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Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 3-18, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007904


OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between urinary metals copper (Cu), arsenic (As), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) and grip strength.@*METHODS@#We used linear regression models, quantile g-computation and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to assess the relationship between metals and grip strength.@*RESULTS@#In the multimetal linear regression, Cu (β = -2.119), As (β = -1.318), Sr (β = -2.480), Ba (β = 0.781), Fe (β = 1.130) and Mn (β = -0.404) were significantly correlated with grip strength ( P < 0.05). The results of the quantile g-computation showed that the risk of occurrence of grip strength reduction was -1.007 (95% confidence interval: -1.362, -0.652; P < 0.001) when each quartile of the mixture of the seven metals was increased. Bayesian kernel function regression model analysis showed that mixtures of the seven metals had a negative overall effect on grip strength, with Cu, As and Sr being negatively associated with grip strength levels. In the total population, potential interactions were observed between As and Mn and between Cu and Mn ( P interactions of 0.003 and 0.018, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#In summary, this study suggests that combined exposure to metal mixtures is negatively associated with grip strength. Cu, Sr and As were negatively correlated with grip strength levels, and there were potential interactions between As and Mn and between Cu and Mn.

Cross-Sectional Studies , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Metals/toxicity , Arsenic , Strontium
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(4): 420-427, abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560194


BACKGROUND: Bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the population is associated with adverse health effects. Although some elements are essential for humans, high levels of exposure can be dangerous. OBJECTIVE: To describe the levels of Inorganic Arsenic (AsIn), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), and Mercury (Hg) in urine, and Lead (Pb) in blood in the population of Arica, Chile. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive study. Beneficiaries of the Health Surveillance Program of Law 20.590 in sites of higher risk of exposure in the commune of Arica were considered eligible. The results of biological samples to measure their concentrations of AsIn, Cd, Cr, Hg in urine, and Pb in blood between August 2016 and May 2021 are described. RESULTS: 9520 samples from a population with a mean age of 40.5 years were studied. 4.21% of the adult population and 6.57% of the children had AsIn values above 35 μg/L, while at least 95 % of the total samples had levels below 33 μg/L. At least 90 % of the samples had Cd levels below 1.1 μg/L, and 8.44 % had Cd levels above 2 μg/L, higher in males (11.67%). There were no values above the reference in children. 99.77% and 99.33% had Cr and Pb values below the reference limit, respectively (using the lowest reference range established by Chile Ministry of Health (MINSAL) < 5 μg/L). Children did not present risk values for Cr, and 0.16% presented Pb concentrations between 5-10 μg/dL. All samples presented Hg concentrations below risk levels (< 10 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a small percentage of the samples analyzed in the beneficiary population of Arica register metal concentration levels above national reference levels established by MINSAL, mainly AsIn, Cd, and Pb. It is essential to continue biomonitoring to reduce and prevent exposure to these metals, which can have harmful effects on human health.

ANTECEDENTES: La bioacumulación de metales en la población está asociada a efectos adversos y pueden ser peligrosos. OBJETIVO: Describir los niveles de Arsénico Inorgánico (AsIn), Cadmio (Cd), Cromo (Cr), Mercurio (Hg) y Plomo (Pb) en la población de Arica, Chile. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo. Se incluyeron todas las personas beneficiarias del Programa de Vigilancia de Salud de la Ley 20.590 en sitios de riesgo de mayor exposición en la comuna de Arica entre agosto 2016 y mayo 2021. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 9.520 muestras provenientes de una población con una edad media de 40.5 años. 4.21% de la población adulta y el 6.57% de los niños presentaron valores de AsIn superiores a 35 μg/L y al menos el 95% de las muestras totales tenía niveles inferiores a 33 μg/L. Más del 90 % de las muestras tuvieron niveles de Cd menores a 1.1 μg/L y un 8.44% registró niveles de Cd superiores 2 μg/L. El 99.77% y 99.33% exhibieron valores normales de Cr y Pb, respectivamente. Todas las muestras presentaron concentraciones de Hg por debajo de los niveles de riesgo (< 10 μg/L). CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que un porcentaje pequeño de la población de Arica registra niveles de concentración de metales por sobre niveles de referencia nacional establecidos por el Ministerio de Salud de Chile, principalmente de AsIn, Cd y Pb. Es importante continuar con la vigilancia para reducir y prevenir la exposición a estos metales, que pueden generar efectos nocivos en la salud humana.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/urine , Cadmium/blood , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Lead/analysis , Lead/blood , Mercury/analysis , Mercury/urine , Mercury/blood , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic/urine , Arsenic/blood , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Chromium/analysis , Chromium/urine , Chromium/blood , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/urine , Metals, Heavy/blood
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 891-898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985609


Objective: To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation between the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the chemical elemental composition of drinking water sources in coal-fired fluorosis areas. Methods: Based on the survey data on the prevalence of dental fluorosis at CDC in Guizhou Province in 2022, 274 original surface drinking water sources were collected in typical coal-fired fluorosis areas, and fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), barium (Ba), lead (Pb) 17 elements; apply Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot analysis of the global spatial autocorrelation of chemical elements in drinking water and the degree of aggregation of each element on the local area, and correlation analysis with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the region. Results: Except for Cu, Zn, and Cd, global spatial autocorrelation Moran's I was negative, and all other elements were positive. F, Ca, Al, Ti, As, Mo, Cd, and Cu elements showed high values of aggregation in the southeastern low-altitude area; Mg, Ba, Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe elements were mainly aggregated in the central altitude terrain transition area, Zn and Se elements in water sources are significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of dental fluorosis (P<0.05). In contrast, F, Mg, Al, Ti, As, Mo, Cd, Ba, and Pb elements negatively correlate (P<0.05). Elements in the central region were high-high aggregation, as a hot spot aggregation area with high disease incidence, while F, Al, Mn, Mo, Cd, and Ba elements in the western region were low-low aggregation, as a cold spot aggregation area with a low incidence of fluorosis. Conclusions: The risk of population fluoride exposure in surface drinking water sources is shallow. However, the chemical element content of drinking water sources in coal-fired polluted endemic fluorosis areas has prominent spatial geographical distribution characteristics. There is a significant spatial aggregation effect with the prevalence of dental fluorosis, which may play a synergistic or antagonistic effect on the occurrence and prevalence of dental fluorosis.

Humans , Drinking Water , Prevalence , Coal , Fluorides/adverse effects , Cadmium , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Lead , Selenium , Arsenic
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 686-692, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984762


Objective: To investigate the association between the urinary arsenic level and serum total testosterone in Chinese men aged 18 to 79 years. Methods: A total of 5 048 male participants aged 18 to 79 years were recruited from the China National Human Biomonitoring (CNHBM) from 2017 to 2018. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to collect information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, food intake frequency and health status. Venous blood and urine samples were collected to detect the level of serum total testosterone, urinary arsenic and urinary creatinine. Participants were divided into three groups (low, middle, and high) based on the tertiles of creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic concentration. Weighted multiple linear regression was fitted to analyze the association of urinary arsenic with serum total testosterone. Results: The weighted average age of 5 048 Chinese men was (46.72±0.40) years. Geometric mean concentration (95%CI) of urinary arsenic, creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic and serum testosterone was 22.46 (20.08, 25.12) μg/L, 19.36 (16.92, 22.15) μg/g·Cr and 18.13 (17.42, 18.85) nmol/L, respectively. After controlling for covariates, compared with the low-level urinary arsenic group, the testosterone level of the participants in the middle-level group and the high-level group decreased gradually. The percentile ratio (95%CI) was -5.17% (-13.14%, 3.54%) and -10.33% (-15.68%, -4.63). The subgroup analysis showed that the association between the urinary arsenic level and testosterone level was more obvious in the group with BMI<24 kg/m2 group (Pinteraction=0.023). Conclusion: There is a negative association between the urinary arsenic level and serum total testosterone in Chinese men aged 18 to 79 years.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arsenic/urine , Creatinine , East Asian People , Testosterone/blood , Urinalysis
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 601-607, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982327


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is suffered progressive loss of kidney function lasting more than 3 months and is classified according to the degree of kidney damage (level of proteinuria) and the decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The most severe form of CKD is end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of CKD is high with fast growth rate and the disease burden has become increasingly serious. CKD has become an important public health problem threatening human health. The etiology of CKD is complex. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors are an important cause of CKD. With the development of industrialization, environmental metal pollution has become increasingly severe, and its impact on human health has received widespread attention. A large number of studies have shown that metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic can accumulate in the kidney, which can cause damage to the structure and function of the kidney, and play an important role in the development of CKD. Therefore, summarizing the epidemiological research progress in the relationship between arsenic, cadmium, lead, and other metal exposures and kidney diseases can provide new ideas for the prevention and control of kidney diseases caused by metal exposure.

Humans , Cadmium/toxicity , Arsenic/toxicity , Kidney , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 14-20, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970704


Objective: To explore the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on neurobehavior and gut microbiota of arsenic-exposed offspring rats. Methods: In April 2021, Thirty-six SPF SD rats aged 8 weeks were seleted, rats were ranked by weight and divided into four groups according to randomized block design, namely control group, arsenic exposure group (As group) , arsenic+normal saline group (As+NaCl group) and As+FMT group, 6 females and 3 males in each group. Fecal microbiota fluid were provided by feces of rats in control group. Rats drank tap water containing 75 mg/L sodium arsenite for one week and then were caged together. The arsenic exposure was terminated until the pups were born. Female rats with vaginal plug were treated with fecal microbiota fluid via gavage during neurodevelopmental teratogenic window period. The volume of gavage was 1 ml/100 g with once every two days, for a total of three times. Weight alterations of offspring rats were recorded every week after weaning, and when offspring rats grew up for 6 weeks, Morris test and open field experiment was used to observe learning and memory abilities, as well as neurobehavioral performance of autonomous exploration and tension, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect microbiota diversities in fecal samples of rats in As group and As+FMT group. Results: Compared with the control group, the ratio of swimming distance and staying time in the target quadrant and the times of crossing the platform of rats in As group decreased significantly, and the motor distance, times entering central zone and the number of grid crossing of rats decreased significantly (P<0.05) . Compared with As group, the ratio of swimming distance in target quadrant, the motor distance in central zone and times entering central zone of rats in As+FMT group were evidently increased (P<0.05) . The analysis of fecal microbiota diversities showed that, at the phyla level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in feces of rats in As+FMT group was higher than that in As group (68.34% vs 60.55%) , while the relative abundance of Firmicutes was lower than that in As group (28.02% vs 33.48%) . At the genus level, the relative abundance of Prevotella in As+FMT group was significantly higher than that in As group, becoming the dominant genus (42.08% vs 21.78%) . Additionally, compared with As group, a total of 22 genus were increased with 21 decreased genus in As+FMT group (P<0.05) . LEfSe analysis showed that dominant genuses in As+FMT group were Prevotella and UCG_005, and their relative abundance was significantly higher than that of As group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: FMT may alleviate the impaired learning and memory ability and anxiety like behavior of the offspring rats exposed to arsenic, and improve the disrupted gut microbiota.

Male , Rats , Animals , Female , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Arsenic , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Feces
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970314


OBJECTIVE@#Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) are two of the most common elements contaminating groundwater resources. A growing number of studies have found that As and F can cause neurotoxicity in infants and children, leading to cognitive, learning, and memory impairments. However, early biomarkers of learning and memory impairment induced by As and/or F remain unclear. In the present study, the mechanisms by which As and/or F cause learning memory impairment are explored at the multi-omics level (microbiome and metabolome).@*METHODS@#We stablished an SD rats model exposed to arsenic and/or fluoride from intrauterine to adult period.@*RESULTS@#Arsenic and/fluoride exposed groups showed reduced neurobehavioral performance and lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that As and/or F exposure significantly altered the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome,featuring the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Ruminococcus_1, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, [Eubacterium]_xylanophilum_group. Metabolome analysis showed that As and/or F-induced learning and memory impairment may be related to tryptophan, lipoic acid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) synapse, and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The gut microbiota, metabolites, and learning memory indicators were significantly correlated.@*CONCLUSION@#Learning memory impairment triggered by As and/or F exposure may be mediated by different gut microbes and their associated metabolites.

Rats , Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Fluorides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Metabolome , Microbiota
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 832-837, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010294


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of arsenic-containing Qinghuang Powder (QHP) and low-intensity chemotherapy (LIC) in treatment of elderly acute myeloid leukemia (eAML) patients.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 80 eAML patients treated at Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment scheme was designed by real world study according to patients' preference, and patients were divided into a QHP group (35 cases) and a LIC group (45 cases). The median overall survival (mOS), 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates, and incidence of adverse events were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The mOS of 80 patients was 11 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 45.51%, 17.96%, and 11.05%, respectively. The QHP and LIC groups demonstrated no significant difference in mOS (12 months vs. 10 months), 1- (48.57% vs. 39.65%), 2- (11.43% vs. 20.04%), and 3-year OS rates (5.71% vs. 13.27%, all P>0.05). Moreover, the related factors of mOS demonstrated no significant difference in patients with age>75 years (11 months vs. 8 months), secondary AML (11 months vs. 8 months), poor genetic prognosis (9 months vs. 7 months), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score ⩾ 3 (10 months vs. 7 months) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant comorbidity index ⩾ 4 (11 months vs. 7 months) between the QHP and LIC groups (all P>0.05). However, the incidence of myelosuppression was significantly lower in the QHP group than that in the LIC group (28.57% vs. 73.33%, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#QHP and LIC had similar survival rates in eAML patients, but QHP had a lower myelosuppression incidence. Hence, QHP can be an alternative for eAML patients who do not tolerate LIC.

Humans , Aged , Arsenic/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2396-2405, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981316


As arsenic widely exists in nature and has been used in the pharmaceutical preparations, the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) with arsenic include realgar(As_2S_2 or As_4S_4), orpiment(As_2S_3), and white arsenic(As_2O_3). Among the above representative medicine, the TCM compound formulas with realgar are utilized extensively. Just in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition), there are 37 Chinese patent medicines including realgar. The traditional element analysis focuses on the detection of the total amount of elements, which neglects the study on the speciation and valence of elements. The activity, toxicity, bioavailability, and metabolic pathways of arsenic in vivo are closely related to the existence of its form, and different forms of arsenic have different effects on organisms. Therefore, the study on the speciation and valence of arsenic is of great importance for arsenic-containing TCMs and their compound formulas. This paper reviewed four aspects of the speciation and valence of arsenic, including property, absorption and metabolism, toxicity, and analytical assay.

Arsenic/analysis , Arsenicals/analysis , Sulfides , Arsenic Trioxide , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Biological Products
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371392


Introdução. O material particulado (MP) emitido pela queima de combustíveis fósseis de origem veicular é a principal fonte de exposição ambiental à elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPTs) presentes no ar atmosférico dos centros urbanos, entre eles arsênio, níquel e chumbo. Objetivos. Este estudo avaliou os riscos à saúde humana de efeitos não carcinogênicos e efeitos carcinogênicos associados a exposição inalatória de arsênio, níquel e chumbo no MP10 de origem veicular, coletado em uma das estações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, na cidade de São Paulo, ao longo dos anos 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012. Métodos. Os dados de concentração dos EPTs foram obtidos pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB) e estão disponíveis no website da agência. As amostras semanais foram coletadas em todas as estações do ano, durante 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012 na estação de monitoramento Cerqueira César, localizada próximo a uma via de intenso tráfego veicular. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Software R (versão 4.0.5) e RStudio (versão 1.2). O software ProUCL foi usado para estimar os valores UCL95%. A avaliação de risco à saúde humana foi realizada de acordo com os métodos da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Resultados. As concentrações de arsênio e chumbo no ar apresentaram médias mais elevadas durante o inverno do que nas outras estações (p <0,05). O chumbo apresentou o maior risco de efeitos não carcinogênicos (HQ> 1,0). Arsênio e níquel apresentaram o maior risco de efeitos carcinogênicos, inclusive acima de 1E-06. O risco para ambos os efeitos foi maior no inverno. Conclusão. Esses achados destacam a importância da poluição do ar como fator de risco para a saúde da população, principalmente em centros urbanos com intenso tráfego veicular. Ações para reduzir a exposição à poluição do ar ambiente devem ser priorizadas nas agendas de políticas ambientais e de saúde.

Background. Particulate matter (PM) emitted from the burning of fuels by vehicles is the main source of environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) present in atmospheric air in urban centers, between them arsenic, nickel and lead. Objective. This study evaluated the risk to human health from non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects associated with airborne arsenic, nickel and lead in PM10 exposure of the vehicular source collected at one of the air quality monitoring stations in the city of Sao Paulo over the years 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Methods. The concentration data of the PTEs were obtained by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) and are available on the agency's website. The statistical analysis was performed using the Software R (version 4.0.5) and RStudio (version 1.2). ProUCL software was used to estimate UCL95% values. The risk assessment for human health was carried out according to the methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results. Airborne arsenic and lead concentrations showed higher means during the winter than in other seasons (p<0.05). Lead had the greatest risk of non-carcinogenic effects (HQ>1.0). Arsenic and nickel had the highest risk of carcinogenic effects, including above 1E-06. The risk for both effects was greatest in winter. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of air pollution as a risk factor for population health, especially in urban centers with high vehicular traffic. Actions to reduce air pollution exposure should be prioritized in environmental and health policies agendas.

Vehicle Emissions , Toxic Substances , Inhalation Exposure , Health Risk , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Arsenic , Lead , Nickel
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 381-385, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936163


Devitalization has been widely used in the root canal therapy of primary and permanent teeth in China more than ten years ago. With the development of local anesthetic drugs and injection technologies, this treatment method with high potential risks has been gradually abandoned. However, a questionnaire survey targeted all the participants at the 2018 China Pediatric Dentistry Conference showed that the devitalizer utilization proportion was still as high as 38.1% (383/1 005), even though the ratio was much lower than 75.5% (105/139) in 2003. These doctors had pay more attention to tissue burn caused by devitalizer marginal leakage or direct leakage, and know how to identify and handle with devitalizer burn. Devitalizers were usually made of arsenic trioxide, metal arsenic or paraformaldehyde, which have cytotoxicity, allergenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenic effects on animals. Marginal leakage of devitalizers have high risks of causing soft and hard tissue necrosis. Most of the dentists have an understanding of the potential damages of arsenic containing devitalizers, so they will choose parafor maldehyde with relatively less toxicity. Paraformaldehyde has a certain self limitation, and there are few cases reported, so some dentists lack of vigilance. Paraformaldehyde can also causes tissue necrosis if leakage happens, and the treatment methods are similar to that of arsenic containing devitalizers. When handling with devitalizers burn, the necrosed soft and hard tissue, for example gingiva, alveolar bone or teeth that cannot keep, must be completely removed until fresh blood appears, then rinse with large amount of saline and seal with iodoform gauze. This paper described two cases of devitalizer burn during the root canal treatment of primary molars, both of the doctors failed to identify the devitalizer burn symptoms in the early stage, thus didn't do proper treatments immediately after burning. Resulting in the necrosis of large area of gingiva and alveolar bone, loss of primary molars and permanent tooth germs 1-2 months after devitalizer burn. This paper reported these two cases in detail in order to warn dentists the high risks of using any kind of devitalizers, help them learn how to identify and treat devitalizer burn, and remind them to stop using devitalizers as soon as possible.

Humans , Arsenic/toxicity , China , Dental Pulp Devitalization , Necrosis , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth Germ , Tooth Loss/chemically induced , Tooth, Deciduous
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 316-320, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935802


Arsenic is a non-metallic element, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified arsenic and its compounds as carcinogens. Arsenic and its compounds can be absorbed through the respiratory tract, skin and digestive tract, distributed in the liver, kidney, lung and skin, and cause damage. Non-coding RNAs are closely related to arsenic-induced nervous system disorders, cell necrosis, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenesis. In recent years, the network regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) , long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) , and circular RNAs (circRNAs) among non-coding RNAs in various diseases induced by arsenic has become a new research field. This paper summarizes the existing scientific research results, and expounds the mechanism of miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs in arsenic toxicity, and provides basic data and theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of arsenic poisoning.

Humans , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenic Poisoning , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 444-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927988


In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.

Arsenic/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Laminaria , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 72-76, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928672


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate herpes zoster reactivation induced by arsenic in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 212 patients with APL treated in the Department of Hematology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2008 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed to observe the activation of varicella zoster virus induced by arsenic. Kaplan-Meier analysis, chi-square test, and boxplot were used to analyze and describe the cumulative dose of arsenic and the time from the beginning of arsenic treatment to the occurrence of herpes zoster.@*RESULTS@#Excluding early death cases and early automatic discharge cases, 17 cases developed herpes zoster reactivation in 175 patients with APL treated with arsenic, and the cumulative median dose of arsenic was 6.2(2-12) mg/kg. Precise risk of reactivation of herpes zoster with 10 months in APL patients treated by arsenic was 9.7%.@*CONCLUSION@#Arsenic treatment can induce high reactivation rate of herpes zoster virus.

Humans , Arsenic , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Biol. Res ; 55: 23-23, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383924


BACKGROUND: Human Gut Microbiota (HGM) is composed of more than one thousand species, playing an important role in the health status of individuals. Dysbiosis (an HGM imbalance) is augmented as chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses, as loss of kidney function accelerates. Increased antibiotic use in CKD subjects and consumption of nephrotoxic heavy metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in tap water increases the dysbiosis state. Studies in people with stage 3 CKD are complex to carry out, mainly because patients are self-reliant who rarely consult a specialist. The current work focused on this type of patient. RESULTS: Lead and arsenic-resistant bacteria were obtained from self-reliant (that stands on its own) stage 3 CKD subjects. Pathogen-related Firmicutes and Proteobacteria genus bacteria were observed. Resistance and potentiation of antibiotic effects in the presence of metal(loid)s in vitro were found. Furthermore, the presence of the following genes markers for antibiotic and metal(loid) resistance were identified by qPCR: oxa10, qnrB1, mphB, ermB, mefE1, arr2, sulll, tetA, floR, strB, dhfr1, acrB, cadA2k, cadA3k, arsC, pbrA. We observed a decrease in the number of metal resistance markers. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of cadA and arsC genetic markers of antibiotics and metal(loid)s resistance were detected in samples from stage 3 CKD subjects. Lower gene amplification in advanced stages of CKD were also observed, possibly associated with a decrease in resident HGM during kidney disease progression.

Humans , Arsenic , Metals, Heavy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteria/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 530-536, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365920


RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRC) en una población rural expuesta al arsénico (As) en el agua de consumo en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Materiales y métodos. Participaron 352 habitantes adultos. Se midió el consumo de arsénico en agua de bebida y se evaluó la presión arterial, el tabaquismo, el consumo de alcohol de riesgo y perjudicial, la ingesta de sal, la actividad física, el índice de masa corporal, la glucemia y la dislipidemia. El riesgo cardiovascular fue calculado usando el score de Framingham. Resultados. Se dividió la población en Grupo Expuesto (GE) n=90 y Grupo No Expuesto (GNE) n=262. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue 48,9 y 51,1%; tabaquismo 31,1 y 39,7%; consumo de alcohol de riesgo 22,2 y 17,9%; perjudicial 36,6 y 36,6%; ingesta de sal 100 y 100%; actividad física 16,7 y 18,7%; sobrepeso 43,3 y 43,9%; obesidad 25,5 y 25,6%; diabetes 24,4 y 32,8%; y dislipidemia 58,9 y 66,4%. El score de riesgo bajo, moderado o alto fue 50; 21,1; y 28,9% para GE, y 54,6; 19,1 y 26,3% para GNE, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La exposición al As no afecta la prevalencia de FRC. Se identifica una población rural en situación de vulnerabilidad con elevados FRC. La Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo no refleja lo que ocurre en zonas rurales. La escala de Framingham concuerda con los FRC encontrados. Se requiere la implementación de políticas de promoción de salud que permita mejorar el pronóstico de sufrir eventos cardiovasculares a corto y mediano plazo.

ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a rural population exposed to arsenic (As) in drinking water in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. Materials and methods. A total of 352 adult inhabitants participated. Consumption of arsenic in drinking water was measured. Blood pressure, smoking, risk and harmful alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity, body mass index, glycemia and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham score. Results. The population was divided into Exposed Group (EG) n=90 and Non-Exposed Group (NEG) n=262. The prevalence of hypertension was 48.9 and 51.1% in each group, respectively; for smoking it was 31.1 and 39.7%; for risky alcohol consumption, 22.2 and 17.9%; for harmful alcohol consumption, 36.6 and 36.6%; for salt intake, 100 and 100%; for physical activity, 16.7 and 18.7%; for being overweight, 43.3 and 43.9%; for obesity, 25.5 and 25.6%; for diabetes, 24.4 and 32.8%; and for dyslipidemia, 58.9 and 66.4%. The scores for low, moderate, or high-risk were 50; 21.1; and 28.9% in the EG, and 54.6; 19.1 and 26.3% in the NEG, respectively. Conclusions. Exposure to As does not affect the prevalence of CRFs. We identified a rural population in a vulnerable condition with high CRFs. The National Risk Factor Survey does not reflect what happens in rural areas. The Framingham scale is consistent with the found CRFs. The implementation of health promotion policies is required to improve the prognosis of suffering cardiovascular events in the short and medium term.

Humans , Male , Female , Argentina , Arsenic , Rural Health , Hypertension , Arteries , Rural Population , Cardiovascular Diseases
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 53: 1-7, Sep.2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444436


BACKGROUND Arsenic contamination in the ground water of rural India is a recurrent problem and decon tamination is mostly based on the chemical or physical treatments until now. Microbial bioremediation is eco-friendly, cheap, time-efficient and does not produce any toxic by-products. RESULT In the present study, a high arsenic tolerant bacteria Brevundimonas aurantiaca PFAB1 was iso lated from Panifala hot spring located in West Bengal, India. Previously Panifala was also reported to be an arsenic-rich hot spring. B. aurantiaca PFAB1 exhibited both positive arsenic reductase and arsenite oxidase activity. It was tolerant to arsenite up to 90 mM and arsenate up to 310 mM. Electron microscopy has proved significant changes in cellular micromorphology and stalk appearance under the presence of arsenic in growth medium. Bioaccumulation of arsenic in As (III) treated cells were 0.01% of the total cell weight, while 0.43% in case of As (V) treatment. CONCLUSIONS All experimental lines of evidence prove the uptake/accumulation of arsenic within the bac terial cell. All these features will help in the exploitation of B. aurantiaca PFAB1 as a potent biological weapon to fight arsenic toxicity in the near future

Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenic/chemistry , Thermal Water/chemistry , Caulobacteraceae/metabolism , Caulobacteraceae/chemistry , Arsenic/metabolism , India
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691


Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.

Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.

Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062


Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.

Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.

Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Immune System
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 124 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291350


Introdução: Arroz pode ser a principal fonte de exposição a arsênio inorgânico (iAs), que é carcinogênico e está associado a diversos efeitos não-carcinogênicos. Produtos feitos de arroz, como cereais infantis, e água para consumo podem ser importantes fontes de exposição a iAs. Embora o arroz seja um componente básico da dieta da população brasileira, há poucos estudos avaliando os riscos à saúde decorrentes da exposição ao iAs. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco da exposição a iAs e/ou outros elementos tóxicos e essenciais em arroz integral, arroz branco, cereais infantis, e água potável no Brasil, e identificar possíveis medidas para mitigar o risco. Método: O incremento de risco de câncer no tempo de vida (ILCR), o risco não-carcinogênico (HQ) e o hazard Index (HI) foram estimados através de análise probabilística com simulações de Monte Carlo. A concentração de elementos em arroz e cereais infantis foi obtida de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, e a concentração de arsênio em água provém do monitoramento nacional de vigilância da qualidade da água. Resultados e discussão: O ILCR médio para exposição a iAs em arroz branco foi 1.3 × 10-04, arroz integral 5.4 × 10-06, e para exposição a chumbo (Pb) em arroz integral foi 2.5 x 10-8. O HQ para arroz foi estimado abaixo de 1 para todos os elementos, assim como o HI, sugerindo que efeitos não carcinogênicos não são esperados. O ILCR médio decorrente da exposição a iAs em água foi 6.5 × 10-05, acima do limite de 1 × 10-5, e o HQ foi inferior a 1. Cereais infantis feitos de arroz foram o tipo de cereal com maior ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) e com mais elementos com HQ acima de 1. Todos os cereais infantis apresentaram HQ acima de 1 para ao menos um elemento. Cadmio foi o elemento tóxico mais significativo, e zinco o elemento essencial mais relevante. Estimou-se que através de ações de mitigação o risco carcinogênico devido ao consumo de arroz poderia ser reduzido em até 68%, e para cereais infantis em 24%. O ILCR para arroz foi considerado elevado, ainda que as concentrações de iAs estejam dentro dos limites permitidos. O risco para arroz integral foi menor que para arroz branco, devido à baixa concentração de iAs nas amostras avaliadas, e as possíveis razões para isto foram exploradas, como o local do cultivo, práticas agrícolas e o tipo de cultivar de arroz. O risco carcinogênico e não-carcinogênico referente a exposição a Pb foi considerado baixo, entretanto nenhum nível de exposição a este elemento é considerado seguro. Conclusões: O ILCR para consumo de arroz, cereal infantil e água foi considerado elevado. O risco não-carcinogênico foi considerado elevado apenas para cereais infantis, incluindo elementos tóxicos e essenciais, e cereais infantis feitos de arroz apresentaram risco mais significativo. O consumo de água representou um menor risco carcinogênico, entretanto considerado não tolerável. Com o suporte de políticas públicas, medidas para reduzir os riscos relativos ao consumo de arroz e cereais infantis poderiam ter um impacto positivo para a saúde pública no Brasil.

Introduction: Rice can be the main source of exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is classified as carcinogenic and is also associated with non-cancer effects. Rice products, such as infant cereals, and drinking water are also important sources of exposure to iAs. Although rice is a staple food in Brazil, there have been few studies about the health risks for the Brazilian population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the risks of exposure to iAs and other toxic and essential elements from brown rice, white rice (only iAs), infant cereal (made of rice and different raw materials), and drinking water (only iAs) in Brazil, and to identify possible measures to mitigate those risks. Method: The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and the non-cancer risk, or hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) were calculated. A probabilistic analysis was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: The mean ILCR was 1.3 × 10-04 for exposure to iAs in white rice and 5.4 × 10-06 for brown rice, and for exposure to Pb it was 2.5 x 10-8 for brown rice. The HQ was under 1 for all elements in brown rice, as the HI, suggesting that health effects are unlikely. The mean ILCR for exposure to iAs from drinking water was 6.5 × 10-05, above the tolerable value of 1 × 10-5 recommended by the World Health Organization, and the HQ was below 1. Rice cereal was the kind of infant cereal with highest ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) and with more elements with HQ above 1. All the infant cereals had an HQ above 1 for at least one element. Cd was the non-essential element more significative in this scenario, and Zn was the essential element more relevant. Various mitigation measures discussed in this dissertation are estimated to reduce the risk from rice consumption by 68%, and from infant cereal by 24%. The ILCR for white and brown rice was high, even though the iAs concentration in rice is below the maximum contaminant level. The risk for brown rice consumption was lower because the iAs concentrations were low in the brown rice samples evaluated, which possible reasons were explored, such as the location of cultivation, agricultural practices and the kind of rice cultivar. The estimated cancer and non-cancer risk from exposure to Pb is low, however no exposure to this element from diet is considered safe. Conclusions: The ILCR for rice, infant cereal and water consumption was considered high. The non-cancer risk was not tolerable only for infant cereal, including essential and non-essential elements, and rice cereal showed to be more concerning. Water consumption represents a small part of the risk for adults, although it was estimated to be not tolerable. With the support of public policies, measures to reduce these risks from rice and infant cereal would have a positive impact on public health in Brazil.

Drinking Water , Monte Carlo Method , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Infant Food , Lead , Arsenic , Public Policy , Oryza