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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375650


Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.

Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356321


Abstract Background In Brazil the factors involved in the risk of death in patients with COVID-19 have not been well established. Objective To analyze whether elevations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hTnI) levels influence the mortality of patients with COVID-19. Methods Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were collected upon hospital admission. Univariate and binary logistic regression analyzes were performed to assess the factors that influence mortality. P-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results This study analyzed192 patients who received hospital admission between March 16 and June 2, 2020 and who were discharged or died by July 2, 2020. The mean age was 70±15 years, 80 (41.7%) of whom were women. In comparison to those who were discharged, the 54 (28.1%) who died were older (79±12 vs 66±15years; P=0.004), and with a higher Charlson´s index (5±2 vs 3±2; P=0.027). More patients, aged≥60years (P <0.0001), Charlson´s index>1 (P=0.004), lung injury>50% in chest computed tomography (P=0.011), with previous coronary artery disease (P=0.037), hypertension (P=0.033), stroke (P=0.008), heart failure (P=0.002), lymphocytopenia (P=0.024), high D-dimer (P=0.024), high INR (P=0.003), hTnI (P<0.0001), high creatinine (P<0.0001), invasive mechanical ventilation (P<0.0001), renal replacement therapy (P<0.0001), vasoactive amine (P<0.0001), and transfer to the ICU (P=0.001), died when compared to those who were discharged. In logistic regression analysis, elevated hTnI levels (OR=9.504; 95% CI=1.281-70.528; P=0.028) upon admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization (OR=46.691; 95% CI=2.360-923.706; P=0.012) increased the chance of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion This study suggests that in COVID-19 disease, myocardial injury upon hospital admission is a harbinger of poor prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Troponin I/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Myocarditis/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/complications
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.987-990.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354094
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc285, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372177


A doença de Chagas representa um importante problema de saúde pública, sobretudo nos países endêmicos da América Latina. Dentre suas apresentações clínicas, a cardiomiopatia crônica é a mais frequente. De patogênese multifatorial, o acometimento miocárdico pode levar à insuficiência cardíaca, a eventos tromboembólicos, a arritmias e à morte súbita. Nesse contexto, a ressonância magnética cardiovascular é um excelente método não invasivo para a investigação do dano miocárdico e a compreensão dos mecanismos e consequências relacionados às essas lesões. Com elevada resolução espacial e capacidade de caracterização tecidual, a ressonância magnética cardiovascular proporciona análise morfofuncional altamente confiável e possibilita a identificação de marcadores de risco de eventos adversos em pacientes com doença de Chagas, sendo de grande utilidade para o diagnóstico e o acompanhamento desses indivíduos na rotina clínica. (AU)

Chagas disease represents an important public health problem, especially in endemic countries in Latin America. Chronic cardiomyopathy is its most frequent clinical presentation. Myocardial involvement has a multifactorial pathogenesis and can lead to heart failure, thromboembolic events, arrhythmias, and sudden death. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is an excellent noninvasive method for investigating myocardial damage and understanding the mechanisms and consequences of these injuries. CMR has high spatial resolution and tissue characterization capacity, enabling a highly reliable morphofunctional analysis and the identification of risk markers for adverse events in patients with Chagas disease. This exam is very useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients in the routine clinical setting. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction/pathology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Thromboembolism/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Death, Sudden , Heart Failure/complications , Latin America/epidemiology
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(2): e278, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289365


Introducción: Los aneurismas aórticos abdominales constituyen un problema de salud por la alta mortalidad que provocan. Su seguimiento y tratamiento son fundamentales para evitar las complicaciones posquirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar las principales complicaciones posquirúrgicas de los pacientes con aneurisma de la aorta abdominal operados electivamente. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo en 94 pacientes operados de forma electiva en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular por presentar un diagnóstico de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, enfermedades asociadas, diámetro del aneurisma, profilaxis antibiótica, tiempo quirúrgico, tipo de prótesis vascular, tipo de complicación posoperatoria, tiempo de aparición de las complicaciones, estadía hospitalaria posoperatoria y estado al egreso. Se determinaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: El 56,4 por ciento de los pacientes operados presentó algún tipo de complicación, las cuales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo masculino por encima de los 60 años. Las más predominantes resultaron la bronconeumonía (24,5 por ciento) y las arritmias cardíacas (20,8 por ciento). La proporción de complicaciones se mostró mayor en los pacientes con injertos bifurcados, así como en aquellos sin profilaxis y con un tiempo quirúrgico prolongado. Hubo mayor frecuencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares entre los fallecidos. Conclusiones: En los pacientes operados de forma electiva de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal predominaron las complicaciones respiratorias y cardiovasculares, estas últimas provocaron un aumento en la mortalidad(AU)

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a health problem because of the high mortality they cause. Their follow-up and treatment are essential to avoid post-surgical complications. Objective: Characterize the main post-surgical complications of patients with electively operated abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: An observational and descriptive study was conducted in 94 electively operated patients at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery after having a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study variables were: age, sex, skin color, associated diseases, aneurysm diameter, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical time, type of vascular prosthesis, type of postoperative complication, time of onset of complications, postoperative hospital stay, and state at discharge moment. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined. Results: 56.4 percent of operated patients had some form of complication, which were more common in the males over 60 years. The most predominant complications were bronchopneumonie (24.5 percent) and cardiac arrhythmias (20.8 percent). The proportion of complications was shown to be higher in patients with forked grafts, as well as in those without prophylaxis and with prolonged surgical time. There was a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases among the deceased patients. Conclusions: In patients electively operated of abdominal aortic aneurysm, there was a predominance of respiratory and cardiovascular complications, and the latter caused an increase in mortality(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Postoperative Complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(2): 89-96, abr.-jun. 2021. tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379254


Objetivo: Elaborar um perfil clínico e epidemiológico de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada, de acordo com a etiologia da descompensação, e analisar o desfecho clínico dentre os diferentes grupos etiológicos encontrados. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo e observacional. Os pacientes foram reunidos em seis grupos, conforme etiologia de descompensação, e comparados de acordo com dados coletados. Realizaram-se verificação por meio da análise de variância e teste exato de Fisher. Obteve-se significância estatística por meio do valor de p <0,10. Resultados: Foram analisados 123 prontuários de pacientes admitidos entre 2016 e 2018. A maior causa de descompensação da doença foi a má aderência ao tratamento (32,5%). Além disso, a doença foi responsável por maior tempo de internação (13,5 dias) e número de óbitos (seis). Conclusão: Otimizando-se os cuidados e o acompanhamento desses pacientes, pode haver um importante impacto sobre a incidência, as complicações e a frequência de descompensações. (AU)

Objective: To develop a clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with decompensated heart failure according to the etiology of decompensation and to analyze the clinical outcome among the different etiological groups found. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study. Patients were divided in six groups according to etiology of decompensation and were compared according to data collected. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test were performed. Statistical significance was obtained by means of p-value <0.10. Results: We analyzed 123 medical records of patients admitted between 2016 and 2018. The greatest cause of decompensation was the poor adherence to treatment (32.5%). In addition, the disease was responsible for longer hospitalization time (13.5 days) and number of deaths (six). Conclusion: Optimizing care and follow-up of these patients can have an important impact on the incidence, complications, and frequency of decompensation. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Profile , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Blood Pressure Determination , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Medication Adherence , Electronic Health Records , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Rate , Hypertension/complications , Infections/complications
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 183-189, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131029


Abstract Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden death (SD) continue to be a global public health problem, although the true incidence is unknown, it is estimated that they are responsible for 30% of cardiac origin mortality and may represent 20% of total mortality in adults. Unfortunately, the majority of cases occur in the general population, at the out-of-hospital level, in homes and in people who were not known to have heart disease. Although the majority of SCA victims are considered to be of cardiac origin and more frequent ischemic, it is not possible to rule out other causes only with the clinical diagnosis. Autopsy, histological, and toxicological studies are necessary in all victims of SCA and SD to determine the precise cause of death; when these studies are carried out, causes of non-cardiac origin have been found in up to 40% of victims. The type of arrhythmia responsible for an episode of SCA and SD has changed over the years, now asystole and pulseless electrical activity are detected more frequently than ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. These and other aspects that we consider important in the current behavior of SCA and SD are analyzed in this article.

Resumen El paro cardíaco súbito (PCS) y la muerte súbita (MS) continúan siendo un problema de salud pública mundial; aunque su verdadera incidencia se desconoce, se calcula que producen el 30% de la mortalidad de origen cardíaco y pueden representar el 20% de la mortalidad total en los adultos. Desafortunadamente, la mayor parte de los casos se presenta en la población general, de forma extrahospitalaria, en los hogares y en personas que no se conocían portadoras de cardiopatía. Aunque se considera que la mayoría de las víctimas de PCS es de origen cardíaco, y que es más frecuente el isquémico, no es posible descartar otras causas sólo con el diagnóstico clínico. Son necesarios la necropsia y los estudios histológicos y toxicológicos en todas las víctimas de PCS y MS para determinar la causa precisa de la muerte; cuando estos estudios se efectúan se han encontrado causas de origen no cardíaco hasta en 40% de las personas. El tipo de arritmia causante de un episodio de PCS y MS ha cambiado a través de los años; ahora se detectan con mayor frecuencia asistolia y actividad eléctrica sin pulso (AESP) que la fibrilación ventricular (FV) o la taquicardia ventricular sin pulso (TVSP). Estos y otros aspectos de importancia en el comportamiento actual del PCS y la MS se analizan en este artículo.

Humans , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Global Health , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Autopsy , Public Health , Incidence , Cause of Death , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(2): 81-89, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098853


Abstract Objective The present study aimed to analyze cardiac autonomic modulation via spectral and symbolic analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were subjected to two consecutive tilt tests. Methods A total of 64 women were selected and divided into 2 groups: control (without PCOS), and PCOS. Concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, estradiol, homocysteine, sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, fasting insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, triglycerides, free androgen index (FAI), and homeostasis assessment model (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral and symbolic analyses during two consecutive tilt tests (two moments) and supine moments before, between and after (three moments) the tilt tests. Results Women with PCOS had higher fasting insulin, HOMA-IR indexes, testosterone and FAI. Additionally, we observed that the PCOS group had greater sympathetic autonomic cardiac modulation in supine 2, tilt 1, and supine 3 moments compared with controls. Conclusion Women with PCOS had higher autonomic sympathetic cardiac modulation even after a second tilt test. No adaptation to this provocative test was observed. Spectral analysis was more sensitive for identifying differences between groups than the symbolic analysis.

Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a modulação autonômica cardíaca por análise espectral e simbólica da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) que foram submetidas a dois testes consecutivos de inclinação. Métodos Um total de 64 mulheres foram selecionadas e divididas em 2 grupos: controle (sem SOP) e SOP. Concentrações de hormônio folículo-estimulante, hormônio luteinizante, prolactina, estradiol, homocisteína, globulina de ligação a hormônios sexuais, hormônio estimulante da tireóide, insulina em jejum, testosterona e androstenediona e níveis de 17-hidroxiprogesterona, triglicerídeos, índice de andrógeno livre (FAI) e homeostase modelo de avaliação (HOMA-IR) foram avaliados. A modulação autonômica cardíaca foi avaliada por análises espectrais e simbólicas durante dois testes de inclinação consecutivos (dois momentos) e momentos supinos antes, entre e após (três momentos) os testes de inclinação. Resultados Mulheres com SOP apresentaram insulina em jejuM, índices HOMA-IR, testosterona e FAI mais altos. Além disso, observamos que o grupo PCOS apresentou maior modulação cardíaca autonômica simpática nos momentos supino 2, inclinado 1 e supino 3 em comparação aos controles. Conclusão Mulheres com SOP apresentaram modulação cardíaca simpática autonômica mais alta mesmo após um segundo teste de inclinação. Nenhuma adaptação a esse teste provocativo foi observada. A análise espectral foi mais sensível para identificar diferenças entre os grupos do que a análise simbólica.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Case-Control Studies , Tilt-Table Test , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(3): [rev01], 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117806


Nas últimas décadas, o aumento das indicações para dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis tem sido acompanhado pela elevação dos casos de complicações relacionadas ao seu uso, dentre elas a endocardite infecciosa. Apesar dos avanços diagnósticos e terapêuticos da doença, esta mantém elevada morbimortalidade. Os casos relacionados aos dispositivos apresentam importantes limitações referentes aos critérios e aos métodos diagnósticos que implicam na tomada de decisão terapêutica sobre retirada do dispositivo, com risco de morte e outras complicações. Ainda assim, o ecocardiograma mantém um grande valor no diagnóstico da endocardite infecciosa relacionada a dispositivos cardíacos e de suas complicações. O entendimento das limitações e dos desafios acerca do diagnóstico reforça a necessidade de mais estudos sobre do tema. O presente artigo visa descrever a epidemiologia, a microbiologia, os fatores de risco, a patogenia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da endocardite infecciosa associada aos dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, visando demonstrar, principalmente, o valor dos exames de imagem na abordagem dessa condição clínica, com ênfase nos achados ao ecocardiograma.

In recent decades, the increase in indications for implantable electronic cardiac devices has been accompanied by an increase in cases of complications related to their use, including infectious endocarditis. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the disease, it maintains high morbidity and mortality. The cases related to the devices have important limitations regarding the criteria and diagnostic methods that imply in making a therapeutic decision about removing the device, with risk of death and other complications. Still, echocardiography remains of great value in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis related to cardiac devices and their complications. Understanding the limitations and challenges regarding diagnosis reinforces the need for further studies on the topic. This article aims to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis associated with implantable electronic cardiac devices, aiming to demonstrate, mainly, the value of imaging tests in addressing this clinical condition , with emphasis on echocardiogram findings.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Infections/therapy , Pacemaker, Artificial , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Defibrillators, Implantable , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices , Floxacillin/administration & dosage , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019114, July-Sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017352


Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma, the most common adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a proliferative neoplasm of enlarged B cells. Patients may be asymptomatic on presentation, but if present, symptoms often correlate with direct organ dysfunction resulting from the site of involvement. While the gastrointestinal system is the most common site of extranodal involvement, virtually any part of the body can be infiltrated by malignant lymphocytes. Here, we present an unusual case of cardiac and bilateral renal involvement by Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma in a 78-year-old male with a relatively unremarkable medical history. This combination of organ involvement and the resulting clinical symptoms are uncommonly described in the literature. The patient was treated for his symptoms prior to death, but the underlying cause that explained his presentation was not identified until performance of an autopsy. As such, this case demonstrates the utility of the medical autopsy, a gold standard in diagnostic medicine that can provide a variety of benefits in today's healthcare system.

Humans , Male , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Lymphoma/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 28-34, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-981527


Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an important treatment option for obstructive coronary artery disease, but it represents a high expense for paying sources.The complications of CABG impose an additional expense to the procedure that is not yet clearly established. Objective: To determine the economic impact of postoperative complications of CABG during hospitalization in a hospital of the unified health system (SUS). Methods: This is an observational study involving 240 patients undergoing isolated CABG in a reference hospital in cardiology in 2013. Patients aged over 30 years with proven coronary artery disease and indication to perform CRVM were included. Patients who performed CRVM associated with other procedures were excluded. Results: The average cost of hospitalization was R$ 22,647.24 (SD = R$ 28,105.66). In 97 patients who presented some complication the average cost was R$ 35,400.28 (SD = R$ 40,509.47), and in the 143 patients without complications the average cost was R$ 13,996.57 (SD = R$ 5,800.61) (p < 0.001). Expenditures ranged from R$ 17,344.37 in patients with one complication up to R$ 104,596.52 in patients with five complications (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The occurrence of complications during hospitalization for CABG dignificantly increases the costs of the procedure, but the magnitude of this increase depends on the type of complication developed, and higher expenses related to cardiovascular complications, infections and bleeding. With this information, managers can improve the allocation of resources to health

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hospitalization/economics , Myocardial Revascularization/economics , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Postoperative Care/methods , Unified Health System , Coronary Artery Disease , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cross Infection , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eRC4514, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001900


ABSTRACT The left ventricular noncompaction is a congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by the presence of abnormal trabeculations in the left ventricle. The present study describes the case of a 14-year-old female Para athlete, who plays goalball. She was asymptomatic, with history of congenital nystagmus and mild visual impairment, who presented nonspecific electrocardiographic abnormalities during pre-competition screening. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed left ventricular non-compaction (non-compacted to compacted layer ratio equal to 2.5) and mild biventricular systolic dysfunction. Initially, the patient was excluded from sports participation and clinical follow-up was performed every three months. Patient remained asymptomatic during the one-year follow-up, with no history of unexplained syncope, marked impairment of systolic function or significant ventricular arrhythmias at the exercise stress test. Finally, she was released for competitive goalball participation and clinical follow-up was continued every 6 months. There is no consensus regarding the eligibility criteria for sports participation in cases of left ventricular non-compaction. Thus, it is prudent to individualize the decision regarding practice of sports, as well as to consider participation in competitive sports for asymptomatic individuals and with no disease repercussions.

RESUMO O miocárdio não compactado é uma cardiomiopatia congênita caracterizada pela presença de trabeculações anormais no ventrículo esquerdo. O presente estudo descreve o caso de uma paratleta de goalball, 14 anos, sexo feminino, assintomática, com história pessoal de nistagmo congênito e leve deficiência visual, que apresentou alterações eletrocardiográficas inespecíficas durante avaliação pré-participação. A ressonância magnética cardíaca evidenciou presença de não compactação miocárdica (relação entre camada não compactada/camada compactada igual a 2,5) e disfunção sistólica biventricular leve. Inicialmente, a paciente foi afastada da prática de esportes, e o seguimento clínico foi realizado a cada 3 meses. A paciente permaneceu assintomática durante o período de 1 ano de seguimento, sem história de síncope inexplicada, comprometimento significativo da função sistólica ou taquiarritmias ventriculares importantes ao teste de esforço. Por fim, ela foi liberada para prática competitiva de goalball, e o seguimento clínico foi mantido a cada 6 meses. Não há consenso quanto aos critérios de elegibilidade para a prática esportiva nos casos de miocárdio não-compactado. Assim, é prudente individualizar a decisão quanto a prática esportiva, bem como considerar a participação em esportes competitivos para indivíduos assintomáticos e sem repercussões da doença.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium/diagnostic imaging , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Exercise , Nystagmus, Congenital/complications , Electrocardiography , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium/complications , Athletes , Asymptomatic Diseases
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 306-312, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124152


Resumen Actualmente hay un porcentaje importante de autopsias que quedan sin un diag nóstico concluyente del fallecimiento, especialmente cuando este evento letal se produce súbitamente. El análisis genético se ha ido incorporando recientemente al campo de la medicina forense, sobre todo en aquellos pacientes que han fallecido de forma repentina, y donde no se identifica causa concluyente del fallecimiento tras una autopsia médico-legal completa. En estos casos las enfermedades eléctricas primarias son las principales responsables del fallecimiento. Hasta la fecha se han descrito más de 40 genes asociados a afecciones arritmogénicas causantes de muerte súbita cardiaca. Las principales enfermedades arritmogénicas son el síndrome de QT largo y la taquicardia ventricular; estudios genéticos post-mortem no solo permiten llevar a cabo un diagnóstico de la causa del fallecimiento, sino que también permiten una traslación clínica hacia los familiares, focalizado en la identificación precoz de individuos en riesgo de síncope, así como adopción de medidas terapéuticas personalizadas para la prevención de un episodio arrítmico letal.

Abstract Currently, there are a significant percentage of autopsies left without a conclusive diagnosis of death, especially when this lethal event occurs suddenly. Genetic analysis has been recently incorporated into the field of forensic medicine, especially in patients with sudden death and where no conclusive cause of death is identified after a complete medical- legal autopsy. Inherited arrhythmogenic diseases are the main cause of death in these cases. To date, more than 40 genes have been associated with arrhythmogenic disease, and causing sudden cardiac death has been described. The main arrhythmogenic diseases are Long QT Syndrome, Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia, Brugada Syndrome, and Short QT Syndrome. These post-mortem genetic studies, not only allow a diagnosis of the cause of death, but also allow a clinical translation in relatives, focusing on the early identification of individuals at risk of syncope, as well as adopting personalised therapeutic measures for the prevention of a lethal arrhythmic episode.

Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Autopsy/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/genetics , Syncope/etiology
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 268-276, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124148


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y espectro de las enfermedades que predisponen la muerte súbita cardiaca en niños mexicanos e identificar los principales signos y síntomas tempranos que pueden permitir al personal de salud sospechar acerca de estas enfermedades y referir a los pacientes a un hospital de tercer nivel de manera temprana. Métodos: La incidencia, prevalencia y prevalencia de periodo, así como los primeros síntomas, los datos clínicos y el seguimiento, se describen en todos los niños con enfermedades que predisponen a la muerte súbita cardiaca en el Hospital Infantil de México. Resultados: Cincuenta y nueve pacientes de 8 ± 5 años, 40 con miocardiopatías y 19 con enfermedades arritmogénicas hereditarias. La prevalencia del periodo fue de 9.5/1,000 pacientes/año. Los primeros síntomas más comunes fueron disnea, palpitaciones y síncope. En 9 casos se encontró un patrón de herencia mendeliana. Tres pacientes fallecieron de muerte súbita cardiaca durante el periodo de estudio. Conclusión: Las enfermedades que predisponen a la muerte súbita cardiaca en los niños no son muy conocidas por la comunidad médica y general. Todo niño con disnea, palpitaciones y/o síncope debe referirse para la búsqueda intensiva de estas enfermedades. Una evaluación cardiológica completa en todos los miembros de la familia está indicada.

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in Mexican children, and to identify the main early signs and symptoms that can enable the health personnel to suspect these diseases and to refer the patients to a tertiary hospital in a timely manner. Methods: Incidence, prevalence, and period prevalence, as well as early symptoms, clinical data, and follow-up were recorded on all children found with diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in The Children's Hospital of Mexico. Results: The study included 59 patients, with a mean age of 8 ± 5 years old, with 40 cardiomyopathies, and 19 with inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. The period prevalence was 9.5/1,000 patients/year. The most common early symptoms were dyspnoea, palpitations, and syncope. A Mendelian inheritance pattern was found in 9 cases. Three patients died of sudden cardiac death during the period of the study. Conclusion: Diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in children are not very well known by the general medical community. Every child with dyspnoea, palpitations and/or syncope, should be referred for the intensive search of these diseases. A complete cardiological evaluation in all members of the family is indicated.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Syncope/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mexico/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/complications
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(4): 138-141, out.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-999117


A forma cardíaca isolada da Sarcoidose é pouco frequente. no entanto, o envolvimento cardíaco na sarcoidose é mais prevalente e ocorre em 5 % desses pacientes. O diagnóstico de sarcoidose cardíaca é um desafio por causa das manifestações inespecíficas, sendo a sensibilidade e especificidade das modalidades diagnósticas limitadas. Este relato de caso teve por objetivo descrever o caso de um paciente sem diagnóstico prévio de sarcoidose com arritmias e distúrbio de condução ventricular compatíveis com acometimento cardíaco da doença. Optou-se para o tratamento um implante de marcapasso definitivo e terapia com corticosteroides

The isolated cardiac form of sarcoidosis is infrequent. However, cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is more prevalent and occurs in 5% of these patients. The diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is a challenge because of non-specific manifestations, and the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic modalities are limited. This case report aimed to describe the case of a patient without previous diagnosis of sarcoidosis with arrhythmias and ventricular conduction disturbance compatible with cardiac involvement of the disease. A definitive pacemaker implant and corticosteroid therapy were chosen for the treatment

Humans , Male , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Cardiac Electrophysiology/methods , Pacemaker, Artificial , Tachycardia , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Function , Electrocardiography/methods , Cardiomyopathies
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(4): 167-172, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999253


Introdução: A cardiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC) engloba complexo espectro de apresentações, não sendo incomuns episódios de morte arrítmica em portadores de função ventricular esquerda preservada (FVEP) ou quase normal (FVEQN). Métodos: Avaliação retrospectiva de 7 portadores de CCC por 4 anos, com FVEP, submetidos a implante de cardiodesfibrilador implantável (CDI) devido taquicardia ou fibrilação ventricular (TV/FV). Foram realizadas avaliações clínica, estrutural e eletrocardiográfica. Resultados: Idade média: 57,5±4,45 anos e 71,4% do sexo masculino. Função ventricular esquerda (FVE) inicial foi de 56,14%±4,45, com alterações contrácteis em 100% e hipocinesia inferior em 85,7%. Classe funcional I: 100% sem modificações ao seguimento. Escore de Rassi avaliado previamente ao evento foi de 4,85±0,89. Síncope constituiu a apresentação inicial em 100%, média de 2 episódios por paciente e intervalo de 4 semanas entre os mesmos. Houve alterações em 85,71% dos eletrocardiogramas, sendo bloqueio de ramo direito a principal. TV sustentada foi encontrada em 100%; sítio epicárdico em 71,42% e saída anterolateral do ventrículo esquerdo em 57,14%. A FVE sequencial foi de 54%±3,31; sem alterações contráteis novas. Amiodarona e betabloqueadores foram os fármacos utilizados. Terapias apropriadas aconteceram em 100%; média de 2,1 choques por paciente, com 52,63% dos registros nos primeiros 14 meses. Não foram evidenciados óbitos, terapias inapropriadas ou tempestade elétrica. Conclusão: O elevado número de terapias corrobora o risco arrítmico desta população, ratifica a importância do dispositivo e alerta para a eficácia da terapia clínica. Síncope pode estar associada a maior risco de eventos arrítmicos na CCC

Introduction: Chronic chagasic cardiopathy (CCC) encompasses a complex spectrum of presentations, and episodes of arrhythmic death in patients with preserved left ventricular (PLVF) or near normal (VFNN) are not uncommon. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 7 patients with PLVF, submitted for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF). Clinical, structural and electrocardiographic evaluations were performed. Results: Mean age was 57.5±4.45 years. Male sex comprised 71.4%. Left ventricular function (LVF) was 56.14%±4.45 with contractile changes in 100% and lower hypokinesia in 85.7%. Functional class I was evidenced in 100% without changes in follow-up. The Rassi score evaluated before the event was 4.85±0.89. Syncope was the initial presentation in 100%, average of 2 episodes per patient and interval of 4 weeks between them. Electrocardiogram showed alterations in 85.71% being right bundle branch block. Sustained VT was evidenced in 100%; epicardial site in 71.42% and left ventricular anterolateral outlet in 57.14%. The sequential LVF was 54%±3.31; without new contractile changes. Amiodarone and beta-blockers were the drugs used. Appropriate therapies occurred in 100%; average of 2.1 shocks per patient with 52.63% of the records in the first 14 months. There were no deaths, inappropriate therapies or electrical storm. Conclusion: The high number of therapies corroborates the arrhythmic risk of this population, ratifies the importance of the device and disputes the effectiveness of clinical therapy. Syncope may be associated with an increased risk of arrhythmic events in CCC

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/therapy , Ventricular Function , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Defibrillators, Implantable , Secondary Prevention/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Stroke Volume , Syncope , Bundle-Branch Block/complications , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Sex Factors , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Chagas Disease/therapy , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(7): 337-351, sep2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051007


Se estableció los efectos de la claritromicina sobre el intervalo QT corregido (iQTc) en pacientes gerontes, que requirieron hospitalización por infección respiratoria, mediante registro electrocardiográfico al inicio y al final del tratamiento. Se observó en 61% de los casos un aumento del iQTC (0,04 seg en promedio). No obstante las comorbilidades asociadas, ningún caso evolucionó a taquicardia ventricular polimórfica

The effects of clarithromycin on the corrected QT interval (iQTc) in elderly patients, who required hospitalization due to respiratory infection, were established by electrocardiographic recording at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. An increase in iQTC was observed in all cases (0.04 sec on average). Despite the associated comorbidities, no case evolved to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Prospective Studies , Torsades de Pointes/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Clarithromycin/adverse effects , Romano-Ward Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Myosins , Death, Sudden , Electrocardiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 524-531, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950166


Abstract Background: The new European Society of Cardiology guidelines for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) define the estimation of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk as an integral part of clinical management. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is recommended (class IIa) when the risk is ≥ 6%. Objectives: To compare the SCD risk stratification according to the 2011 and 2014 recommendations for ICD implantation in patients with HCM. Methods: Retrospective study including 105 patients diagnosed with HCM. The indication for ICD was assessed using the 2011 and 2014 guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version®. The tests performed were bilateral, considering the significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). Results: Regarding primary prevention, according to the 2011 ACCF/AHA recommendations, 39.0% of the patients had indication for ICD implantation (level of evidence IIa). Using the 2014 guidelines, only 12.4% of the patients had an indication for ICD implantation. Comparing the two risk stratification models for patients with HCM, we detected a significant reduction in the number of indications for ICD implantation (p < 0.001). Of the 41 patients classified as IIa according to the 2011 recommendations, 68.3% received a different classification according to the 2014 guidelines. Conclusion: Significant differences were found when comparing the SCD risk stratification for ICD implantation in the two guidelines. The current SCD risk score seems to identify many low-risk patients who are not candidates for ICD implantation. The use of this new score results in a significant reduction in the number of ICD implanted.

Resumo Fundamento: As recomendações de miocardiopatia hipertrófica (MCH) da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia aconselham a estimativa do risco de morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) como parte da avaliação clínica e decisão de implantação de cardioversor desfibrilador implantável (CDI). Objetivo: Comparar a estratificação de risco de MSC de acordo com as recomendações de 2011 e 2014. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 pacientes com diagnóstico de MCH. Avaliou-se a recomendação para implantação de CDI conforme as recomendações de 2011 e 2014. A análise estatística foi realizada usando o software SPSS versão®. Os testes realizados foram bilaterais, sendo considerado o nível de significância de 5% (p< 0,05). Resultados: Conforme as recomendações ACCF/AHA 2011, 39,0% dos pacientes tinham indicação para implantação de CDI (nível de evidência classe IIa). Conforme as recomendações de 2014, apenas 12,4% dos pacientes apresentam indicação classe IIa para implantação de CDI. Comparando os dois modelos de estratificação de risco de MSC em MCH, verificou-se uma redução significativa na proporção de pacientes com indicação para implantação de CDI (p < 0,001). Do total de 41 pacientes classificados como IIa segundo as recomendações de 2011, 68,3% deles recebeu uma classificação diferente em 2014. Conclusão: No estudo foram encontradas diferenças significativas quando comparados os métodos de estratificação de risco de MSC para implantação de CDI. O escore de risco atual parece identificar muitos pacientes de baixo risco, que não são candidatos à implantação de CDI. A utilização desse novo escore resulta numa redução significativa do número de CDI implantados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Defibrillators, Implantable/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Stroke Volume , Time Factors , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(2)abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-914215


A cardiomiopatia não compactada é uma doença congênita, que resulta de falha da compactação do miocárdio na vida embrionária. Nesse processo, há a persistência de trabeculações e recessos profundos, que se comunicam com a cavidade ventricular e geram espessamento do miocárdio em duas camadas distintas. O aspecto clínico dessa doença tanto em crianças como em adultos é muito heterogêneo, variando desde a ausência de sintomas até a tríade composta por insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, arritmias e tromboembolismo sistêmico, porém bradicardias sintomáticas são muito raras. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com doença do nó sinusal como manifestação inicial de cardiomiopatia não compactada

Noncompaction cardiomyopathy is a congenital disease that results frommyocardial compaction failure in embryonic life. In this process there is the persistence of deep trabeculations and recesses that communicate with the ventricular cavity, resulting in myocardial thickening in two distinct layers. The clinical aspect of this disease in both children and adults is very heterogeneous, ranging from absence of symptomatology to a triad including congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and systemic thromboembolism. However, symptomatic bradycardias are very rare. We report the case of a patient with sinus node disease as the initial manifestation of non-compaction cardiomyopathy

Humans , Female , Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial , Sick Sinus Syndrome/diagnosis , Sick Sinus Syndrome/therapy , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Sinoatrial Node , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Prevalence , Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Ventricles