyperammonemia was noted. In spite of aggressive treatment given; hepatic dysfunction, renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation defects occurred on day 15. He expired on day 18 after parental permission for discontinuation of all treatment. Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (ASS) or Citrullinemia. Case 5. A seven week old female infant, the product of a consanguineous marriage and of Pakistani ethnic origin; developed intermittent vomiting from day 6. Initial diagnoses included ruminations, sepsis and pyloric stenosis for which she was operated on (day 30); however, vomiting continued; subsequently seizures, hyperammonemic coma developed and she was rescued from hyperammonemic coma within 30 hours. Significant elevations of citrulline and L-glutamine were demonstrated. She was discharged in excellent condition to her home in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates.


Subject(s)
Argininosuccinate Synthase/deficiency , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Child Development/physiology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase/deficiency , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Thailand , Urea/metabolism
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 65(4): 215-8, ago. 1994. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-143941

ABSTRACT

Se describen los casos clínicos de tres pacientes con citrulinemia, que fue diagnosticada respectivamente a las edades de tres meses, siete días y siete meses. En todos la concentración sanguínea de amonio era anormalmente alta (>200ug por ciento) y las de citrulina en suero fueron de 353, 1.759, 289 nm/ml respectivamente. El tratamiento consistió en una dieta hipoproteica e hipercalórica, con suplementos de L-carnitina (100 mg x kg x día). L-arginina (70 a 120 mg x kg x día) y vitaminas. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la enfermedad son mas severas y precoces cuanto menor es la actividad residual de la rginina succínico sintetasa, cuya deficiencia es responsable del trastorno y que está practicamente ausente en la forma neonatal


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Citrulline/blood , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Argininosuccinate Synthase/deficiency , Argininosuccinate Synthase/metabolism , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia)/blood , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diet therapy
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