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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1657-1665, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143675

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Different parameters on electrocardiograms (ECG) have been investigated to predict arrhythmia and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The acute effect of thrombolytic therapy (TT) on these parameters has not been investigated yet. METHODS: We examined the data of 83 patients who were evaluated as high-risk APE and discharged from the hospital after TT. First, the high-risk APE patients' ECGs were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 55). After their admission and 24 hours later, the ECGs of patients with APE were compared. Heart rate, P-wave morphology, QRS duration, QT distance, Tp-e, and the index of cardiac electrophysiological balance (iCEB) were analyzed. RESULTS: Although P maximum was not different between the groups' ECGs, heart rate, QT, QTc (corrected QT) interval, Tp-e intervals, Tp-e/QT ratio, and P wave dispersion were significantly higher in the APE group ( P values < 0.031). iCEB or iCEBc (corrected iCEB) values were lower in APE group ( P < 0.001). After TT, we determined a decrease in heart rate, Tp-e interval, and Tp-e/QT ratio ( P < 0.001). Although we detected a decrease in the QT and QTc interval and QT dispersion (QTd), QTd had no statistical significance (respectively P -value 0.013, 0.029, and 0.096). The iCEB and iCEBc levels were lower after TT ( P -value was 0.035 and 0.044 respectively). CONCLUSION: The QT, QTc, Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, iCEB, and iCEBc values significantly decreased after TT. It may be thought that effective TT causes partial improvement in ventricular repolarization in an early period.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Diferentes parâmetros de eletrocardiograma (ECG) têm sido investigados para predizer mortalidade e arritmia em pacientes com embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA). O efeito agudo da terapia trombolítica (TT) nesses parâmetros ainda não foi investigado. MÉTODOS: Examinamos os dados de 83 pacientes avaliados com EPA de alto risco e que receberam alta hospitalar após TT. Primeiramente, comparamos os ECGs dos pacientes com EPA de alto risco com os de indivíduos saudáveis (n = 55). Os ECGs dos pacientes com EPA foram comparados logo após a internação e 24 horas mais tarde. A frequência cardíaca, a morfologia da onda P, a duração do QRS, o intervalo QT, Tp-e e o índice de equilíbrio eletrofisiológico cardíaco (iCEB) foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Embora o valor máximo de P não tenha sido diferente entre os grupos no ECG, a frequência cardíaca, QT, intervalo QTc (QT corrigido), intervalos Tpe, razão TP-e/QT e dispersão da onda P foram significativamente mais elevados no grupo de EPA (valores de P < 0,031). Os valores do iCEB ou iCEBc (iCEB corrigido) foram inferiores no grupo de APE (P < 0,001). Após a TT, observamos uma diminuição da frequência cardíaca, do intervalo TP-e e da razão TP-e/QT ( P < 0,001). Apesar de termos observado uma diminuição do intervalo QT e QTc e da dispersão do QT (QTd), o valor de QTd não apresentou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (respectivamente, valor de P 0,013, 0,029 e 0,096). Os níveis do iCEB e iCEBc foram menores após a TT (valor de P 0,035 e 0,044, respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: Os valores de QT, QTc, intervalo Tp-e, razão Tp-e/QTc, iCEB e iCEBc diminuíram significativamente após TT. Pode-se concluir que a TT eficaz causa uma melhora parcial da repolarização ventricular no período inicial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Heart Rate
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 148-153, Apr.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131024

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human being, throughout history, has used plants to prevent and cure diseases. It is important to know that for a long time, the mechanism through which those plants worked was unknown, making herbal medicine a purely empirical science. Medical prescriptions in the 19th century in the Kingdom of Nueva Granada were considered a significant medical advance as a result of knowledge and medical practices in the old continent. Medical literature of the time achieved, despite the lack of studies, the development of new schemes with exact dosages and new therapeutic possibilities. The medical prescription presented in this article was used in the management of heart palpitations, a frequent symptom nowadays, described as thoracic and/or neck beating, underlying various cardiac and non-cardiac diseases. The recipe for the palpitations of the historical archive "Cipriano Rodríguez Santa María" is a mixture of herbal agents that, as reviewed in the medical literature, showed to have anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and antioxidant effects, among others, allowing a beneficial effect on cardiac palpitations. Due to the lack of information on the posology, safety in its use, contraindications, and possible adverse effects, its potential use should have been underestimated at that time for the control of palpitations or as phytochemical agents directed to treat diseases causing this symptom.


Resumen A lo largo de la historia, el ser humano ha utilizado plantas para prevenir, aliviar y curar enfermedades. Cabe destacar que durante mucho tiempo se desconoció el mecanismo por el cual su uso era beneficioso, lo que hacía de la fitoterapia una ciencia netamente empírica. Las recetas médicas eran consideradas un avance médico significativo, resultado de conocimientos y prácticas traídas desde el viejo continente. Pese a la carencia de estudios locales, la literatura médica de la época permitió utilizar la biodiversidad de América para el desarrollo, investigación y uso de nuevos esquemas fitoterapéuticos con dosificaciones establecidas e indicaciones de uso, incluso un lugar específico de dispensación, ampliando aún más las posibilidades terapéuticas. La receta médica que se expone en este artículo era empleada en el manejo de las palpitaciones cardiacas, síntoma frecuente aún en la actualidad, descrito como golpes en tórax y/o cuello, subyacente en diversas enfermedades cardiacas y no cardiacas. La receta para las palpitaciones del archivo histórico Cipriano Rodríguez Santa María es una mezcla de agentes herbarios que, al realizar una revisión en la literatura médica, evidencian efectos antiinflamatorios, ansiolíticos y antioxidantes entre otros, sustentando un posible efecto beneficioso en las palpitaciones cardiacas. Debido a la ausencia de información sobre la posología, seguridad en su uso, contraindicaciones y posibles efectos adversos, es subestimado su potencial uso en aquel entonces para el control de las palpitaciones o como unos agentes fitoquímicos dirigidos para tratar enfermedades causantes de dicho síntoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/history , Plant Preparations/history , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(4): 732-735, Abr. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131189

ABSTRACT

Resumo A Ranolazina (RANO), conhecida na clínica como Ranexa, é um fármaco que previne a arritmia cardíaca através da inibição da corrente de sódio tardia (INaT). Um gradiente de voltagem transmural do canal Nav1.5 encontra-se na parede ventricular esquerda do coração. Assim, investigamos os efeitos da RANO em cardiomiócitos saudáveis e em modelo celular da Síndrome do QT longo tipo 3 (SQTL tipo 3). Usamos células isoladas do endocárdio (ENDO) e do epicárdio (EPI) e um software de medição com detecção de bordas por vídeo e microscopia de fluorescência para monitorar os transientes de cálcio. A RANO (0,1, 1, 10 e 30 uM, a 25OC) em uma série de frequências de estimulação teve impacto pouco significativo sobre ambos os tipos de células, mas a RANO (30uM) a 35OC minimizou o encurtamento dos sarcômeros em ~21% para células do endocárdio. Em seguida, para simular a SQTL tipo 3, as células do ENDO e EPI foram expostas à toxina ATX-II da anêmona do mar, que aumenta a INaT. As arritmias celulares induzidas por ATX-II foram suprimidas com o uso da RANO (30 µM) a 35OC. Com base nesses resultados, podemos concluir que a RANO tem um impacto pouco significativo sobre o encurtamento dos sarcômeros de células saudáveis do ENDO e EPI. Além disso, ela suprime as arritmias induzidas por INaT para níveis semelhantes nas células do ENDO e EPI.


Abstract Ranolazine (RANO) prevents cardiac arrhythmia by blocking the late sodium current (INaL). A transmural gradient of Nav1.5 is found in the left ventricular wall of the heart. Thus, we investigated the effects of RANO in healthy cardiomyocytes and in a cellular model of type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3). We used isolated endocardium (ENDO) and epicardium (EPI) cells and a video edge detection system and fluorescence microscopy to monitor calcium transients. RANO (0.1, 1, 10 and 30 uM, at 25oC) at a range of pacing frequencies showed a minor impact on both cell types, but RANO at 30uM and 35oC for ENDO cells attenuated sarcomere shortening by~21%. Next, to mimic LQT3, we exposed ENDO and EPI cells to anemone toxin II (ATX-II), which augments INaL. Cellular arrhythmias induced by ATX-II were abrogated by RANO (30 µM) at 35oC. Based on our results we can conclude that RANO has a minor impact on sarcomere shortening of healthy ENDO and EPI cells and it abrogates arrhythmias induced by INaLto a similar level in ENDO and EPI cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome , Ranolazine/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Action Potentials , Cardiac Conduction System Disease
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 925-932, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: D-limonene (DL) is a monoterpene and is the major component in the essential oil of citrus fruit. It presents antihyperglycemic and vasodilatation activities. Objectives: This study evaluated the cardiovascular effects and potential antiarrhythmic of DL in rats. Methods: Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters were measured in male Wistar rats, which under anesthesia had been cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and had electrodes subcutaneously implanted. In the in vitro approach, the heart was removed and perfused using the Langendorff technique. The significance level adopted was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: DL, in doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg (i.v), produced intense and persistent bradycardia associated with hypotension. Bradycardia with prolonged QTc was observed in the ECG in vivo recording. In the in vivo model of arrhythmia induced by Bay K8644, DL (10 mg/kg) decreased the arrhythmia score from 15.33 ± 3.52 to 4.0 ± 2.64 u.a (p < 0.05, n = 4). In isolated perfused hearts, DL (10-3 M) promoted significant reductions in heart rate (from 228.6 ± 8.5 ms to 196.0 ± 9.3 bpm; p < 0.05) and left ventricular development pressure (from 25.2 ± 3.4 to 5.9 ± 1.8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: DL produces bradycardia and antiarrhythmic activity in rat heart.


Resumo Fundamento: O D-limoneno (DL) é um monoterpeno e o principal componente do óleo essencial de frutas cítricas. Ele apresenta atividades anti-hiperglicêmicas e vasodilatadoras. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos cardiovasculares e antiarrítmicos potenciais do DL em ratos. Métodos: Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e eletrocardiográficos (ECG) foram mensurados em ratos Wistar machos que, sob anestesia, tiveram a aorta abdominal e a veia cava inferior canuladas e receberam eletrodos implantados subcutaneamente. Na abordagem in vitro, o coração foi removido e perfundido utilizando a técnica de Langendorff. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: DL, nas doses de 10, 20 e 40 mg/kg (i.v), produziu bradicardia intensa e persistente associada à hipotensão. A bradicardia com QTc prolongado foi observada no registro in vivo do ECG. No modelo in vivo de arritmia induzida por Bay K8644, DL (10 mg / kg) houve diminuição do escore da arritmia de 15,33 ± 3,52 para 4,0 ± 2,64 u.a (p < 0,05, n = 4). Em corações perfundidos isolados, o DL (10-3 M) promoveu reduções significativas na frequência cardíaca (de 228,6 ± 8,5 ms para 196,0 ± 9,3 bpm; p < 0,05) e na pressão desenvolvida do ventrículo esquerdo (de 25,2 ± 3,4 para 5,9 ± 1,8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0,05). Conclusões: O DL produz bradicardia e atividade antiarrítmica no coração de ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Limonene/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Isolated Heart Preparation , Limonene/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypotension , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology
5.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(3): e244, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126639

ABSTRACT

Las arritmias cardiacas son complicaciones frecuentes en el embarazo, son más frecuentes las supraventriculares, con gran importancia la fibrilación auricular con compromiso hemodinámico, que pone en peligro al binomio madre hijo, asociado al efecto dañino de los medicamentos antiarrítmicos. El autor se propone analizar los elementos del consenso científico al tratar la fibrilación auricular de forma más adecuada para el binomio madre hijo, así como la protocolización del tratamiento. A partir de la experiencia del tratamiento de dos embarazadas con fibrilación auricular, con formas y desenlaces totalmente diferentes, en discusión del colectivo multidisciplinario, se busca y analiza una protocolización actualizada, en la conducta a seguir con madre hijo, en caso de arritmia. Las arritmias en la embarazada representan un riesgo para eventos fetales adversos, además de los riesgos potenciales de los medicamentos usados para el tratamiento. La cardioversión eléctrica, sincronizada, parece ser claramente idónea en el tratamiento(AU)


Cardiac arrhythmias are frequent complications in pregnancy, supra ventricular diseases are more frequent, with great importance atrial fibrillation with hemodynamic disorders, which puts the child mother binomial in danger, associated with the harmful effect of antiarrhythmic drugs. The author proposes to analyze the elements of the scientific consensus when treating atrial fibrillation in a more adequate way for the child mother binomial, as well as the protocolization of the treatment. From the experience of the treatment of two pregnant women with atrial fibrillation, with completely different forms and outcomes, in discussion of the multidisciplinary group, an updated protocol is searched and analyzed, in the behavior to be followed with the mother, in case of arrhythmia. Arrhythmias in the pregnant woman represent a risk for adverse fetal events, in addition to the potential risks of the medications used for the treatment. The synchronized electrical cardioversion seems to be clearly suitable in the treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Pregnant Women , Stillbirth , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications
6.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 90(2): 213-226, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901482

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los fármacos antiarrítmicos son la primera línea de tratamiento para el control de las taquiarritmias en el paciente pediátrico. La terapéutica con drogas clase Ic en los pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas ha sido limitada, por los reportes que demostraron incremento de la mortalidad en los sujetos con cardiopatías estructurales. Objetivo: valorar el efecto de los antiarrítmicos clase Ic sobre los fenómenos electro-mecánicos cardiacos en los niños con cardiopatías congénitas con arritmias auriculares. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico, observacional, longitudinal y prospectivo en los pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas que desarrollaron arritmias auriculares, tratados con antiarrítmicos clase Ic en el Cardiocentro Pediátrico William Soler . Se analizaron variables electrocardiográficas, así como estimación de la función sistodiastólica mediante el ecocardiograma. Resultados: fueron evaluados 46 pacientes, 25 tratados con flecainida (grupo I) y 21 con propafenona (grupo II) durante 4,57±0,86 años. La taquicardia por reentrada intraatrial fue la arritmia de mayor incidencia (58,69 por ciento), mientras que, la tetralogía de Fallot, el defecto cardiaco más común (36,9 por ciento). Las variables electrocardiográficas no sufrieron variaciones nítidas durante el seguimiento. El análisis comparativo intragrupal demostró la preservación de la función sistólica en la totalidad de los sujetos (I, p= 0,275; II, p= 0,262). Comportamiento análogo exhibió la función diastólica, expresada en el índice de Tei (I, p= 0,244; II, p= 0,286). Conclusiones: la utilización de antiarrítmicos clase Ic en los pacientes pediátricos con cardiopatías congénitas no se asocia a largo plazo con alteraciones electrocardiográficas significativas ni compromiso de la función sistodiastólica, por lo que se recomienda su uso en esta población(AU)


Introduction: antiarrhythmic drugs are the first line of treatment for the control of tachyarrhythmias in pediatric patients. Therapy with Ic class drugs in patients with congenital heart disease has been limited, mainly due to reports that showed an increase in mortality in patients with structural heart disease. Objective: to assess the effect of Ic class antiarrhythmic drugs on cardiac electro-mechanical phenomena in children with congenital heart disease with atrial arrhythmias. Methods: an analytical, observational, longitudinal and prospective study was performed in patients with congenital heart diseases who developed atrial arrhythmias treated with Ic class antiarrhythmic drugs in William Soler Pediatric Cardiocenter. Electrocardiographic variables were analyzed, as well as the estimation of systo-diastolic function by echocardiography. Results: 46 patients were evaluated, 25 treated with flecainide (group I) and 21 with propafenone (group II) during 4.57 ± 0.86 years. The intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia was the arrhythmia with the highest incidence (58.69 percent); while tetralogy of Fallot was the most common cardiac defect (36.9 percent). The electrocardiographic variables did not undergo sharp variations during the follow-up. The intergroup comparative analysis showed the preservation of systolic function in all subjects (I, p= 0.275; II, p= 0.262). Analogous behavior showed diastolic function, that was expressed in the Tei index (I, p= 0.244; II, p= 0.286). Conclusions: the use of Ic class antiarrhythmic drugs in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease is not associated in the long term with significant electrocardiographic alterations or compromise of systo-diastolic function, so its use is recommended in this population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies
7.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 34(1): 43-52, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1008260

ABSTRACT

Evaluar la presencia de disfunción tiroidea en pacientes con arritmias cardíacas tratados con Amiodarona (AMD) Métodos: se realizó el estudio en 24 pacientes que presentaron arritmias supraventriculares o ventriculares tratados con AMD, atendidos en el Servicio de Medicina Interna de la Ciudad Hospitalaria "Dr. Enrique Tejera" durante el período julio 2015 ­ abril 2016. Se les determinaron T3L, T4L y TSH a manera de tamizaje previo a la administración de AMD y fueron citados y divididos en 3 grupos de 3, 6 y 12 meses de tratmiento de AMD con determinación del perfil tiroideo en la consulta. Resultados: El hipotiroidismo inducido por AMD (HIA) se presentó en 20,83% (n=5), siendo más frecuente en aquellos pacientes asculinos que tenían 3 meses de tratamiento y que recibían una dosis de 1400 mg/semanal. La tirotoxicosis inducida por AMD (TIA) se presentó en 8,33% (n=2) ambos masculinos con dosis de 1400 mg/semanal. No se encontró asociación entre HIA y TIA con el tiempo, dosis, grupo etario ni género (P>0,05). T3L, T4L y TSH registraron el mayor y menor promedio a los 12 y 3 meses (P < 0,05); 12 y 6 meses; 3 y 12 meses respectivamente. Conclusión: La frecuencia de HIA fue de 20,83 % y TIA de 8,33 %. No hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la HIA o TIA con la duración de consumo, dosis, grupo etario ni género. La TSH presentó el mayor promedio a los 3 meses, la T3L y T4L a los 12 meses (AU)


to evaluate the presence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrhythmia who were treated with Amiodarone (AMD). Methods: the study was done in 24 patients who were treated for supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmia at the Department of Internal Medicine of Hospital "Dr. Enrique Tejera" in Valencia, Venezuela from July 2015 to April 2016. FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured to the administration of AMD. The patients were divided in 3 groups according to time of use of the drug as follows: 3, 6 and 12 months, and their thyroid function was measured at each of these periods. Results: 20.83 % (n=5) presented Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH), which was more frequent in males at 3 months of treatment and who received 1400 mg weekly. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) was found in 8.33% (n=2) also in male patients using 1400mg weekly. There was no association between AIH or AIT and duration, dose of AMD, age or gender. (p>0.05) FT3, FT4 and TSH registered their higher and lower averages on 12 and 3 months (P < 0,05); 12 and 6 months; 3 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: AIH's frequency was 20.83 % and 8.33% for AIT. There was no statistically significant association between AIH or AIT and duration, dose of AMD, age or gender TSH average measure was higher at 3 months and the FT3 and FT4 at 12 months(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Internal Medicine
8.
In. Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Rios, Isabel Cristina; Takaoka, Flávio. Anestesia e bioética / Anesthesia and bioethics. São Paulo, Atheneu, 8; 2017. p.785-840.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847828
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 184-186, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794565

ABSTRACT

Abstract We describe the recurrence of cardiac abnormalities in a patient treated during the acute phase of Chagas disease after outpatient follow-up of 5 years.


Resumo Descreve-se a recorrência de alterações cardíacas em paciente tratado na fase aguda de doença de Chagas, após seguimento ambulatorial de 5 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Recurrence , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Electrocardiography , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 62-69, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury. The process results in poor prognosis because of its association with ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Here, we discuss the concepts and clinical implications of cardiac remodeling, and the pathophysiological role of different factors, including cell death, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, collagen, contractile proteins, calcium transport, geometry and neurohormonal activation. Finally, the article describes the pharmacological treatment of cardiac remodeling, which can be divided into three different stages of strategies: consolidated, promising and potential strategies.


Resumo A remodelação cardíaca é definida como um conjunto de mudanças moleculares, celulares e intersticiais cardíacas, que se manifestam clinicamente por alterações no tamanho, massa, geometria e função do coração, em resposta à determinada agressão. Esse processo resulta em mal prognóstico, pois está associado com a progressão da disfunção ventricular e arritmias malignas. Nessa revisão, são discutidos os conceitos e as implicações clínicas da remodelação, além do papel fisiopatológico de diferentes fatores, incluindo morte celular, metabolismo energético, estresse oxidativo, inflamação, colágeno, proteínas contráteis, transporte de cálcio, geometria e ativação neurohormonal. Finalmente, o artigo apresenta o tratamento farmacológico, que pode ser dividido em três estágios: estratégias consolidadas, promissoras e potenciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Calcium/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress , Ventricular Dysfunction/metabolism
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162099

ABSTRACT

In 1992 a new syndrome was described consisting of syncopal episodes or sudden death in patients with a structurally normal heart and an electrocardiogram characteristic of right bundle branch block with ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. It has been shown to be associated with mutations in the gene (SCN5A) that encodes for the sodium ion channel in cardiac myocyte. Over 160 mutations of gene SCN5A have been identifi ed. Th e incidence of the disease is diffi cult to estimate, but it causes sudden deaths of 5 per 10,000 inhabitants per year and involved much more frequently in people of Asian ancestry. Diagnosis can be easily made by means of genetic analysis and ECG. Recent data suggest that loss of the action potential dome in the right ventricular epicardium underlies ST segment elevation seen in this syndrome. Right ventricular epicardium is preferentially aff ected because of the predominance of transient outward current in this tissue. Antiarrhythmic drugs like amiodarone and beta-blockers do not prevent death in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals. Th ough Implantation of an automatic cardioverter–defi brillator is the only recently proven eff ective therapy; Quinidine has been found to decrease Ventricular fi brillation and could prove to be a secured option of implantable cardioverter–defi brillator. However, researcher set focus on gene therapy that may off er an enduring cure in future years. Th e purpose of this brief review is to record the past highlights that have brought us to our present understanding of Brugada syndrome.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Brugada Syndrome/complications , Brugada Syndrome/diagnosis , Brugada Syndrome/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Humans , Tachycardia, Ventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size. METHODS: Between January 1, 2000 and March 10, 2012, a total of 930 consecutive patients who had been treated with amiodarone for arrhythmia were reviewed retrospectively. An amiodarone-associated adverse event was considered in cases of discontinuation or drug dose reduction due to an unexpected clinical response. RESULTS: The mean daily dose of amiodarone was 227 +/- 126 mg, and the mean duration was 490 +/- 812 days. During the mean follow-up duration of 982 +/- 1,137 days, a total of 154 patients (16.6%) experienced adverse effects related to amiodarone, the most common being bradycardia or conduction disturbance (9.5%). Major organ toxicities in the thyroid (2.5%), liver (2.2%), eyes (0.6%), and lungs (0.3%) were rare. All patients recovered fully without complications after amiodarone discontinuation or dose reduction. The only independent predictor of adverse effects was the duration of amiodarone treatment (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.41; p = 0.016, per year). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose amiodarone is well tolerated in a real-world clinical population. Further studies with a prospective design are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Atrioventricular Block/chemically induced , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(3): 33-40, jul.-set.2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-754415

ABSTRACT

As arritmias cardíacas são geradas por diferentes mecanismoseletrofisiológicos que atuam isoladamente ou interagem entresi para a formação e condução do impulso anormal. Com baseno conhecimento da eletrofisiologia celular e dos mecanismosgeradores de arritmias, diversos fármacos antiarrítmicos foramdesenvolvidos com objetivo de propiciar terapias cada vez maiseficazes e seguras. A necessidade de se agrupar os antiarrítmicos deacordo com seu mecanismo de ação e efeitos no impulsocardíaco, resultou na classificação de Vaughan- Williams que,apesar de amplamente difundida, não contempla algumasmedicações classicamente utilizadas como antiarrítmicos, taiscomo a adenosina e os digitálicos. Os antiarrítmicos são, emgeral, metabolizados pelo fígado por meio dos citocromos.Fármacos que interagem no mesmo sítio de ação em que sãometabolizados podem resultar em potencialização ou inibiçãodos efeitos antiarrítmicos. A redução ou o aumento do nívelsérico do antiarrítmico causado pelo fármaco utilizado concomitantemente,em decorrência da alteração na velocidade demetabolização, da redução na absorção ou somatório de efeitos,pode aumentar o potencial para efeitos colaterais deletérios eefeitos pró-arrítmicos e resultar em efeitos tóxicos potencialmentegraves. O objetivo deste capítulo é revisar os diversosmecanismos de interação medicamentosa que podem ocorrerenvolvendo as classes de antiarrítmicos...


Cardiac arrhythrnias are generated by different electrophysiologicalmechanisms that act alone or interact for the formation andconduction of the abnormal impulse. Based on the knowledge ofcellular electrophysiology and arrhythmia mechanisms, severalantiarrhythrnics were developed in order to provide therapiesincreasingly effective and safe. The need of grouping the antiarrhythmicagents according to their mechanism of action andeffects on cardiac impulse have led to the development of theVaughan- Williams c1assification. Although widespread used,this c1assification does not include some drugs c1assically usedas antiarrhythmics such as adenosine and digitalis.Antiarrhythmic agents are generaUy metabolized by the livervia the cytochrome. Drugs that interact at the same site of actionthat are metabolized may result in potentiation or inhibition ofantiarrhythmic effects. The reduction or increase in serum levelscaused by antiarrhythmic drug used concomitantly, due to thechange in the metabolism, reduction in absorption or summationeffects may increase the potential for deleterious side effects andproarrhythmic effects and result in potentiaUy serious toxic effects.The purpose of this chapter is to review the variousmechanisms of drug interactions that may occur involving theantiarrhythmic drugs...


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Drug Interactions , Adenosine/antagonists & inhibitors , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/adverse effects , Digoxin/agonists , Electrocardiography , Propafenone/agonists , Quinidine/agonists
14.
JPMI-Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute. 2013; 27 (3): 257-261
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127220

ABSTRACT

To study the prophylactic effects of High Dose Magnesium Sulphate on Cardiac Arrhythmias, Cardiogenic shock and associated mortality in Cases of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning. Seventy One patients of wheat pill poisoning were randomly selected. Thirty seven were given high dose of Magnesium Sulphate [study group] and 34 were given low dose of magnesium sulphate [control group] through intravenous route along with other supportive measures. Patients were observed for cardiac arrhythmias and mortality in both groups. Study end point was safe discharge from the hospital or death. The mean age of the sample was 25.27 +/- 7.48 years. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias was 40.54%[n=15] in study group versus 55.88% [n=19] in the control group. Average length of stay and frequency of cardiogenic shock was slightly lower in the study group, i.e., 1.42 +/- 0.65 days while it was 1.78 +/- 1.38 days for the control group. Overall, mortality in both the groups was 66.20% [n=47], which remained almost equal in both groups or slightly favored study group with 64.86% [n=24] in the study and 67.65% [n=23] in the control group. High dose magnesium sulphate administration was found to be helpful for cardiac arrhythmia and shock but mortality remained unchanged


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Magnesium Sulfate , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Phosphines , Cardiotoxins
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46501

ABSTRACT

Amiodarone is a di-iodated benzofuran derivative that is commonly used to treat patients with various cardiac arrhythmias. It is associated with side effects that involve the liver, thyroid, and other organs. Approximately 1-3% of patients treated with amiodarone suffer from symptomatic liver disease. Thyroid dysfunction occurs in 10% of patients treated with amiodarone. A 65-year-old woman with coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation was administered with amiodarone. She developed nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and sweating within 9 months of amiodarone administration (200 mg orally once a day). Results of the laboratory finding showed increased hepatic enzymes, and low thyroid hormone levels. A liver biopsy showed irregular arrangement of hepatocytes and diffuse micro- and macrovesicular fatty changes. Electron microscopy findings showed pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalloid inclusions and membrane-bound lysosomal structures. The liver and thyroid functions returned to normal, after the amiodarone was stopped. We describe an unusual case in which amiodarone induced hepatitis and hypothyroidism simultaneously. Physicians should take a close look to the adverse event when using amiodarone which can cause adverse effects in multiple organs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Female , Fibrosis/pathology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondria/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(11): 1060-1065, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650572

ABSTRACT

Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR) and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group). The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively). The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40) and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40) for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Nifedipine/therapeutic use , Seizures/drug therapy , Acoustic Stimulation , Disease Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Epilepsy, Reflex , Rats, Wistar , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 69(1): 97-104, jul.-sept. 2011. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649156

ABSTRACT

Las arritmias durante el embarazo son eventos de aparición frecuente. Desde las extrasístoles aisladas hasta las taquiarritmias, capaces de poner en riesgo las vidas materna y fetal, constituyen el amplio espectro de presentación. Muchas de ellas exigen intervenciones de urgencia, tratamientos crónicos o ambos. La comunicación de este caso nos motivó a realizar una revisión de las indicaciones y posibilidades farmacológicas de las taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares en este período particular de la mujer. El fármaco de elección para el manejo agudo de las taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares es la adenosina. Este agente debería encontrarse siempre en el área de quirófano al alcance de los anestesiólogos, para un manejo terapéutico de urgencia. La conducta obstétrica estará marcada por el estado hemodinámico de la madre y del feto.


Arrhythmias during pregnancy are frequent events. There is a wide spectrum of presentations: from isolated extrasystoles to tachyarrhythmias with risk to mother and fetal life. Many of these arrhythmias need urgent interventions and/or chronic treatment. The communication of this clinical case motivated us to realize a review of the indications and pharmacological possibilities in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias in this particular period in women. Adrenosine is the pharmacological treatment of choice to manage paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This drug should always be at hand in the operating theater, to be used by the anesthesiologists for the therapeutic managing of the emergencies. Obstetric clinical conduct will depend on the haemodynamic condition of the mother and the fetus.


As arritmias durante a gravidez são eventos de ocorrência freqüente. Desde as extrassístoles isoladas até as taquiarritmias, que podem pôr em risco as vidas materna e fetal, constituem o amplo espectro de apresentação. Muitas delas exigem intervenções de urgência, tratamentos crônicos ou ambos. Este caso nos estimulou a fazer uma revisão das indicações e possibilidades farmacológicas das taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares nesse período da mulher. O fármaco de escolha para o manejo agudo das taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares é a adenosina. Este agente deveria estar sempre disponível na sala de operações, ao alcance da mão dos anestesiologistas, para um manejo terapêutico de urgência. A conduta obstétrica estará marcada pelo estado hemodinâmico da mãe e do feto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/classification , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Tachycardia, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/drug therapy
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