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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237214, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249258

ABSTRACT

Abstract Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress conditions. In this regard, the amount of artemisinin was decreased by half in the plants containing the highest DBR2 gene expression. Meanwhile, no significant correlation was observed between these gene expressions and the artemisinin amount in the other nanoparticles-treated plants under different levels of salinity stress. The biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites appears to be very complex and dose not directly dependent on these gene expressions.


Resumo Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-1) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1 na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas plantas que contêm a expressão gênica DBR2 mais alta. Enquanto isso, nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre essas expressões gênicas e a quantidade de artemisinina nas outras plantas tratadas com nanopartículas sob diferentes níveis de estresse de salinidade. A via biossintética dos metabólitos secundários parece ser muito complexa e não depende diretamente dessas expressões gênicas.


Subject(s)
Artemisia absinthium/genetics , Artemisia annua , Artemisinins , Nanoparticles , Plant Proteins , Titanium , Salt Stress
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 474-483, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153354

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles are known bio elicitors in plant biotechnology. Different concentrations of ZnO, CuO and CoO nanoparticles were used for the enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in the callus derived from root, shoot and leaf of Artemisia annua L. Biomass of callus was somehow affected on high concentrations of Nps. Phenolic content was observed maximum (60µg) in shoot callus at 0.1mg/l of CuONps. Total antioxidant activity was observed maximum (33µg) in root callus at 0.1mg/l of ZnOnps. Total reducing power maximum (33µg) was observed in root callus at concentration of 0.05 mg/l of CoONps. Maximum radical scavenging activity was observed in shoot callus at 0.05mg/l of ZnONps. Rutin gallic acid and caffic acid were also determined in most of the samples by HPLC. The study concludes that different Nps have positive effect on the induction of secondary metabolites in A.annua plant.


Nanopartículas são bio-elicitores conhecidos em biotecnologia de plantas. Diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas de ZnO, CuO e CoO foram usadas para o acúmulo aumentado de metabólitos secundários e atividades antioxidantes no calo derivado da raiz, parte aérea e folha de Artemisiaannua L. A biomassa do calo foi de alguma forma afetada em altas concentrações de Nps. O conteúdo fenólico foi observado no máximo (60 µg) no calo da parte aérea a 0,1 mg / l de CuONps. A atividade antioxidante total foi observada no máximo (33µg) no calo radicular a 0,1mg / l de ZnOnps. O poder de redução total máximo (33µg) foi observado no calo radicular na concentração de 0,05 mg / l de CoONps. Atividade máxima de eliminação de radicais foi observada no calo da parte aérea a 0,05mg / l de ZnONps. O ácido rutina-gálico e o ácido caffic também foram determinados na maioria das amostras por HPLC. O estudo conclui que diferentes Nps têm efeito positivo na indução de metabólitos secundários na planta de A.annua.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Nanoparticles , Phenols , Plant Leaves , Antioxidants
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879018

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents were isolated and purified from the water extract of Artemisia annua by column chromatography of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, HW-40, and semi-preparative RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses. As a result, Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as vitexnegheteroin M(1), sibricose A5(2), securoside A(3), citrusin D(4), annphenone(5), E-melilotoside(6), esculetin(7), scopoletin-7-O-β-D-glucoside(8), eleutheroside B_1(9), chrysosplenol D(10), patuletin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(11), quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside(12), rutin(13), apigenin 6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranoside(14), isoschaftoside(15), among them, compounds 1-4 were identified from Artemisia for the first time. Additionally, the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of PGE_2 in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 8, and 10-15 could reduce PGE_2 levels, to a certain extent.


Subject(s)
Apigenin , Artemisia annua , Quercetin , Rutin
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 375-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888775

ABSTRACT

Artemisia annua and its phytocompounds have a rich history in the research and treatment of malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other diseases. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment for multi-drug-resistant malaria. Due to the various research articles on the use of antimalarial drugs to treat coronaviruses, a question is raised: would A. annua and its compounds provide anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) properties? PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed articles that investigated the antiviral effects and mechanisms of A. annua and its phytochemicals against SARS-CoVs. Particularly, articles that evidenced the herb's role in inhibiting the coronavirus-host proteins were favored. Nineteen studies were retrieved. From these, fourteen in silico molecular docking studies demonstrated potential inhibitory properties of artemisinins against coronavirus-host proteins including 3CL


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisia annua , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775363

ABSTRACT

Artemisia annua also known as Qinghao, is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. Its active ingredient is artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone compound with a peroxy bridging group structure. A. annua is an effective antimalarial drug. Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite in A. annua, can be induced by many physical and chemical factors, such as salinity, moisture, light, and plant hormones. Temperature, as an important growth factor, also has a great influence on the synthesis of artemisinin. This article aims to study the effect of high temperature on inducing artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. The A. annua seedlings were placed at 25, 40 °C, and the samples were taken after 0, 3, 12 and 36 h. The content of artemisinin in each sample was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, and then transcriptome sequencing and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR were used to quantitatively analyze the expression of the key enzyme genes in artemisinin synthesis pathway and competition pathway. The results showed that artemisinin content was increased by 20%, 42% and 68% after 3, 12, 36 h of treatment at 40 °C. The expression levels of FDS, ALDH1, CYP71AV1 and ADS were up-regulated by 4.3, 3.3, 2.5, 1.9 times, and the expression levels of SQS and BPS were down-regulated by 37% and 90% respectively. In summary, high temperature can promote the biosynthesis of artemisinin by promoting the expression of synthetase genes in artemisinin synthesis pathway and inhibiting the expression of synthetase genes in artemisinin-competition pathway.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Metabolism , Artemisia annua , Metabolism , Artemisinins , Metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways , Plants, Medicinal , Metabolism , Temperature
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 52-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a tropical disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The current drugs for CL may be effective but have serious side effects; hence, alternatives are urgently needed. Although plant-derived materials are used for the treatment of various diseases in 80% of the global population, the validation of these products is essential. Gelatin capsules containing dried Artemisia annua leaf powder were recently developed as a new herbal formulation (totum) for the oral treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. Here, we aimed to determine the usefulness of A. annua gel capsules in CL. METHODS: The antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of A. annua L. capsules was determined via in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of its therapeutic potential as antileishmanial treatment in humans was conducted in 2 patients with uncomplicated CL. RESULTS: Artemisia annua capsules showed moderate in vitro activity in amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis; no cytotoxicity in U-937 macrophages or genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was observed. Five of 6 (83.3%) hamsters treated with A. annua capsules (500mg/kg/day) for 30 days were cured, and the 2 examined patients were cured 45 days after initiation of treatment with 30g of A. annua capsules, without any adverse reactions. Both patients remained disease-free 26 and 24 months after treatment completion. CONCLUSION: Capsules of A. annua L. represent an effective treatment for uncomplicated CL, although further randomized controlled trials are needed to validate its efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Artemisia annua/chemistry , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Treatment Outcome , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Leishmania/drug effects
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109787

ABSTRACT

Recently, we reported that Artemisia annua (AA) has anti-adipogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. Reduction of adipogenesis by AA treatment may dampen systemic inflammation and protect neurons from cytokine-induced damage. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess whether AA increases neuronal maturation by reducing inflammatory responses, such as those mediated by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Mice were fed normal chow or a high-fat diet with or without chronic daily oral administration of AA extract (0.2 g/10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks; then, changes in their hippocampal dentate gyri were measured via immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence staining for bromodexoxyuridine, doublecortin, and neuronal nuclei, markers of neuronal maturation, and quantitative western blotting for COX-2 and Iba-1, in order to assess correlations between systemic inflammation (interleukin-6) and food type. Additionally, we tested the effect of AA in an Alzheimer's disease model of Caenorhabditis elegans and uncovered a potential benefit. The results show that chronic AA dosing significantly increases neuronal maturation, particularly in the high-fat diet group. This effect was seen in the absence of any changes in COX-2 levels in mice given the same type of food, pointing to the possibility of alternate anti-inflammatory pathways in the stimulation of neurogenesis and neuro-maturation in a background of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Administration, Oral , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Artemisia annua , Blotting, Western , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dentate Gyrus , Diet, High-Fat , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Obesity , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97098

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Artemisia , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Dietary Fiber , Fasting , Insurance Benefits , Plant Structures , Polyphenols , Psyllium , Risk Factors , Starch
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 649-651, jul. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766199

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp...


The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia annua against oocysts of Eimeria sp. in contaminated poultry beds. The extract was produced after 7 days of storage at 4°C, which was used to perform the phytochemical screening; the artemisinin measurement; the total phenolic; antioxidant testing and toxicity test. To test the anticoccidial activity, the birds space composed of shaver trees, were contaminated with 5000 oocysts. Four treatment were formed, in triplicate, were used in different concentrations as G1: 12mg/mL, G2:= 9mg/mL, G3: 6mg/mL, and C-: water. After contamination 800 mL of the herbal at different concentrations were sprayed on the bed and collected, in triplicate, 10 cm2 each site, randomly, at times: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after application. In phytochemical analysis, were shown compounds with antiparasitic properties, such as flavonoids and tannins. The herbal contained 59.409±1.47mg/dL artemisinin. The product at a concentration of 12mg.mL-1 showed efficacy from 44.25 to 40.71%. The results of biochemical tests, with the in vitro test showed that the extract has produced high potential for combating Eimeria sp...


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemisia annua/parasitology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Galliformes/parasitology , Phytotherapy/veterinary , Drug Resistance/immunology , Dietary Supplements/parasitology , Dietary Supplements
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(1): 25-31, 2/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-741103

ABSTRACT

Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7) frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO) e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA), com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL). Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.


Gastrointestinal parasites cause economic losses to the cattle production, in Brazil and worldwide, mainly caused by Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia annua (H.7) against these parasites. The H.7 was produced after 7 days of storage at 4°C and then lyophilized. With this herbal the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval migration inhibition (LMI) were performed,in six replicates with different concentrations (0.78 to 50mg/mL). To analyze the chemistry composition the complete phytochemical screening was done. In EHT efficiency ranged from 94.08±2.58% at the highest concentration to 15.67± 0.97% in the lowest concentration. In LMI test the values ranged from 90.05±0.55% to 4.12±0.46%. Phytochemical tests showed many chemical compounds with anthelmintic properties. The results obtained in biochemical tests together with those found in in vitro tests showed that the extract produced has the potential to combat intestinal nematodes of cattle. Further studies should be conducted to maximize the effectiveness of H.7 and other extractions from A. annua, because it demonstrated excellent results in both experiments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Artemisia annua/parasitology , Artemisia annua/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/analysis
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201755

ABSTRACT

Artemisia annua is a wormwood. Because it may induce Cytochrome P450 2C19 enzyme, Artemisia annua may have an influence on antiepileptic drugs which are substrates for the enzyme. This influence may negatively affect seizure control of epilepsy patient. We present a patient whose seizures were induced by Artemisia annua, despite he was taking levetiracetam which is not a substrate for the hepatic enzyme. Therefore there would be another mechanism of seizure induction of Artemisia annua besides hepatic metabolism.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Artemisia , Artemisia annua , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Epilepsy , Humans , Metabolism , Seizures
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727830

ABSTRACT

The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0+/-3.2%), similar to alpha-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , alpha-Tocopherol , Artemisia annua , Dinoprostone , Ethanol , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Interleukin-6 , Methanol , Nitric Oxide , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prevotella intermedia , Stomatognathic Diseases , Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12446

ABSTRACT

Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of AA in animal models have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted daily oral administration with AA water extract in a diet-induced obesity animal model and treated 3T3-L1 cells with AA to confirm the anti-adipogenic effects in the related protein expressions. We then evaluated the physiology, adipose tissue histology and mRNA expressions of many related genes. Inhibition of adipogenesis by the AA water extract was observed in vitro. In the animal model, weight gain was significantly lower in the AA treated group, but there were no changes in food intake volume or calories. Reductions in lipid droplet size and mRNA expression associated with adipogenesis were also observed in animal epididymal fat. This study is the first to report that AA has an anti-obese effects in vivo.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue , Administration, Oral , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents , Artemisia annua , Artemisia , Biological Products , Developing Countries , Eating , Mice , Models, Animal , Obesity , Physiology , RNA, Messenger , Water , Weight Gain
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 366-370, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257006

ABSTRACT

Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Chemistry , Artemisinins , Chemistry , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds , Chemistry , Camphor , Chemistry , Monoterpenes , Chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Chemistry , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry , Terpenes , Chemistry
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1305-1308, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320085

ABSTRACT

Three compounds were isolated from solid culture of endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua. Their structures were determined as (S)-(-)-N-[2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-acetamide (1), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)acetamide (2) and asperfumoid (3), in which compound 1 was a new indole derivative. In cytotoxicity assay, the compound 1 had no obvious inhibition activity in human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Microbiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Endophytes , Chemistry , Humans , Hypocreales , Chemistry , Indoles , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351242

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg) in wild Artemisia annua and use target hazard quotients (THQ) proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health risk under the heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the bioaccessibility of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in A. annua are 0.77, 0.66, 0.46, 0.68 and 0, respectively, and that the value of THQ for adults and children were 0.030 and 0.025 calculated by risk assessment model. The results indicated that the heavy metals in A. annua were not able to be completely absorbed by human body and that their contents were in a safe range. In this study, by combining the bioavailability of heavy metal and health risk assessment, we assessed the security of heavy metals of wild A. annua, which will provide reference for the standard of heavy metals for medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Chemistry , Metabolism , Consumer Product Safety , Drug Contamination , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Metabolism , Risk Assessment , Soil Pollutants , Metabolism
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1346-1352, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299128

ABSTRACT

Artemisnin is a novel sesquiterpene lactone with an internal peroxide bridge structure, which is extracted from traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao). Recommended by World Health Organization, artemisinin is the first-line drug in the treatment of encephalic and chloroquine-resistant malaria. In the present study, transgenic A. annua plants were developed by overexpressing the key enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods, transgenic plants of A. annua with overexpression of both HDR and ADS were obtained through hygromycin screening. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed six transgenic lines in which both HDR and ADS were integrated into genome. The gene expression analysis given by real-time quantitative PCR showed that all the transgenic lines had higher expression levels of HDR and ADS than the non-transgenic control (except ah3 in which the expression level of ADS showed no significant difference compared with control); and the HPLC analysis of artemisinin demonstrated that transgenic A. annua plants produced artemisinin at significantly higher level than non-transgenic plants. Especially, the highest content of artemisinin was found in transgenic line ah70, in which the artemisinin content was 3.48 times compared with that in non-transgenic lines. In summary, overexpression of HDR and ADS facilitated artemisinin biosynthesis and this method could be applied to develop transgenic plants of A. annua with higher yield of artemisinin.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Genetics , Metabolism , Artemisinins , Metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Genetics , Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Genetics , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330362

ABSTRACT

In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Genetics , Metabolism , Cadmium , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Reference Standards , Reference Standards
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341810

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents of dried whole plants of Artemisia annua.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The chemical constituents were isolated by repeated silica gel chromatography, medium pressure column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and comparison of NMR data with those reported in literature.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>15 compounds were isolated and identified to be 5-O-[(E)-Caffeoyl] quinic acid(l), 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid(2), 4 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid(3), 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), methyl-3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid(6), methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid(7), 3,6'-O-diferuloylsucrose(8), 5'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyjasmonic acid(9), Scopoletin(10), scoparone (11), 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyl-6-methoxyacetophenone (12), chrysosplenol D (13), casticin (14), chrysosplenetin(15).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compounds 2, 6, 8 and 9 are obtained from the Artemisia genus for the first time. Compounds 7 and 15 are obtained from this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Chemistry , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Quinic Acid , Chemistry , Silica Gel
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244586

ABSTRACT

To reveal the genetic diversity and genetic structure in Artemisia annua varieties (strains) populations, we detected the genetic polymorphism within and among eight varieties (strains) populations (192 individuals) by the approach of Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT). The associated genetic parameters were calculated by POPGENE1.31 and the relationship was constructed based on UPGMA method. The results showed that, using 20 screened primers, a total of 145 bands were produced, of which 122 were polymorphic loci. At species level, there was a high level of genetic diversity among eight varieties (strains) populations (PPB = 84.1% ,H = 0.217 3 and H(sp) = 0.341 9). However, at the variety (strains) population level, genetic diversity was lower, the average of genetic parameters was PPB = 41.9%, H = 0.121 5, H(pop) = 0.186 8. The Nei's genetic differentiation coefficient was 0.441 0, indicate that most of the genetic variation in this species existed within the variety populations. The gene flow (N(m) = 0.633 9) was less among populations, indicating that the degree of genetic differentiation was higher. Genetic similarity coefficient were changed from 0.755 1 to 0.985 7. By clustering analysis, eight varieties (strains) were clustered into two major categories and it was also showed the same or similar genetic background varieties (strains) have a tendency to gather in the same group. Results suggest that, in variety breeding, breeders should strengthen the exchange of bred germplasm and increase mutual penetration of excellent genes, which would broaden the genetic base of A. annua.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Classification , Genetics , Codon, Initiator , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Structures , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Methods , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Species Specificity
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