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São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371392


Introdução. O material particulado (MP) emitido pela queima de combustíveis fósseis de origem veicular é a principal fonte de exposição ambiental à elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPTs) presentes no ar atmosférico dos centros urbanos, entre eles arsênio, níquel e chumbo. Objetivos. Este estudo avaliou os riscos à saúde humana de efeitos não carcinogênicos e efeitos carcinogênicos associados a exposição inalatória de arsênio, níquel e chumbo no MP10 de origem veicular, coletado em uma das estações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, na cidade de São Paulo, ao longo dos anos 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012. Métodos. Os dados de concentração dos EPTs foram obtidos pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB) e estão disponíveis no website da agência. As amostras semanais foram coletadas em todas as estações do ano, durante 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012 na estação de monitoramento Cerqueira César, localizada próximo a uma via de intenso tráfego veicular. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Software R (versão 4.0.5) e RStudio (versão 1.2). O software ProUCL foi usado para estimar os valores UCL95%. A avaliação de risco à saúde humana foi realizada de acordo com os métodos da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Resultados. As concentrações de arsênio e chumbo no ar apresentaram médias mais elevadas durante o inverno do que nas outras estações (p <0,05). O chumbo apresentou o maior risco de efeitos não carcinogênicos (HQ> 1,0). Arsênio e níquel apresentaram o maior risco de efeitos carcinogênicos, inclusive acima de 1E-06. O risco para ambos os efeitos foi maior no inverno. Conclusão. Esses achados destacam a importância da poluição do ar como fator de risco para a saúde da população, principalmente em centros urbanos com intenso tráfego veicular. Ações para reduzir a exposição à poluição do ar ambiente devem ser priorizadas nas agendas de políticas ambientais e de saúde.

Background. Particulate matter (PM) emitted from the burning of fuels by vehicles is the main source of environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) present in atmospheric air in urban centers, between them arsenic, nickel and lead. Objective. This study evaluated the risk to human health from non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects associated with airborne arsenic, nickel and lead in PM10 exposure of the vehicular source collected at one of the air quality monitoring stations in the city of Sao Paulo over the years 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Methods. The concentration data of the PTEs were obtained by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) and are available on the agency's website. The statistical analysis was performed using the Software R (version 4.0.5) and RStudio (version 1.2). ProUCL software was used to estimate UCL95% values. The risk assessment for human health was carried out according to the methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results. Airborne arsenic and lead concentrations showed higher means during the winter than in other seasons (p<0.05). Lead had the greatest risk of non-carcinogenic effects (HQ>1.0). Arsenic and nickel had the highest risk of carcinogenic effects, including above 1E-06. The risk for both effects was greatest in winter. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of air pollution as a risk factor for population health, especially in urban centers with high vehicular traffic. Actions to reduce air pollution exposure should be prioritized in environmental and health policies agendas.

Vehicle Emissions , Toxic Substances , Inhalation Exposure , Health Risk , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Arsenic , Lead , Nickel
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936163


Devitalization has been widely used in the root canal therapy of primary and permanent teeth in China more than ten years ago. With the development of local anesthetic drugs and injection technologies, this treatment method with high potential risks has been gradually abandoned. However, a questionnaire survey targeted all the participants at the 2018 China Pediatric Dentistry Conference showed that the devitalizer utilization proportion was still as high as 38.1% (383/1 005), even though the ratio was much lower than 75.5% (105/139) in 2003. These doctors had pay more attention to tissue burn caused by devitalizer marginal leakage or direct leakage, and know how to identify and handle with devitalizer burn. Devitalizers were usually made of arsenic trioxide, metal arsenic or paraformaldehyde, which have cytotoxicity, allergenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenic effects on animals. Marginal leakage of devitalizers have high risks of causing soft and hard tissue necrosis. Most of the dentists have an understanding of the potential damages of arsenic containing devitalizers, so they will choose parafor maldehyde with relatively less toxicity. Paraformaldehyde has a certain self limitation, and there are few cases reported, so some dentists lack of vigilance. Paraformaldehyde can also causes tissue necrosis if leakage happens, and the treatment methods are similar to that of arsenic containing devitalizers. When handling with devitalizers burn, the necrosed soft and hard tissue, for example gingiva, alveolar bone or teeth that cannot keep, must be completely removed until fresh blood appears, then rinse with large amount of saline and seal with iodoform gauze. This paper described two cases of devitalizer burn during the root canal treatment of primary molars, both of the doctors failed to identify the devitalizer burn symptoms in the early stage, thus didn't do proper treatments immediately after burning. Resulting in the necrosis of large area of gingiva and alveolar bone, loss of primary molars and permanent tooth germs 1-2 months after devitalizer burn. This paper reported these two cases in detail in order to warn dentists the high risks of using any kind of devitalizers, help them learn how to identify and treat devitalizer burn, and remind them to stop using devitalizers as soon as possible.

Humans , Arsenic/toxicity , China , Dental Pulp Devitalization , Necrosis , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth Germ , Tooth Loss/chemically induced , Tooth, Deciduous
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935802


Arsenic is a non-metallic element, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified arsenic and its compounds as carcinogens. Arsenic and its compounds can be absorbed through the respiratory tract, skin and digestive tract, distributed in the liver, kidney, lung and skin, and cause damage. Non-coding RNAs are closely related to arsenic-induced nervous system disorders, cell necrosis, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenesis. In recent years, the network regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) , long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) , and circular RNAs (circRNAs) among non-coding RNAs in various diseases induced by arsenic has become a new research field. This paper summarizes the existing scientific research results, and expounds the mechanism of miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs in arsenic toxicity, and provides basic data and theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of arsenic poisoning.

Humans , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenic Poisoning , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928672


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate herpes zoster reactivation induced by arsenic in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 212 patients with APL treated in the Department of Hematology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2008 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed to observe the activation of varicella zoster virus induced by arsenic. Kaplan-Meier analysis, chi-square test, and boxplot were used to analyze and describe the cumulative dose of arsenic and the time from the beginning of arsenic treatment to the occurrence of herpes zoster.@*RESULTS@#Excluding early death cases and early automatic discharge cases, 17 cases developed herpes zoster reactivation in 175 patients with APL treated with arsenic, and the cumulative median dose of arsenic was 6.2(2-12) mg/kg. Precise risk of reactivation of herpes zoster with 10 months in APL patients treated by arsenic was 9.7%.@*CONCLUSION@#Arsenic treatment can induce high reactivation rate of herpes zoster virus.

Humans , Arsenic , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927988


In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.

Arsenic/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Laminaria , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 530-536, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365920


RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRC) en una población rural expuesta al arsénico (As) en el agua de consumo en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Materiales y métodos. Participaron 352 habitantes adultos. Se midió el consumo de arsénico en agua de bebida y se evaluó la presión arterial, el tabaquismo, el consumo de alcohol de riesgo y perjudicial, la ingesta de sal, la actividad física, el índice de masa corporal, la glucemia y la dislipidemia. El riesgo cardiovascular fue calculado usando el score de Framingham. Resultados. Se dividió la población en Grupo Expuesto (GE) n=90 y Grupo No Expuesto (GNE) n=262. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue 48,9 y 51,1%; tabaquismo 31,1 y 39,7%; consumo de alcohol de riesgo 22,2 y 17,9%; perjudicial 36,6 y 36,6%; ingesta de sal 100 y 100%; actividad física 16,7 y 18,7%; sobrepeso 43,3 y 43,9%; obesidad 25,5 y 25,6%; diabetes 24,4 y 32,8%; y dislipidemia 58,9 y 66,4%. El score de riesgo bajo, moderado o alto fue 50; 21,1; y 28,9% para GE, y 54,6; 19,1 y 26,3% para GNE, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La exposición al As no afecta la prevalencia de FRC. Se identifica una población rural en situación de vulnerabilidad con elevados FRC. La Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo no refleja lo que ocurre en zonas rurales. La escala de Framingham concuerda con los FRC encontrados. Se requiere la implementación de políticas de promoción de salud que permita mejorar el pronóstico de sufrir eventos cardiovasculares a corto y mediano plazo.

ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a rural population exposed to arsenic (As) in drinking water in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. Materials and methods. A total of 352 adult inhabitants participated. Consumption of arsenic in drinking water was measured. Blood pressure, smoking, risk and harmful alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity, body mass index, glycemia and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham score. Results. The population was divided into Exposed Group (EG) n=90 and Non-Exposed Group (NEG) n=262. The prevalence of hypertension was 48.9 and 51.1% in each group, respectively; for smoking it was 31.1 and 39.7%; for risky alcohol consumption, 22.2 and 17.9%; for harmful alcohol consumption, 36.6 and 36.6%; for salt intake, 100 and 100%; for physical activity, 16.7 and 18.7%; for being overweight, 43.3 and 43.9%; for obesity, 25.5 and 25.6%; for diabetes, 24.4 and 32.8%; and for dyslipidemia, 58.9 and 66.4%. The scores for low, moderate, or high-risk were 50; 21.1; and 28.9% in the EG, and 54.6; 19.1 and 26.3% in the NEG, respectively. Conclusions. Exposure to As does not affect the prevalence of CRFs. We identified a rural population in a vulnerable condition with high CRFs. The National Risk Factor Survey does not reflect what happens in rural areas. The Framingham scale is consistent with the found CRFs. The implementation of health promotion policies is required to improve the prognosis of suffering cardiovascular events in the short and medium term.

Humans , Male , Female , Argentina , Arsenic , Rural Health , Hypertension , Arteries , Rural Population , Cardiovascular Diseases
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691


Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.

Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.

Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062


Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.

Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.

Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Immune System
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 124 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291350


Introdução: Arroz pode ser a principal fonte de exposição a arsênio inorgânico (iAs), que é carcinogênico e está associado a diversos efeitos não-carcinogênicos. Produtos feitos de arroz, como cereais infantis, e água para consumo podem ser importantes fontes de exposição a iAs. Embora o arroz seja um componente básico da dieta da população brasileira, há poucos estudos avaliando os riscos à saúde decorrentes da exposição ao iAs. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco da exposição a iAs e/ou outros elementos tóxicos e essenciais em arroz integral, arroz branco, cereais infantis, e água potável no Brasil, e identificar possíveis medidas para mitigar o risco. Método: O incremento de risco de câncer no tempo de vida (ILCR), o risco não-carcinogênico (HQ) e o hazard Index (HI) foram estimados através de análise probabilística com simulações de Monte Carlo. A concentração de elementos em arroz e cereais infantis foi obtida de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, e a concentração de arsênio em água provém do monitoramento nacional de vigilância da qualidade da água. Resultados e discussão: O ILCR médio para exposição a iAs em arroz branco foi 1.3 × 10-04, arroz integral 5.4 × 10-06, e para exposição a chumbo (Pb) em arroz integral foi 2.5 x 10-8. O HQ para arroz foi estimado abaixo de 1 para todos os elementos, assim como o HI, sugerindo que efeitos não carcinogênicos não são esperados. O ILCR médio decorrente da exposição a iAs em água foi 6.5 × 10-05, acima do limite de 1 × 10-5, e o HQ foi inferior a 1. Cereais infantis feitos de arroz foram o tipo de cereal com maior ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) e com mais elementos com HQ acima de 1. Todos os cereais infantis apresentaram HQ acima de 1 para ao menos um elemento. Cadmio foi o elemento tóxico mais significativo, e zinco o elemento essencial mais relevante. Estimou-se que através de ações de mitigação o risco carcinogênico devido ao consumo de arroz poderia ser reduzido em até 68%, e para cereais infantis em 24%. O ILCR para arroz foi considerado elevado, ainda que as concentrações de iAs estejam dentro dos limites permitidos. O risco para arroz integral foi menor que para arroz branco, devido à baixa concentração de iAs nas amostras avaliadas, e as possíveis razões para isto foram exploradas, como o local do cultivo, práticas agrícolas e o tipo de cultivar de arroz. O risco carcinogênico e não-carcinogênico referente a exposição a Pb foi considerado baixo, entretanto nenhum nível de exposição a este elemento é considerado seguro. Conclusões: O ILCR para consumo de arroz, cereal infantil e água foi considerado elevado. O risco não-carcinogênico foi considerado elevado apenas para cereais infantis, incluindo elementos tóxicos e essenciais, e cereais infantis feitos de arroz apresentaram risco mais significativo. O consumo de água representou um menor risco carcinogênico, entretanto considerado não tolerável. Com o suporte de políticas públicas, medidas para reduzir os riscos relativos ao consumo de arroz e cereais infantis poderiam ter um impacto positivo para a saúde pública no Brasil.

Introduction: Rice can be the main source of exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is classified as carcinogenic and is also associated with non-cancer effects. Rice products, such as infant cereals, and drinking water are also important sources of exposure to iAs. Although rice is a staple food in Brazil, there have been few studies about the health risks for the Brazilian population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the risks of exposure to iAs and other toxic and essential elements from brown rice, white rice (only iAs), infant cereal (made of rice and different raw materials), and drinking water (only iAs) in Brazil, and to identify possible measures to mitigate those risks. Method: The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and the non-cancer risk, or hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) were calculated. A probabilistic analysis was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: The mean ILCR was 1.3 × 10-04 for exposure to iAs in white rice and 5.4 × 10-06 for brown rice, and for exposure to Pb it was 2.5 x 10-8 for brown rice. The HQ was under 1 for all elements in brown rice, as the HI, suggesting that health effects are unlikely. The mean ILCR for exposure to iAs from drinking water was 6.5 × 10-05, above the tolerable value of 1 × 10-5 recommended by the World Health Organization, and the HQ was below 1. Rice cereal was the kind of infant cereal with highest ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) and with more elements with HQ above 1. All the infant cereals had an HQ above 1 for at least one element. Cd was the non-essential element more significative in this scenario, and Zn was the essential element more relevant. Various mitigation measures discussed in this dissertation are estimated to reduce the risk from rice consumption by 68%, and from infant cereal by 24%. The ILCR for white and brown rice was high, even though the iAs concentration in rice is below the maximum contaminant level. The risk for brown rice consumption was lower because the iAs concentrations were low in the brown rice samples evaluated, which possible reasons were explored, such as the location of cultivation, agricultural practices and the kind of rice cultivar. The estimated cancer and non-cancer risk from exposure to Pb is low, however no exposure to this element from diet is considered safe. Conclusions: The ILCR for rice, infant cereal and water consumption was considered high. The non-cancer risk was not tolerable only for infant cereal, including essential and non-essential elements, and rice cereal showed to be more concerning. Water consumption represents a small part of the risk for adults, although it was estimated to be not tolerable. With the support of public policies, measures to reduce these risks from rice and infant cereal would have a positive impact on public health in Brazil.

Drinking Water , Monte Carlo Method , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Infant Food , Lead , Arsenic , Public Policy , Oryza
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200939, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340098


Abstract Arsenic contamination in the environment and groundwater is a major global public health problem. Several researchers suggest that the toxicity of arsenic could be related to oral cancer development, usually resulting from potentially malignant lesions. During pathological processes, salivary proteins suffer modifications, which could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. Objective To analyze the protein profile in human saliva samples from a rural population exposed to high levels of arsenic in drinking water and its association with potentially malignant lesions. Methodology This observational, analytic and cross-sectional design included 121 patients from the state of Graneros (Tucumán, Argentina). Arsenic concentration in drinking water was determined and, according to the values obtained, individuals were divided into 2 groups: exposed group and non-exposed group. Saliva samples were obtained, and total protein concentration was measured by Bradford method. Finally, Laemmli SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain the protein profile. Results Total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Average areas of 20 and 42 KDa bands were significantly lower in exposed group than non-exposed group. Conclusion Chronic intake of high arsenic concentrations in drinking water produces changes in the salivary protein profile, which is associated with the presence of potentially malignant lesions.

Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Drinking Water/analysis , Argentina , Rural Population , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Pilot Projects , Environmental Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Metals, Heavy/urine , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631


The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.

Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888614


High levels (> 100 ug/L) of arsenic are known to cause lung cancer; however, whether low (≤ 10 ug/L) and medium (10 to 100 ug/L) doses of arsenic will cause lung cancer or other lung diseases, and whether arsenic has dose-dependent or threshold effects, remains unknown. Summarizing the results of previous studies, we infer that low- and medium-concentration arsenic cause lung diseases in a dose-dependent manner. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is recognized as a chemotherapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), also having a significant effect on lung cancer. The anti-lung cancer mechanisms of ATO include inhibition of proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, and inhibition of tumor metastasis. In this review, we summarized the role of arsenic in lung disease from both pathogenic and therapeutic perspectives. Understanding the paradoxical effects of arsenic in the lungs may provide some ideas for further research on the occurrence and treatment of lung diseases.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Arsenic/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736


Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80: e37420, dez. 2021. tab, graf


Reference materials (RM) are tools used in the comparability and traceability of measurements. They are widely used by laboratories for method validation and quality control of assay. Chile must evaluate theperformance of laboratories that analyzing metals in fishery products, despite RM have high prices and are scarce. For that reason, a RM in a hydrobiological product was developed. Reference values for arsenic and cadmium elements for a fishmeal were assigned. The measurement methods for characterization of the material were Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis. Reference values with their expanded uncertainty (U) were established for arsenic 2.64 ± 0.42 mg/kg (U; k = 2) and for cadmium 0.86 ± 0.16 mg/kg (U; k = 2). Homogeneity and stability of the RM allowed its use in a proficiency test for eleven food control laboratories. Results for median were 2.114 mg/kg for arsenic, and 0.863 mg/kg for cadmium. The performance values of the participants were evaluated with a z score obtaining 60% satisfaction for arsenic and 73% for cadmium.The material demonstrated to be suitable for use in interlaboratory proficiency assay. (AU)

Materiales de referencia (MR) son herramientas utilizadas en la comparabilidad y trazabilidad entre mediciones. Laboratorios los utilizan ampliamente en validación de métodos y control de calidad. Chile debe evaluar el desempeño de los laboratorios que analizan metales en productos pesqueros, a pesar de los altos precios y escasez del MR. Por esa razón, se desarrolló un MR en producto hidrobiológico. Se asignaron valores de referencia para arsénico y cadmio en harina de pescado. Los métodos de medición para la caracterización del material fueron Espectrometría de Masas de Plasma Acoplado Inductivamente, Espectrometría de Absorción Atómica y Análisis de Activación de Neutrones. Se establecieron valores de referencia con su incertidumbre (U) para arsénico 2.64 ± 0.42 mg/kg (U; k = 2) y para cadmio 0.86 ± 0.16 mg/kg (U; k = 2). La homogeneidad y estabilidad del MR permitieron su uso en una prueba de aptitud para once laboratorios de control de alimentos. Las medianas fueron 2,114 mg/kg para arsénico y 0,863 mg/kg para cadmio. Se evaluaron los rendimientos de los participantes con un estadístico de puntaje z satisfactorio del 60% para el arsénico y 73% para el cadmio. El material demostró ser adecuado para uso en ensayo de aptitud de intercomparación. (AU)

Arsenic , Cadmium , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Fish Flour , Laboratories
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200132, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153298


HIGHLIGHTS Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. An enzymatic method has been described by using arsenite oxidase for arsenic detection. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times.

Abstract Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. More attention has taken towards the arsenic due to its presence in ground water in India, China, Bangladesh, Inner Mongolia and several other regions of the world. It's been a challenge to remove arsenic due to the lack of its efficient detection approach in the complicated environmental matrix. The proposed method describes an enzymatic method for arsenic determination using arsenite oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. Hence, a colorimetric PVC strip with immobilized arsenite oxidase has been developed to detect the arsenic concentration and also having potential for the field-testing. The influence of the optimal conditions i.e. pH, temperature, storage stability, and reusability of free and immobilized enzyme were evaluated and compared. The results have shown that the stabilities were significantly enhanced compared with free counterpart. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times. We approve that this novel low cost immobilized carrier presents a new approach in large scale applications and expected to act as a model for establishment of indigenous arsenic sensor in miniature form.

Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Polyvinyl Chloride/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Groundwater/analysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/analysis , Oxidoreductases , Biodegradation, Environmental
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200093, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153294


HIGHLIGHTS Sodium arsenite can cause neoplastic transformation in cells. Curcumin reduced cell viability and increased LDH activity in transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. Curcumin caused DNA damage in transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. Curcumin may play a protective role in sodium arsenite-induced toxicity.

Abstract Arsenic is a toxic substance that spreads widely around the environment and accumulates as metalloid in the earth's crust. Arsenic and its derivatives are found in drinking water, nutrients, soil, and air. Exposure to arsenic is associated with lung, blood, skin cancer and various lesions. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizome and is one of the main curcuminoids. Curcumin is known to be antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential of sodium arsenite to transform embryonic fibroblast cells and to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of curcumin in neoplastic transformed cells. Neoplastic cells transformation was induced by sodium arsenite in Balb/c 3T3 cells at the end of 32 days. After transformation assay, the transformed cells were treated with various concentration of curcumin to evaluate cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity and DNA damage for 24h. The results revealed that curcumin decreased cell viability and increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in neoplastic transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that curcumin has an anticancer effect on neoplastic transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells by causing DNA damage.

Animals , Mice , Arsenic/toxicity , DNA Damage , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Curcumin/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , BALB 3T3 Cells , Fibroblasts/pathology
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 596-601, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134545


ABSTRACT: Many areas of South America are directly affected by Arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater. A high percentage of the water samples taken in multiple areas of Argentina had As concentrations above the WHO level recommended guidelines. This condition was previously associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including different cancers. Long-term As exposure was proposed as a risk factor for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study is to present a series cases of Argentine patients diagnosed with OSCC who have consumed water contaminated with As for more than 10 years. Clinical data were obtained from the archive of Clinical Records Histories of the Oral Medicine Department of the Dentistry School, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba and Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentina. 15 cases of OSCC were included. The male: female sex ratio was 2:1. The average age was 66 years (31-89 years). Regarding location, the gum or edentulous alveolar ridge was the most prevalent site (6/15; 40 %), followed by the tongue margin. The average years of exposure to arsenical waters were 24 years (13 - 40 years of exposure). The majority of the presented cases were non drinkers non smokers. 60 % of the tumors were diagnosed at advanced stages. the epidemiological studies carried out in As-contaminated areas that address oral cancer should always incorporate the record of variables related to As exposure. Patients who live or lived at As-contaminated areas must be regularly followed up for early diagnosis of potentially malignant or malignant lesions. The high frequency of gum cancer among these cases, should raise awareness of periodontic specialists to perform a careful and thorough periodontal examination.

RESUMEN: Muchas regiones de América del Sur están directamente afectadas por aguas subterráneas contaminadas con arsénico (As). Un alto porcentaje de las muestras de agua tomadas en múltiples áreas de Argentina tenían concentraciones de As superiores al nivel aprobado por la OMS. Esta condición se asociaba previamente con un mayor riesgo de enfermedades crónicas, incluidos diferentes tipos de cáncer. La exposición a largo plazo se propuso como un factor de riesgo para el carcinoma oral de células escamosas (OSCC). El objetivo de este estudio es presentar una serie de casos de pacientes diagnosticados con OSCC que han consumido agua contaminada con As durante más de 10 años. Se obtuvieron datos clínicos del archivo de Historias de registros clínicos del Departamento de Medicina Oral de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba y Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentina. Se incluyeron 15 casos de OSCC. La relación de género masculino: femenino fue de 2: 1. La edad promedio fue de 66 años (31-89 años). En cuanto a la ubicación, la encía o la cresta alveolar edéntula fue el sitio más frecuente (6/15; 40 %), seguido del borde de la lengua. El promedio de años de exposición a las aguas arsenicales fue de 24 años (13 - 40 años de exposición). La mayoría de los casos presentados fueron de pacientes no bebedores y no fumadores. El 60 % de los tumores fueron diagnosticados en etapas avanzadas. Los estudios epidemiológicos realizados en áreas contaminadas con As que abordan el cáncer oral siempre deben incorporar el registro de variables relacionadas con la exposición a As. Se debe hacer un seguimiento continuo de los pacientes que viven o que vivieron en áreas contaminadas con As para el diagnóstico temprano de lesiones potencialmente malignas. La alta frecuencia de cáncer de encías en estos casos, debe concienciar a los especialistas en periodoncia para que realicen un examen periodontal cuidadoso y completo.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Argentina , Arsenic/adverse effects , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Records , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 262-269, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377312


Abstract: Objective: To describe interindividual metabolism variations and sociodemographic characteristics associated to urinary arsenic, and to estimate the arsenic contamination in water from urinary total arsenic (TAs). Materials and methods: Women (n=1 028) from northern Mexico were interviewed about their sociodemographic characteristics and their urinary concentrations of arsenic species were measured by liquid chromatography. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in water was estimated from urinary TAs. Results: Women were 20-88 years old. TAs in urine ranged from p10=3.41 to p90=56.93 μg/L; 74% of women had levels >6.4 μg/L. iAs in water varied from p10=3.04 to p90=202.12 μg/L; 65% of women had concentrations >10 μg/L, and 41%, concentrations >25 μg/L. Large variations in iAs metabolism were observed. TAs was significantly negatively associated with age and schooling, and positively with the state of residence. Conclusion: Exposure to iAs is an environmental problem in Mexico. Individual variations in metabolism are a challenge to design prevention and control programs.

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir las variaciones interindividuales del metabolismo y las características sociodemográficas asociadas con el arsénico urinario, así como estimar su contaminación en el agua. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 1 028 mujeres del norte de México; por cromatografía de líquidos se midieron los metabolitos urinarios de arsénico y, a partir de ellos, se estimó la concentración en agua. Resultados: Las mujeres tuvieron 20-88 años. El arsénico urinario varió de p10=3.41 a p90=56.93 μg/L; 74% de las mujeres tuvieron niveles >6.4 μg/L. El arsénico en agua varió de p10=3.04 a p90=202.12 μg/L; 65% de las mujeres tenían concentraciones >10 μg/L, y 41%, >25 μg/L. Se observaron amplias variaciones en el metabolismo del arsénico. El arsénico urinario se asoció negativamente con la edad y escolaridad, y positivamente con el estado de residencia. Conclusión: La exposición a arsénico es un problema ambiental en México. Las variaciones individuales en su metabolismo son un desafío para diseñar programas de prevención y control.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arsenic/urine , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Herbicides/urine , Arsenates/urine , Arsenates/analysis , Arsenates/metabolism , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic/metabolism , Arsenicals/urine , Arsenicals/analysis , Arsenicals/metabolism , Socioeconomic Factors , Cacodylic Acid , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, Liquid , Herbicides/analysis , Herbicides/metabolism , Mexico