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Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 22-28, Jan. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291938


BACKGROUND: Vibrio species display variable and plastic fitness strategies to survive and interact with multiple hosts, including marine aquaculture species that are severely affected by pathogenic Vibrios. The culturable Vibrio sp. strain ArtGut-C1, the focus of this study, provides new evidence of such phenotypic plasticity as it accumulates polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer with anti-pathogen activity, particularly in the marine larviculture phase. The strain was isolated from the gut of laboratory-reared Artemia individuals, the live diet and PHB carrier used in larviculture. Its main phenotypic properties, taxonomic status and genomic properties are reported based on the whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Vibrio sp. ArtGut-C1 yielded 72.6% PHB of cells' dry weight at 25 C. The genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) shows it is closely related to V. diabolicus (ANI: 88.6%). Its genome contains 5,236,997- bp with 44.8% GC content, 3,710 protein-coding sequences, 96 RNA, 9 PHB genes functionally related to PHB metabolic pathways, and several genes linked to competing and colonizing abilities. CONCLUSIONS: This culturable PHB-accumulating Vibrio strain shows high genomic and phenotypic variability. It may be used as a natural pathogen biocontrol in the marine hatchery and as a potential cell factory for PHB production.

Animals , Artemia/microbiology , Vibrio/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism , Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Vibrio/isolation & purification , Vibrio/classification , Aquaculture , Probiotics , Crustacea/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biological Variation, Population
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200088, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249211


Abstract Fusarium is producing several important mycotoxins including beauvericin (BEA). Two species of Fusarium viz. F. subglutinans and F. sacchari cause the Pokkahboeng disease of sugarcane. The studies on the occurrence and toxicity of BEA are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the isolates of Fusarium and detect their ability to produce BEA. The toxicity of BEA was also tested on brine shrimp Artemia salina. Many isolates of Fusarium were isolated from the infected plants of sugarcane in Malaysia. We identified the species of Fusarium according to their morphological characteristics. The capability of Fusarium isolates for producing the BEA was estimated by using a thin layer chromatography. The toxicity bioassay of BEA was conducted on the brine shrimp larvae. The results were identified on F. subglutinans and F. sacchari in 55 isolates of Fusarium. All isolates demonstrated the ability to produce BEA. Interestingly, BEA exhibited variation in toxicity between low toxic to very higher toxicity 100%. F. subglutinans and F. sacchari were able to produce BEA and possibly BEA may be causing toxicity in the host tissue and may be acting as a potential pathogenicity factor. Therefore, we consider BEA as an interesting factor in determining the virulence of fusarium isolate.

Artemia , Depsipeptides , Fusarium , Mycotoxins
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132206


Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Humans , Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Vernonia/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Artemia , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Linoleic Acid/pharmacology , beta Karyopherins/pharmacology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1601-1608, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1038644


Com o presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o tempo de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia e o período de transição alimentar para pós-larvas de acará-severo (Heros severus). Foram utilizadas 450 pós-larvas de acará-severo, distribuídas em 45 aquários, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x5, com três repetições. Foram avaliados três períodos de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia: zero, cinco e 10 dias. Além disso, foram testados cinco períodos de transição alimentar: um, dois, três, quatro e cinco dias, quando os animais receberam alimentação conjunta de náuplios de artêmia e dieta farelada. Ao final do experimento, os peixes foram contados, pesados e fotografados, para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e das variáveis morfométricas. Para todos os parâmetros avaliados, não foi constatada interação entre o tempo de fornecimento de artêmia e o período de transição alimentar. Os animais alimentados por 10 dias com náuplios de artêmia apresentaram os melhores resultados de desempenho e as maiores variáveis morfométricas. Os peixes que receberam alimentação conjunta por três dias apresentaram desenvolvimento satisfatório. Dessa forma, recomendam-se 10 dias de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia e três dias de transição alimentar, antes de se iniciar o fornecimento exclusivo de dieta inerte para pós-larvas de acará-severo.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the supply time of artemia and the period of food transition to post-larvae of severum (Heros severus). A total of 450 post-larvae of severum were distributed in 45 aquaria, in a completely randomized design, in a 3x5 factorial scheme, with three replicates. Three feeding periods with artemia nauplii were evaluated: zero, five, and ten days. In addition, five feeding transitions were tested: one, two, three, four and five days, when the animals received joint feeding of artemia nauplii and dry diet. At the end of the experiment the fish were counted, weighed and photographed, to evaluate the productive performance and the morphometric variables. For all parameters evaluated, no interaction between the time of artemia supply and the feeding transition period was observed. Animals fed for 10 days with artemia nauplii showed the best performance results and the highest morphometric variables. The fish that received joint feeding for three days presented satisfactory development. Thus, 10 days of artemia nauplii supply and three days of feeding transition is recommended before starting the exclusive supply of diet inert to post-larvae of severum.(AU)

Animals , Artemia , Aquaculture/methods , Cichlids/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Larva/growth & development
Natural Product Sciences ; : 228-232, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760568


Five secondary metabolites, including a new isopimarane derivative xylaroisopimaranin A (1), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaralyce sp. (HM-1), and their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, MS and CD spectra. Their bioactivities were performed to antibacterial, Hep G2 cells cytotoxicity and brine shrimp inhibition. The biological evaluation results showed that the xylaroisopimaranin A (1), xylabisboein B (2), griseofulvin (3) , 5-methylmellein (4) and mellein-5-carboxlic acid (5) displayed no significant Hep G2 cells cytotoxicity and antibacterial acitivity, but they inhibited the brine shrimp with IC₅₀ from 0.5 to 25 µmol/mL.

Artemia , Fungi , Griseofulvin , Hep G2 Cells
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1530-1535, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003343


Abstract Chemical defense is a widespread mechanism on many animals and plants. However, just a few cases are known for avian species. In this study we evaluate the toxicity of Pheucticus chrysopeplus feather extract via lethality test with brine shrimp (Artemia salina) as an in vivo model. Mortality of A. salina was evaluated after 24 hour exposure to artificial seawater, methanol, and the methanolic feather extract. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference in mortality between treatments (X2 = 65.25, P < 0.0001, n = 50). With this we describe P. chrysopeplus as the first known toxic avian species of Guatemala and Central America, raising awareness about its conservation and the identification of the toxic substance present in its feathers. We also highlight the possible mimicry mechanism taking part between P. chrysopeplus and two sympatric oriole species (Icterus pectoralis and I. pustulatus).(AU)

Resumen La defensa química es un mecanismo que se encuentra presente en varios animales y plantas. Sin embargo, pocos casos son conocidos para especies de aves. En este estudio evaluamos la toxicidad de extractos de plumas de Pheucticus chrysopeplus con un ensayo de letalidad utilizando artemia (Artemia salina) como modelo in vivo. La mortalidad de A. salina se evaluó luego de ser expuesta por 24 horas a agua marina artificial, metanol y extracto metanólico de plumas de P. chrysopeplus. La prueba de Kruskal-Wallis mostró que existe una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de mortalidad de los tratamientos evaluados (X2 = 65.25, P < 0.0001, n = 50). Con esto, describimos a P. chrysopeplus como la primera especie de ave tóxica reportada para Guatemala y Centroamérica, resaltando la importancia de su conservación, así como la identificación de la sustancia tóxica presente en sus plumas. También destacamos el posible mecanismo de mimetismo que podría estar ocurriendo entre P. Chrysopeplus y dos especies simpátricas de orioles (Icterus pectoralis e I. pustulatus).(AU)

Animals , Artemia , Birds , Feathers , Biological Mimicry , Mortality , Toxicity Tests/instrumentation , Guatemala
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599


Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.

Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.

Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 65-70, set. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989213


Food flavorings in general are few studied for the toxicological aspect. This condition justifies toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments of the substances. In the present study, the toxicity of banana, cherry and hazelnut flavorings was evaluated in meristematic cells of roots of Allium cepa, in pure form (as marketed) and in the concentrations of 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Toxic potential of these food additives was also evaluated against Artemia salina nauplii at concentrations of 0.78; 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 hours of exposure. The three additives, in all treatments and times of analysis considered, caused significant inhibition of cell division in A. cepa, however did not cause cellular alterations to the evaluated meristems. These food flavorings also caused significant mortality to micro crustaceans with LC50<100 μg/mL. From this, under the conditions of mentioned analyzes, cherry, banana and hazelnut flavorings induced significant toxicity and cytotoxicity to the bioassays used.

En general, los aspectos toxicológicos de los saborizantes de los alimentos son poco estudiados. Esta condición justifica las evaluaciones de toxicidad, citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de estas sustancias. En el presente estudio, se evaluó la toxicidad de los aromas de plátano, cereza y avellana en células meristemáticas de raíces de Allium cepa, en forma pura (según comercializa) y en concentraciones de 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 y 48 horas de exposición. El potencial tóxico de estos aditivos alimentarios también se evaluó frente a nauplios de Artemia salina a concentraciones de 0,78; 1,56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 horas de exposición. Los tres aditivos, en todos los tratamientos y tiempos de análisis considerados, causaron inhibición significativa de la división celular en A. cepa, sin embargo, no causaron alteraciones celulares a los meristemos evaluados. Estos saborizantes alimentarios también causaron una mortalidad significativa a microcrustáceos con LC50 <100 μg/ mL. A partir de esto, bajo las condiciones de los análisis descriptos, los aromatizantes de cereza, plátano y avellana indujeron toxicidad significativa y citotoxicidad para los bioensayos utilizados.

Artemia/cytology , Meristem/cytology , Onions/cytology , Flavoring Agents/toxicity , Flavoring Agents/chemistry
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 3(3): 132-137, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145612


Objetivo. Determinar la bioactividad de trece plantas medicinales peruanas a través de su capacidad citotóxica. Materiales y métodos. Se elaboraron extractos acuosos, hidroalcohólicos, o zumos liofilizados de las especies vegetales seleccionadas. La citotoxicidad in vitro fue evaluada usando la prueba de letalidad de Artemia salina, con la determinación de la concentración letal media (CL50). El potencial citotóxico de las muestras de extractos evaluados, se clasificaron en: a) no tóxico: CL50 > 1000 µg/ mL; b) baja toxicidad: 500 < CL50 ≤ 1000 µg/ mL; c) toxicidad moderada: 100 < CL50 ≤ 500 µg/ mL, y d) alta toxicidad: CL50 < 100 µg/ mL. Resultados. Los diferentes extractos del rizoma de Curcuma longa mostraron una potente actividad citotóxica, con CL50 entre 20,67 ± 7,04 y 98,14± 2,64 ug/mL. Los extractos de rizoma de Zingiber officinale, del fruto de Physalis angulata y la planta entera de Physalis angulata también mostraron actividad citotóxica con CL50 de 87,15±18,17, 323,48±18,85 y 328,92±23,08 ug/mL, respectivamente. Conclusión. Se encontró actividad citotóxica en los extractos de los rizomas de Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, así como el fruto y planta entera de Physalis angulata. Futuros estudios podrán determinar si la flora cultivada en el Perú puede ser una fuente para el desarrollo futuro de agentes antitumorales.

Objective. To determine the bioactivity of 13 Peruvian medicinal plants through their cytotoxic capacity. Material and methods. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic extracts or lyophilized juices of the selected plant species were elaborated. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using the Artemia salina lethality test, with the determination of the mean lethal concentration (LC50). The cytotoxic potential of the samples of evaluated extracts was classified into: a) non-toxic: LC50> 1000 µg / mL, b) low toxicity: 500 < LC50 ≤ 1000 µg / mL, c) moderate toxicity: 100 < LC50≤ 500 µg / mL, and d) high toxicity: LC50 <100 µg / mL. Results. The different extracts of the Curcuma longa's rhizome showed a potent cytotoxic activity, with LC50 between 20.67 ± 7.04 and 98.14 ± 2.64 µg / mL. Zingiber officinale rhizome, Physalis angulate fruit and Physalis angulata whole plant extracts, also showed cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 87.15 ± 18.17, 323.48 ± 18.85 and 328.92 ± 23.08 µg / mL, respectively. Conclusion. Cytotoxic activity was found in the extracts of Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale rhizomes, as well as Physalis angulata fruit and whole plant extracts. Future studies will be able to determine if the flora cultivated in Peru could be a source for future development of antitumoral agents.

Ginger/toxicity , Curcuma/toxicity , Physalis/toxicity , Peru , Plants, Medicinal , Artemia , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts , Medicine, Traditional
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 628-632, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-910973


The inexistence of nutritionally adequate diets in paralarval rearing is the main bottleneck for commercial production of the common octopus Octopus cf. vulgaris. We report the feeding behavior of O. vulgaris Type II paralarvae fed on Artemia sp (0.1 individual. mL-1) nauplii enriched with microalgae Isocrysis galbana and Pavlova lutheri microalgae from 0 to 7 Day After Hatching (DAH).; metanauplii enriched with microalgae and DHA SELCO® lipid emulsion from the 8 DAH. The paralarvae showed active swimming and predation by the 14 DAH, feeding in the most superficial portion of the water column. From the 15 DAH, the paralarvae remained near the bottom and there a decrease in the consumption of artemia was observed. The mortality observed from the 18 DAH and mass mortality of paralarvae on 20 DAH can be attributed mainly to the nutritional composition of the diet. Studies analyzing the biochemical composition and ontogeny of the digestive system during the early life stages should shed some light on the running for an appropriate feeding protocol to the paralarval rearing.(AU)

Animals , Feeding Behavior , Octopodiformes/metabolism , Artemia
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714852


BACKGROUND: High-NaCl diet is a contributing factor for cardiac hypertrophy. The role of HSP22 as a protective protein during cardiac hypertrophy due to hypernatremia is unclear. Accordingly, this study aimed to establish a cellular hypernatremic H9C2 model and to compare the expression of HSP22 in Ca2+ homeostasis between a high-NaCl and angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic cellular H9C2 model. METHODS: Real-time PCR was performed to compare the mRNA expression. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the cells. RESULTS: The addition of 30 mM NaCl for 48 h was the most effective condition for the induction of hypertrophic H9C2 cells (termed the in vitro hypernatremic model). Cardiac cellular hypertrophy was induced with 30 mM NaCl and 1 µM angiotensin II for 48 h, without causing abnormal morphological changes or cytotoxicity of the culture conditions. HSP22 contains a similar domain to that found in the consensus sequences of the late embryogenesis abundant protein group 3 from Artemia. The expression of HSP22 gradually decreased in the in vitro hypernatremic model. In contrast to the in vitro hypernatremic model, HSP22 increased after exposure to angiotensin II for 48 h. Intracellular Ca2+ decreased in the angiotensin II model and further decreased in the in vitro hypernatremic model. Impaired intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis was more evident in the in vitro hypernatremic model. CONCLUSION: The results showed that NaCl significantly decreased HSP22. Decreased HSP22, due to the hypernatremic condition, affected the Ca2+ homeostasis in the H9C2 cells. Therefore, hypernatremia induces cellular hypertrophy via impaired Ca2+ homeostasis. The additional mechanisms of HSP22 need to be explored further.

Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Artemia , Cardiomegaly , Consensus Sequence , Diet , Embryonic Development , Female , Flow Cytometry , Homeostasis , Hypernatremia , Hypertrophy , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Confocal , Pregnancy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(6): 570-577, nov. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914938


Most species of genus Artemisia L. (Compositae) are medicinal herbswith several uses in the folk medicine worldwide. In the present study, methanol extract of Artemisia santolina has been subjected for isolation of its metabolites along with evaluation of cytotoxic activity against Artemia salina larvae. The structures of the compounds determined by 1H-and 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY and Mass spectral analysis. Two sesquiterpenes, 1,5-dihydroxy- 4(15)eudesman-12,6-olid (artemin) (1), 2-hidroxy-2,6,10-trimethyl-7,10- oxide-3,11-dodecadien-5-one (2) and one flavonoid, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,3'-dimethoxyflavone (jaceosidin) (3) have been successfully characterized. Cytotoxicity of the sesquiterpene lactone (1), was assessed on Artemia salina larvae and resulted in IC50 value of 6.44 µg/mL, which was more potent compared to the positive standard berberine hydrochloride (IC50 = 26 µg/mL). In this study, the separation and identification of two sesquiterpenes and one flavone from the aerial parts of A. santolina is described. Among them the compound artemin (1) showed a toxicity effect against A. salina nauplii.

La mayoría de las especies del género Artemisia L. (Compositae) son hierbas medicinales con varios usos en la medicina popular en todo el mundo. En el presente estudio, el extracto metanólico de Artemisia santolina ha sido sometido al aislamiento de sus metabolitos junto con la evaluación de la actividad citotóxica contra las larvas de Artemia salina. Las estructuras de los compuestos se determinaron mediante RMN 1H y 13C, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COZY y análisis espectral de masas. Dos sesquiterpenos, 1,5-dihidroxi-4 (15) eudesman- 12,6-olid (artemin) (1), 2-hidroxi-2,6,10-trimetil-7,10-óxido-3,11-dodecadien-5-ona (2) y un flavonoide, 5,7,4'-trihidroxi-6,3'- dimetoxiflavona (jaceosidina) (3). Se evaluó la citotoxicidad de la lactona sesquiterpénica (1) en larvas de Artemia salina y resultó en un valor de CI50 de 6,44 µg/ml, que era más potente en comparación con el clorhidrato de berberina estándar positivo (CI50 = 26 µg/ml). En este estudio se describe la separación e identificación de dos sesquiterpenos y una flavona de las partes aéreas de A. santolina. Entre ellos, el compuesto artemin (1) mostró un efecto de toxicidad contra los nauplios de A. salina.

Artemia/drug effects , Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Larva , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(5): 1305-1313, sept./oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966337


Psidium myrsinites DC. is species known as "araçá", from the Cerrado (savanna) biome in Brazil. It is commonly used as a medicinal plant in the treatment of diarrhea because of its astringent properties. The aims of this study were to carry out phytochemical screening with an exploratory purpose; to investigate toxicity by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay; and to evaluate antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oil, acetonic and ethanolic crude extracts, and the fractions obtained with organic solvents of Psidium myrsinites DC. leaves. The phytochemical profile determined the major classes of secondary metabolites present as phenolic compounds (tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinone glycosides and terpene compounds). The essential oil and hexane fraction demonstrated a level of strong and mild toxicity respectively, thus encouraging further research with isolated substances from them. The crude ethanolic and acetonic extracts, and hexane fractions, chloroform intermediary, ethyl acetate and aqueous fraction from crude acetonic extract showed the best inhibitory effect on bacterial growth of Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 62.5 and 250 µg.mL-1. However, the presence of secondary compounds such as tannins, flavonoids and terpenes is probably associated with the inhibitory effect on tested microorganisms, which could justify the medicinal use of the leaves of this species.

Psidium myrsinites DC. é uma espécie do bioma Cerrado conhecida como "araçá" comumente utilizada como planta medicinal no tratamento de diarreias e na cicatrização devido as suas propriedades adstringentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a triagem fitoquímica com propósito exploratório e a investigação da toxicidade pelo teste de letalidade em Artemia salina e da atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas pela determinação da concentração mínima inibitória do óleo essencial, dos extratos brutos acetônico e etanólico, além das frações obtidas com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente: hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila das folhas de Psidium myrsinites DC. O perfil fitoquímico determinou as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes como compostos fenólicos (taninos, cumarinas, flavonoides, heterosídeos antraquinônicos e compostos terpênicos. O óleo essencial e a fração hexano demonstraram nível de toxicidade forte e moderado respectivamente, incentivando assim novas pesquisas com substâncias isoladas dos mesmos. Os extratos brutos etanólico e acetônico, e as frações hexano, intermediária de clorofórmio, acetato de etila e fração aquosa do extrato bruto acetônico demonstraram melhor ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano de bactérias Gram-positivas com concentrações mínimas inibitórias variando entre 62,5 e 250 µg.mL-1. Contudo, a presença de compostos secundários tais como, taninos, flavonoides e terpenos, provavelmente, está associada ao efeito inibitório sobre os micro-organismos testados, o que poderia justificar o uso medicinal das folhas dessa espécie.

Artemia , Tannins , Oils, Volatile , Psidium/toxicity
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 642-654, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888785


Abstract The populations of Artemia (or brine shrimp) from the Americas exhibit a wide variation in the amount of interphase heterochromatin. There is interest in understanding how this variation affects different parameters, from the cellular to the organismal levels. This should help to clarify the ability of this organism to tolerate brine habitats regularly subject to strong abiotic changes. In this study, we assessed the amount of interphase heterochromatin per nucleus based on chromocenter number (N-CHR) and relative area of chromocenter (R-CHR) in two species of Artemia, A. franciscana (Kellog, 1906) (n=9 populations) and A. persimilis (Piccinelli and Prosdocimi, 1968) (n=3 populations), to investigate the effect on nuclear size (S-NUC). The relationship of the R-CHR parameter with the ionic composition (IC) of brine habitats was also analysed. Our results indicate a significant variation in the amount of heterochromatin both within and between species (ANOVA, p<0.001). The heterochromatin varied from 0.81 ± 1.17 to 12.58 ± 3.78 and from 0.19 ± 0.34% to 11.78 ± 3.71% across all populations, for N-CHR and R-CHR parameters, respectively. N-CHR showed less variation than R-CHR (variation index 15.5-fold vs. 62-fold). At least five populations showed a significant association (p<0.05) between R-CHR and S-NUC, either with negative (four populations, r= from -0.643 to -0.443), or positive (one population, r= 0.367) values.Within each species, there were no significant associations between both parameters (p>0.05). The R-CHR and IC parameters were associated significantly for the magnesium ion (r= 0.496, p<0.05) and also for the chloride, sodium and calcium ions (r = from -0.705 to -0.478, p<0.05). At species level, a significant association between both parameters was also found in A. franciscana populations, for the sulphate and calcium ions, in contrast to A. persimilis. These findings suggest that the amount of interphase heterochromatin modifies the nuclear size in Artemia. Our data also indicate that change in the amount of interphase heterochromatin is in line with the ionic composition of brines. This would be a species-specific phenomenon, whose occurrence may be involved in the ability of this organism to survive in these environments.

Resumo As populações de Artemia (ou camarão de salinas) das Américas apresentam uma grande variação na quantidade de heterocromatina interfásica. Há interesse em compreender como esta variação afeta diferentes parâmetros, desde o nível celular até os organismos. Isso deve ajudar a esclarecer a capacidade destes organismos tolerarem habitats extremos de água hipersalinas, que normalmente são submetidos a fortes mudanças abióticas. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a quantidade heterocromatina interfásica por núcleo através do número de cromocentros (N-CHR) e a área relativa de cromocentros (R-CHR) em duas espécies de Artemia, A. franciscana (Kellog, 1906) (n=9 populações) e A. persimilis (Piccinelli e Prosdocimi, 1968) (n=3 populações), para investigar o seu efeito no tamanho nuclear (S-NUC). Também foi analisada a relação de R-CHR com a composição iónica (CI) dos habitats hipersalinos. Nossos resultados indicam uma variação significativa na quantidade de heterocromatina dentro e entre espécies (ANOVA, p<0,001). Em todas as populações, a heterocromatina variou de 0,81 ± 1,17 para 12,58 ± 3,78 e de 0,19 ± 0,34% para 11,78 ± 3,71% para os parâmetros R-CHR e N-CHR, respectivamente. N-CHR apresentou menor variação do que R-CHR (amplitude de variação de 15,5 vezes vs. 62 vezes). Pelo menos cinco populações apresentaram uma associação significativa (p<0,05) entre R-CHR e S-NUC, seja com valores negativos (quatro populações, r = -0,643 a -0,443) ou positivo (uma população, r = 0,367). Os parâmetros R-CHR e CI foram associados significativamente para o íon de magnésio (r = 0,496, p<0,05) e também para os íons cloreto, sódio e cálcio (r = -0,705 a -0,478, p<0,05). Ao nível de espécie, foi também encontrada uma associação significativa entre esses dois parâmetros em populações de A. franciscana para os íons de sulfato e de cálcio, em contraste com A. persimilis. Estes achados sugerem que a quantidade heterocromatina interfásica modifica o tamanho nuclear em Artemia. Os nossos dados também indicam que a mudança na quantidade de heterocromatina interfásica está associada com a composição iónica das salinas. Este seria um fenómeno específico da espécie, cuja ocorrência pode estar envolvida na capacidade deste organismo sobreviver em tais ambientes.

Animals , Artemia/physiology , Heterochromatin/chemistry , Salinity , Artemia/growth & development , South America , United States , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Ecosystem , Interphase , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 155-161, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839159


Abstract The production of compounds via enzymatic esterification has great scientific and technological interest due to the several inconveniences related to acid catalysis, mainly by these systems do not fit to the concept of “green chemistry”. Besides, natural products as clove oil present compounds with excellent biological potential. Bioactives compounds are often toxic at high doses. The evaluation of lethality in a less complex animal organism can be used to a monitoring simple and rapid, helping the identification of compounds with potential insecticide activity against larvae of insect vector of diseases. In this sense, the toxicity against Artemia salina of clove essential oil and its derivative eugenyl acetate obtained by enzymatic esterification using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst was evaluated. The conversion of eugenyl acetate synthesis was 95.6%. The results about the evaluation of toxicity against the microcrustacean Artemia salina demonstrated that both oil (LC50= 0.5993 µg.mL–1) and ester (LC50= 0.1178 µg.mL–1) presented high toxic potential, being the eugenyl acetate almost 5 times more toxic than clove essential oil. The results reported here shows the potential of employing clove oil and eugenyl acetate in insecticide formulations.

Resumo A produção de compostos via esterificação enzimática possui grande interesse científico e tecnológico devido às inúmeras inconveniências relacionadas com a catálise ácida, principalmente por estes sitemas não se adequarem ao atual termo “tecnologias limpas”. Além disso, produtos naturais como o óleo de cravo, apresentam compostos com excelentes potenciais biológicos. Compostos bioativos são quase sempre tóxicos em altas doses. A avaliação da letalidade em um organismo animal menos complexo pode ser usada para um monitoramento simples e rápido, servindo também para a identificação de compostos com potencial atividade inseticida contra larvas de insetos vetores de doenças. Neste sentido, foi determinada a toxicidade frente a Artemia salina do óleo essencial de cravo e do seu derivado acetato de eugenila obtido por esterificação enzimática com lipase Novozym 435. A conversão da reação de síntese de acetato de eugenila foi de 95,6%. Os resultados referentes à avaliação da toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina demonstraram que tanto o óleo (LC50= 0,5993 µg.mL–1) quanto o éster (LC50= 0,1178 µg.mL–1) apresentam elevado potencial toxicológico, sendo que o éster apresenta aproximadamente 5 vezes mais toxicidade em relação ao óleo. Estes resultados demonstram o potencial emprego do óleo de cravo e de acetato de eugenila em formulações de inseticidas.

Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Clove Oil/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Eugenol/analogs & derivatives , Eugenol/chemical synthesis , Eugenol/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Esterification/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Lipase/toxicity
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2281-2284
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189742


The present study was carried out to record and evaluate the effect of Rosa brunonii, Calligonum polygonoides, Sueda fruticosa and Pegnum harmala L., extracts on brine shrimp collected during March-June 2013 from different regions of District Bannu. These four plants were medicinal xerophytes and widely distributed throughout Pakistan. Rosa brunonii is commonly used as a hedge plant for gardening. Calligonum polygonoides and Sueda fruticosa are locally used as a fuel, while Pegnum harmala [L.] is the most important multipurpose medicinal xeric plant, which is used for various purposes. All these selected medicinal xerophytes have inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. In this study the effect of different concentration [10-70 microg/ml] were tested on brine shrimp. The results showed that maximum cytotoxic activities were observed in Rosa brunonii [100.0+/-0.4], Calligonum polygonoides [100.0+/-0.2] and Pegnum harmala [L.] [90.0+/-5.2] while Sueda fruticosa [50.0+/-7.1] has less cytotoxic property. These activities are may be due to the presence of bioactive constituents

Peganum , Artemia , Plant Extracts , Cytotoxins , Plants, Medicinal
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 259-263, set. 2016. ilus.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290644


Los hongos endofíticos son hongos que colonizan los tejidos internos de las plantas; varios compuestos biológicamente activos se han aislado a partir de estos hongos. Existen pocos estudios de compuestos aislados de hongos endófitos de plantas amazónicas. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo el aislamiento y la identificación estructural de ergosterol (1), peróxido de ergosterol (2), mevalonolactona (3), citocalasina B (4) y citocalasina H (5) a partir de Aspergillus spp. EJC 04, un hongo endofítico de Bauhinia guianensis. La citocalasina B (4) y el derivado diacetato de citocalasina B (4a) mostraron una alta letalidad en el ensayo de Artemia salina. Esta es la primera aparición de citocalasinas en hongos endófitos amazónica de B. guianensis

Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis

Artemia/drug effects , Aspergillus/immunology , Cytochalasin B/isolation & purification , Cytochalasin B/analysis , Cytochalasins/isolation & purification , Bauhinia/microbiology , Ergosterol/isolation & purification , Endophytes/pathogenicity
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 1062-1068, jul.-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: lil-792463


Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento, a uniformidade e a sobrevivência das larvas de Betta splendens, submetidas a diferentes fotoperíodos e frequências de alimentação. Foram distribuídos aleatoreamente 480 indivíduos (4,53mg ± 0,32 e 5,51 ± 0,58mm) em 48 recipientes plásticos (1L), com densidade de 10 larvas/ L. Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 6x2, com seis fotoperíodos (0L:24E, 6L:18E, 12L:12E, 16L:8E, 20L:4E, 24L:0E) e duas frequências de alimentação (duas ou quatro vezes/ dia). Durante um período de 15 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia, na proporção de 800 náuplios/ larva/ dia. Larvas de beta submetidas aos fotoperíodos de 12L:12E e 16L:8E apresentaram o maior crescimento em peso (P<0,10), enquanto as que foram alimentadas quatro vezes ao dia apresentaram maior crescimento em comprimento e uniformidade (P<0,10). No entanto, os indivíduos que foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia apresentaram menor sobrevivência quando submetidos aos fotoperíodos de 16L:8E, 20L:4E e 24L:0E (P<0,10). Por outro lado, as larvas submetidas aos fotoperíodos de 12L:12E, 16L:8E e 20L:4E apresentaram maior taxa de sobrevivência quando alimentadas duas vezes ao dia (P<0,10). Portanto, ao se preconizar maior crescimento, uniformidade e sobrevivência das larvas de Betta splendens, recomenda-se a realização da larvicultura dessa espécie sob o fotoperíodo de 12L:12E, com o fornecimento de náuplios de Artemia em duas alimentações diárias.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, uniformity and survival of Betta splendens larvae, submitted to different photoperiods and feeding frequency. Four hundred and eighty individuals (4.53mg ± 0.32 and 5.51 ± 0.58mm) were randomly distributed into 48 plastic containers (1L) at a density of 10 larvae/L. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications in a factorial 6 x 2, six photoperiods (0L:24D, 6L:18D, 12L:12D, 16L:8D, 20L:4D, 24L:0D) and two feeding frequencies (two or four times a day). The larvae were fed performed with Artemia nauplii at averaging 800/ larvae/ day, for 15 days. Beta larvae subjected to photoperiod 12L:12D and 16L:8E showed the greatest weight gain (P<0.10), while those fed four times daily had greater length growth and uniformity (P<0.10). However, individuals fed four times daily had lower survival when subjected to photoperiod 16L:8E, 20L:4L and 24E:0D (P<0.10). On the other hand, larvae subjected to a photoperiod of 12L:12D, 16L:8L and 20L:4E showed higher survival rate when fed twice a day (P<0.10). Therefore, with the intention of better growth, uniformity and survival of Betta splendens larvae, it is recommended that the hatchery in this species be done under a photoperiod of 12L: 12D with supply of Artemia nauplii twice daily.(AU)

Animals , Animal Feed/statistics & numerical data , Circadian Rhythm , Fishes/growth & development , Artemia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 397-403, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779801


The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and total hemocyte counts (THC) of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g) were distributed in 24 tanks (60L), divided in two groups (infected and non-infected), which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate). During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS) and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05) after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05), regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.

O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a mortalidade e a contagem total de hemócitos (CTH) e espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei infectados com o vírus da mancha branca (WSSV) e submetidos a três níveis de saturação de oxigênio. Para tanto, 360 camarões (20±2g) foram distribuídos em 24 tanques (60L), divididos em dois grupos, infectados e não infectados e submetidos a 30, 60 e 100% de saturação de oxigênio (em quadruplicata). Após a infecção, diariamente foram coletadas amostras de hemolinfa dos animais para avaliação dos parâmetros hematoimunológicos (CTH e EROs) e foi estimada a mortalidade, por 96 horas. No grupo com infecção, os animais submetidos à saturação de 100% apresentaram um aumento na produção de EROs (P<0,05) após 48 horas, ao mesmo tempo em que a CTH demonstrou uma redução (P<0,05) independentemente da saturação do oxigênio, e a condição de hipóxia acarretou maiores mortalidades quando comparada à do grupo com 100% de saturação. No grupo sem infecção, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros avaliados nem mortalidade. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que a hipóxia aumentou a susceptibilidade do camarão à infecção com o vírus da mancha branca, que pode estar, em parte, relacionada com a baixa contagem de hemócitos e produção de EROs observadas nos animais submetidos a essa condição.

Animals , Artemia , Hypoxia/veterinary , Hemocytes , White spot syndrome virus 1/pathogenicity , Hemolymph/immunology , Oxygen Consumption
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 19-26, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780042


RESUMO A dengue está entre as doenças virais de propagação vetorial mais importante no mundo, causando sérios impactos de morbidade e mortalidade. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a composição química e a toxicidade do óleo essencial de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey) D.C. frente Aedes aegypti e Artemia salina. Folhas de M. sylvatica foram coletadas no Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas, no município de Carolina (MA) no mês de fevereiro de 2012. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação e sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG/EM). O bioensaio frente Artemia salina e às larvas de 3° estádio de Aedes aegypti foram realizados em diferentes concentrações. Os dados de mortalidade foram avaliados por regressão linear para determinar os valores de CL50. Obteve-se 0,5% de rendimento, sendo o (E)-cariofileno o constituinte majoritário. O óleo essencial apresentou uma CL50 = 79,44 µg/mL frente A. salina, sendo considerado altamente tóxico. No entanto, este óleo não demonstrou efeito sobre as larvas de A. aegypti. Considerando que o teste de Artemia salina tem correlação com atividades biológicas de grande interesse terapêutico como antitumoral, o óleo essencial das folhas de M. sylvatica demonstrou potencial para desenvolvimento de produtos farmacêuticos.

ABSTRACT Dengue is among the most important viral diseases of vector spread in the world, causing serious impacts of morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and toxicity of the Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC essential oil against Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina Leach. Leaves of M. sylvatica. were collected in the Tables Chapada National Park, in the municipality of Carolina (MA) in february 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was determined by GC / MS. The bioassay front and Artemia salina larvae of the 3° stage of Aedes aegypti were performed at different concentrations. Mortality data were evaluated by linear regression to determine the LC50. Was obtained 0.5% yield values, and (E) -caryophyllene the major constituent. The essential oil showed a LC50 = 79.44 mg / mL front A. saline and is considered highly toxic. However, this oil showed no effect on larvae of A. aegypti. Whereas the brine shrimp test has regard to several biological activities, as antitumoral property, the essential oil from the leaves of M. sylvatica demonstrated potential for development of medicines.

Chemistry , Toxicity , Aedes/classification , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Artemia/classification , Larvicides