Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.994
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 601-607, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385641


SUMMARY: Background and Objectives: The palatine nerves and vessels cross the pterygopalatine fossa, the palatine canals, the palatine foramina and the submucosal space, at the level of the hard palate and the palatine recess of the maxillary sinus. Their trajectory is long, complicated and difficult to highlight on a single dissection piece. In the literature that we studied, we did not find clear images that fully highlight the real configuration of the pterygopalatine ganglion and nerves and of the palatine vessels. Our aim was to provide a clear and representative dissection of the pterygopalatine ganglion and of the palatine neurovascular bundle throughout its pathway in a simple, coherent and useful presentation for the practitioners interested in the regional pathology. We resected the posterior and inferomedial osseous walls of the maxillary sinus and highlighted the neurovascular structures in the pterygopalatine fossa and the wall of the maxillary sinus. We photographed the dissection fields and detailed the important relations. The images that we obtained are clear, simple and easy to interpret and use. We successfully highlighted the aspect and the main relations of the pterygopalatine ganglion and the pathway and distribution of the palatine nerves and vessels, from their origin to the terminal plexuses. There is a broad spectrum of clinical procedures or situations that require a proper knowledge and understanding of the anatomical pathway and relations of the palatine neurovascular elements. This includes the various types of regional anesthesia, tumor resection surgery, flaps of the palatine mucosa, the LeFort osteotomy etc. Demonstration of the pterygopalatine ganglion and its relations is useful in endoscopic interventions at the level of the pterygopalatine fossa.

RESUMEN: Los nervios y vasos palatinos atraviesan la fosa pterigopalatina, además de los canales palatinos, los forámenes palatinos y el espacio submucoso a nivel del paladar duro y el receso palatino del seno maxilar. Su trayectoria es larga, complicada y difícil de destacar en una sola pieza de disección. En la literatura que estudiamos, no encontramos imágenes claras que resalten completamente la configuración real del ganglio y los nervios pterigopalatinos y de los vasos palatinos. Nuestro objetivo fue proporcionar una disección clara y representativa del ganglio pterigopalatino y del haz neurovascular palatino a lo largo de su trayecto en una presentación simple, coherente y útil para los médicos interesados en la patología regional. Resecamos las paredes óseas posterior e inferomedial del seno maxilar y resaltamos las estructuras neurovasculares en la fosa pterigopalatina y la pared del seno maxilar. Fotografiamos los campos de disección y detallamos las relaciones importantes. Las imágenes que obtuvimos son claras, sencillas y de fácil interpretación. Resaltamos con éxito el aspecto y las principales relaciones del ganglio pterigopalatino y el trayecto y distribución de los nervios y vasos palatinos, desde su origen hasta los plexos terminales. En conclusion, existe un amplio espectro de procedimientos o situaciones clínicas que requieren un adecuado conocimiento y comprensión del trayecto anatómico y las relaciones de los elementos neurovasculares palatinos. Esto incluye los distintos tipos de anestesia regional, cirugía de resección tumoral, colgajos de mucosa palatina, osteotomía de LeFort, etc. La demostración del ganglio pterigopalatino y sus relaciones es útil en intervenciones endoscópicas a nivel de la fosa pterigopalatina.

Humans , Male , Ganglia, Parasympathetic/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Ganglia, Parasympathetic/blood supply
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 595-600, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385686


SUMMARY: The superior laryngeal artery is the primary vessel providing the blood supply to the larynx. Commonly, it is derived from the superior thyroid artery. Different variations in the origin have been described in the current literature; knowledge of such variations is crucial for various surgical interventions of the larynx and surgical procedures in the lateral region of the neck regarding the carotid triangle. It should be noted that radiological studies, such as selective angiography of the thyroid gland, can also be misleading in cases of variations. Herein, we describe a case of bilateral superior laryngeal artery originating directly from the external carotid artery of the neck. The arteries at first have a transverse course and then pierce through the thyrohyoid membrane alongside internal laryngeal nerves. Moreover, we also review the known variations in the origin of the superior laryngeal artery and propose a new classification of all known variations.

RESUMEN: La arteria laríngea superior es el vaso principal que proporciona el suministro de sangre a la laringe. Comúnmente, se deriva de la arteria tiroidea superior. Han sido descritas diferentes variaciones en su origen y el conocimiento de éstas resulta crucial para las intervenciones quirúrgicas realizadas en la laringe, como también en los procedimientos quirúrgicos que se llevan a cabo en la región lateral del cuello, respecto al triángulo carotídeo. Cabe señalar que los estudios radiológicos, como la angiografía selectiva de la glándula tiroides, también pueden ser engañosos en casos de variaciones anatómicas. Aquí, describimos un caso de arteria laríngea superior bilateral que se originaba directamente de la arteria carótida externa. Las arterias al inicio tenían un curso transversal y luego atravezaban la membrana tirohioidea junto con los nervios laríngeos internos. Revisamos también las variaciones conocidas en el origen de la arteria laríngea superior y proponemos una nueva clasificación de todas las variaciones conocidas.

Humans , Male , Aged , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Larynx/blood supply
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 99-101, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360095


Abstract The caliber-persistent labial artery is a vascular anomaly in which a primary arterial branch penetrates into the submucosal tissue without reduction in diameter. Most lesions are benign and do not require treatment, except for complications and/or on patient demands. In this way, noninvasive diagnostic tools are preferred such as high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasonography which allow direct observation of the lesion, assessing its exact location and diameter at every axis, as well as the blood flow velocity. An excisional biopsy of these lesions or even their surgical extirpation could have a fatal outcome with profuse bleeding.

Humans , Vascular Malformations/diagnosis , Lip Diseases/diagnosis , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities , Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 8-17, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356298


ABSTRACT Objectives: In this review we will describe the testicular vessels anatomy and the implications of these vessels in surgical treatment of high undescended testis. Material and Methods: We performed a narrative review of the literature about the role of the testicular arteries anatomy in the treatment of high undescended testis. We also studied two human testes to illustrate the testicular vascularization. Results: Each testis is irrigated by three arteries: testicular artery (internal spermatic artery), a branch of the right aorta; deferential artery (vasal artery), a branch of the inferior vesicle artery that originates from the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery and cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery), a branch of the inferior epigastric artery. There are important communications among the three arteries with visible anastomotic channels between the testicular and deferential arteries. Conclusions: Laparoscopic transection of the testicular vessels by dividing the spermatic vessels (Fowler-Stephens surgery) is safe in patients with high abdominal testis due to the great collateral vascular supply between testicular, vasal and cremasteric arteries; also, two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy appears to carry a higher rate of success than the single stage approach.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord/surgery , Laparoscopy , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Arteries/surgery , Testis/surgery , Orchiopexy
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 661-666, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940972


Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of free peroneal artery perforator flaps in repairing forefoot skin and soft tissue defect wounds assisted with three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From March 2017 to September 2019, 15 patients with skin and soft tissue defect wounds in the forefoot were treated in the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery of Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang, including 12 males and 3 females, with age of 18-60 years. The wound area on admission was 3.0 cm×3.0 cm-9.0 cm×8.0 cm. The 3D-CTA examination before operation was performed to select the peroneal artery perforating vessels with appropriate length of vascular pedicle and good blood perfusion. According to the wound area and the perforating vessels of the peroneal artery located by 3D-CTA, the peroneal artery perforator flaps of 3.5 cm×3.5 cm-9.5 cm×8.5 cm carried with lateral sural cutaneous nerve was designed and cut, and the nerve was anastomosed with the nerve of the wound. The wound in the donor site of the flap was directly sutured or covered with medium-thickness skin graft from the thigh. The consistencies of type, diameter, and perforating position of perforating vessel of the peroneal artery detected by 3D-CTA before the operation with those of the actual measurement during operation were observed. The length of time for flap cutting and the survival of the flap after operation were recorded. During follow-up of 12 months after the operation, the patients were instructed to evaluate the foot function according to the Maryland foot function score standard, and the wound healing in the donor area and the occurrence of complications affecting the motor function of limb were observed. Data were statistically analyzed with paired sample t test. Results: The types of peroneal artery perforating vessels in patients measured during the operation were septocutaneous perforator of 12 cases, musculocutaneous perforator of 2 cases, and musculomuscular septal perforator of 1 case, which were consistent with those measured by preoperative 3D-CTA. The diameter of the peroneal artery perforating vessel measured by preoperative 3D-CTA was (1.38±0.17) mm, which was close to (1.40±0.19) mm measured during the operation (t=0.30, P>0.05). The horizontal distance from the starting point of the perforating vessel to the outer edge of the shank was (42±6) mm, and the vertical distance from the starting point of the perforating vessel to the level of the lateral ankle tip was (219±14) mm measured by preoperative 3D-CTA, which were respectively close to (43±6) and (221±15) mm of intraoperative measurement (with t values of 0.46 and 0.38, respectively, P>0.05). The length of time for cutting flap was (31±6) min. All flaps survived post operation without vascular crisis. During follow-up of 12 months after the operation, the foot function was evaluated as excellent in 11 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case, the donor site wound healed well, the scar was not noticeable with no contracture, and the motor function of joints was not affected. Conclusions: Free peroneal artery perforator flap is one of the effective methods to reconstruct skin and soft tissue defect wounds in the forefoot, and the risk of surgery can be reduced when the anatomical location of the perforating vessels is confirmed by 3D-CTA.

Adolescent , Adult , Arteries , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 328-334, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936014


Objective: To explore the clinical effects of free transplantation of expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in reconstructing cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From May 2018 to April 2021, 11 patients with cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, including 3 males and 8 females, aged 5 to 46 years, with a course of cervical cicatrix contracture deformity of 5 months to 8 years. The degree of cervical cicatrix contracture deformity was degree Ⅰ in one patient, degree Ⅱ in nine patients, and degree Ⅲ in one patient. In the first stage, according to the sizes of neck scars, one rectangular skin and soft tissue expander (hereinafter referred to as expander) with rated capacity of 200 to 600 mL was placed in the back. The expansion time was 4 to 12 months with the total normal saline injection volume being 3.0 to 3.5 times of the rated capacity of expander. In the second stage, free expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps with areas of 10 cm×7 cm to 24 cm×13 cm were cut out to repair the wounds with areas of 9 cm×6 cm to 23 cm×12 cm which was formed after cervical cicatectomy. The main trunk of thoracodorsal artery and vein were selected for end-to-end anastomosis with facial artery and vein, and the donor sites were directly closed. The survival of flaps and healing of flap donor sites were observed on the 14th day post surgery. The appearances and cicatrix contracture deformity of the flaps, recovery of cervical function, and scar hyperplasia of donor sites were followed up. Results: On the 14th day post surgery, the flaps of ten patients survived, while ecchymosis and epidermal necrosis occurred in the center of flap of one patient and healed 2 weeks after dressing change. On the 14th day post surgery, the flap donor sites of 11 patients all healed well. During the follow-up of 6-12 months post surgery, the flaps of ten patients were similar to the skin around the recipient site in texture and color, while the flap of one patient was slightly swollen. All of the 11 patients had good recovery of cervical function and no obvious scar hyperplasia nor contracture in the flaps or at the donor sites. Conclusions: Application of expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps can restore the appearance and function of the neck, and cause little damage to the donor site in reconstructing the cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns, which is worthy of clinical reference and application.

Arteries , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia , Male , Perforator Flap , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 165-169, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935991


Objective: To explore the clinical application value of two longitudes three transverses method in the location of the perforator of thoracodorsal artery perforator and deep wound repair. Methods: The retrospectively observational study was conducted. From December 2018 to June 2020, 17 patients with deep wounds who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study, including 7 males and 10 females, aged 12 to 72 years. The wound areas of patients after debridement were 7 cm×3 cm to 11 cm×7 cm. Two longitudinal lines were located through the midpoint of the armpit, the posterior superior iliac spine, and the protruding point of the sacroiliac joint, and three transverse lines were located 5, 10, and 15 cm below the midpoint of the armpit between the two longitudinal lines, i.e. two longitudes three transverses method, resulting in two trapezoidal areas. And then the thoracodorsal artery perforators in two trapezoidal areas were explored by the portable Doppler blood flow detector. On this account, a single or lobulated free thoracodorsal artery perforator flap or flap that carrying partial latissimus dorsi muscle, with an area of 7 cm×4 cm to 12 cm×8 cm was designed and harvested to repair the wound. The donor sites were all closed by suturing directly. The number and location of thoracodorsal artery perforators, and the distance from the position where the first perforator (the perforator closest to the axillary apex) exits the muscle to the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi in preoperative localization and intraoperative exploration, the diameter of thoracodorsal artery perforator measured during operation, and the flap types were recorded. The survivals of flaps and appearances of donor sites were followed up. Results: The number and location of thoracodorsal artery perforators located before operation in each patient were consistent with the results of intraoperative exploration. A total of 42 perforators were found in two trapezoidal areas, with 2 or 3 perforators each patient. The perforators were all located in two trapezoid areas, and a stable perforator (the first perforator) was located and detected in the first trapezoidal area. There were averagely 1.47 perforators in the second trapezoidal area. The position where the first perforator exits the muscle was 2.1-3.1 cm away from the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi. The diameters of thoracodorsal artery perforators were 0.4-0.6 mm. In this group, 12 cases were repaired with single thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, 3 cases with lobulated thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, and 2 cases with thoracodorsal artery perforator flap carrying partial latissimus dorsi muscle. The patients were followed up for 6 to 16 months. All the 17 flaps survived with good elasticity, blood circulation, and soft texture. Only linear scar was left in the donor area. Conclusions: The two longitudes three transverses method is helpful to locate the perforator of thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. The method is simple and reliable. The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap designed and harvested based on this method has good clinical effects in repairing deep wound, with minimal donor site damage.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arteries , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512


BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.

Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 136 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392190


Introdução: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica decorrente de alterações na parede das artérias de médio e grande calibre e associadas a diversos fatores de risco, dentre os quais destaca-se as hiperlipidemias, ou seja, o aumento plasmático das lipoproteínas, mas também outras comorbidades, como a Síndrome Metabólica. Entre as lipoproteínas, a lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) é de grande relevância na aterosclerose. Diferentes espécies de LDL modificada (LDLm) são originadas através de lipólise, glicação e proteólise, além da oxidação, variando em densidade e eletronegatividade, sendo melhor denominada LDL eletronegativa [LDL (-)]. Considerando as diferenças conformacionais entre a estrutura da ApoB-100 da LDL nativa e da LDL (-), em um estudo inicial, nosso grupo desenvolveu um anticorpo monoclonal (2C7) a partir da imunização de camundongos Balb/c com a LDL (-) humana. Em uma etapa seguinte foi mapeado o epítopo reconhecido pelo anticorpo monoclonal anti-LDL (-) através de phage display. O peptídeo ligante do anticorpo monoclonal anti-LDL (-) foi nomeado p2C7. Esse peptídeo não representa regiões da sequência linear da ApoB-100 humana, mas microdomínios conformacionais de epítopos da ApoB-100 da LDL (-), tornando-os candidatos para a imunomodulação da aterogênese. Portanto, investigar a imunomodulação induzida pelos peptídeo p2C7 miméticos da LDL (-), por representar um epítopo imunodominante da LDL (-), poderá abrir novas perspectivas terapêuticas futuras para a imunomodulação da aterosclerose. Objetivo: Avaliar a imunomodulação promovida pelo p2C7 in vivo, utilizando camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- e amostras de plasma humano. Adicionalmente, no estágio (BEPE) realizado no Instituto Karolinska (dezembro de 2019 a março de 2021), investigou-se o imunometabolismo como mediador nas doenças cardiovasculares. Na parte II-A, estão descritos os resultados do estudo inicialmente proposto. Na parte II-B, apresenta-se os resultados que foram desenvolvidos posteriormente, com ampliação do escopo do projeto, abordando-se a inflamação vascular envolvida no aneurisma de aorta abdominal através de ferramentas de bioinformática. Na parte II-C, são apresentados os resultados do estudo do envolvimento da enzima indolamina 2,3 dioxigenase (IDO) na esteatohepatite não-alcoólica (NASH) e aterosclerose em camundongos ApoE-/- and ApoE/IDO/double-knockout. Metodologia: Foi avaliada a presença de anticorpos anti-p2C7 em amostras de plasma humano de indivíduos com ou sem síndrome metabólica. Realizamos a determinação de TNF circulante nas mesmas amostras e prosseguimos com regressões lineares associando os parâmetros inflamatórios com os níveis de anticorpos anti-p2C7. Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram imunizados com p2C7 e os adjuvantes Alum ou Montanide ISA 720, analisando-se os títulos de anticorpos contra p2C7 e LDL (-), a produção de citocinas (IL-10, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-17, TNFα) e células secretoras de anticorpos. Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram tolerizados contra os peptídeos mimotopos, com injeções intravenosas (veia caudal) e desafiados com a imunização contendo LDL (-) + Alum. Avaliou-se os títulos de anticorpos contra p2C7 e LDL (-) e a produção de citocinas (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 e MCP-1). Os camundongos foram mantidos em dieta hipercolesterolêmica por 3 meses para formação da placa aterosclerótica. Após este período, os camundongos foram eutanasiados, avaliando-se a formação de placa aterosclerótica na artéria abdominal e arco aórtico, assim como a produção de citocinas (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 e MCP-1). Camundongos C57BL/6 LDLr -/- foram imunizados com OVA-p2C7 e, após dieta hipercolesterolêmica de 3 meses para formação de placa aterosclerótica, foram avaliados os parâmetros inflamatórios e avaliada a captação de 18F-FDG no arco aórtico através de PET/CT. Resultados: A imunização com o p2C7 (livre) não foi capaz de induzir resposta humoral, não se observando títulos detectáveis de anticorpos reativos à p2C7 ou LDL (-) em nenhum camundongo imunizado, assim como não foram detectadas células secretoras de anticorpos específicos para a LDL (-). O grupo imunizado com Alum ou Montanide + p2C7 teve aumento significativo na produção de TNF- quando comparado com os demais grupos. O protocolo de tolerização foi realizado com sucesso, visto que os camundongos tolerizados apresentaram títulos de anticorpos inferiores aos controles para o epítopo utilizado. Apenas os camundongos tolerizados com o p2C7 apresentaram aumento significativo na produção de IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, IFNγ e MCP 1 após dieta hipercolesterolêmica. A imunização ativa com OVA-p2C7 foi capaz de reduzir a produção de TNF induzida pela dieta hipercolesterolêmica, assim como reduzir a captação de 18F-FDG. Conclusão: o epítopo p2C7 é altamente expresso na LDL (-) de pacientes com maior risco cardiovascular. Além disso, a imunização ativa com p2C7 também se mostra uma ferramenta promissora para prevenir e regular a inflamação causada pela LDL (-) no curso da aterosclerose

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from changes in the wall of medium and large-caliber arteries and associated with several risk factors, among which hyperlipidemias stand out, ie, the increase in plasma lipoproteins, but also other comorbidities, such as Metabolic Syndrome. Among the lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is of great relevance in atherosclerosis. Different isoforms of modified LDL (LDLm) are originated through lipolysis, glycation and proteolysis, in addition to oxidation, varying in density and electronegativity, being better called electronegative LDL [LDL (-)]. Considering the conformational differences between the ApoB-100 structure of native LDL and LDL (-), in an initial study, our group developed a monoclonal antibody (2C7) from the immunization of Balb/c mice with human LDL (-). In a next step, the epitope recognized by the anti-LDL monoclonal antibody (-) was mapped using phage display. The binding peptide of anti-LDL monoclonal antibodies (-) was named p2C7. This peptide does not represent linear sequence regions of human ApoB-100, but conformational microdomains of LDL (-) ApoB-100 epitopes, making them candidates for the immunomodulation of atherogenesis. Therefore, investigating the immunomodulation induced by p2C7 peptide mimetics of LDL (-) as it represents an immunodominant epitope of LDL (-) could open new future therapeutic perspectives for the immunomodulation of atherosclerosis. Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulation promoted by p2C7 in vivo, using C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice, and human plasma samples. In addition, in the internship (BEPE), held at the Karolinska Institute (December 2019 to March 2021), immunometabolism as a mediator of Cardiovascular Diseases was studied. In part II-A, the results of the initially proposed study are described. In part II-B, the results that were developed later are presented, expanding the scope of the project, approaching the vascular inflammation involved in the abdominal aortic aneurysm through bioinformatics tools. In part II-C, the results of the study of the involvement of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- and ApoE/IDO/double mice are presented -knockout. Methodology: The presence of anti-p2C7 antibodies in human plasma samples with or without Metabolic Syndrome was evaluated. We measured circulating TNF in the same samples and proceeded with linear regressions associating inflammatory parameters with levels of anti-p2C7 antibodies. C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were immunized with p2C7 and the adjuvants Alum or Montanide ISA 720, analyzing the antibody titers against p2C7 and LDL (-), the production of cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL -2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-17, TNFα) and antibody-secreting cells. C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were tolerized against mimotope peptides with intravenous injections (caudal vein) and challenged with immunization containing LDL (-) + Alum. Antibody titers against p2C7 and LDL (-) and cytokine production (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1) were evaluated. The mice were kept on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 3 months for atherosclerotic plaque formation. After this period, the mice were euthanized, evaluating the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the abdominal artery and aortic arch, as well as the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-10 and MCP -1). C57BL/6 LDLr -/- mice were immunized with OVA-p2C7 and, after a 3-month hypercholesterolemic diet for atherosclerotic plaque formation, inflammatory parameters were evaluated and 18F-FDG uptake was evaluated by PET/CT. Results: Immunization with p2C7 (free) was not able to induce a humoral response, with no detectable titers of antibodies reactive to p2C7 or LDL (-) being observed in any immunized mouse, as well as no detectable antibody-secreting cells for the LDL (-). The group immunized with Alum or Montanide + p2C7 had a significant increase in TNF-α production when compared to the other groups. The tolerance protocol was successfully performed, as the tolerized mice had lower antibody titers than controls for the epitope used. Only mice tolerated with p2C7 showed a significant increase in the production of IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, IFNγ and MCP 1 after a hypercholesterolemic diet. Active immunization with OVA-p2C7 was able to reduce TNF production induced by the hypercholesterolemic diet, as well as to reduce 18F-FDG uptake. Conclusion: the p2C7 epitope is highly expressed in LDL (-) of patients with higher cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, active immunization with p2C7 is also a promising tool to prevent and regulate inflammation caused by LDL (-) in the course of atherosclerosis

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Immunization/instrumentation , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Immunomodulation , Arteries/abnormalities , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Risk Factors , Diet/classification , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibody-Producing Cells/classification
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 143-150, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352977


El trasplante renal de órganos provenientes de donantes adultos implantados en una cavidad anatómica estrecha en pacientes pediátricos de bajo peso, ofrece importantes desafíos médicos y quirúrgicos a ser considerados. En esta publicación reportamos el primer caso en el Paraguay de un riñón con dos arterias renales injertado a la aorta y vena cava inferior, dentro de la cavidad abdominal de un paciente pediátrico de 12 kilogramos de peso, evaluando las dificultades médicas, anatómicas y quirúrgicas enfrentadas, así como las opciones de tratamiento instituidas para llevar a cabo este procedimiento de manera exitosa

Kidney transplantation of organs from adult donors implanted into a narrow anatomical cavity in underweight pediatric patients offers significant medical and surgical challenges to be considered. In this publication we report the first case in Paraguay of a kidney with two renal arteries, grafted to the aorta and inferior vena cava within the abdominal cavity, on a 12 kilogram pediatric patient, evaluating the medical, anatomical and surgical conditions faced, as well as the treatment options instituted to successfully carry out this procedure

Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Arteries
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 717-719, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351648


Abstract Although many anatomical variations may be encountered in children with double outlet right ventricle, coexistence of levo-malposed great vessels and left juxtaposed atrial appendages is uncommonly observed. This case report underlines the rarity of this anatomical combination and its clinical significance along with the surgical management in an infant.

Humans , Infant , Child , Transposition of Great Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Double Outlet Right Ventricle/surgery , Double Outlet Right Ventricle/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Arteries
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 87-93, 30 junio 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292972


INTRODUCCIÓN. Los defectos de la fosa poplítea suponen un desafío reconstructivo para el cirujano plástico, dada la relación íntima de esta área con la articulación de la rodilla y la neurovasculatura vital subyacente. El propósito de éste informe fie compartir la experiencia en la utilización de un colgajo fasciocutaneode la arteria safena. CASO CLÍNICO. Paciente de 5 años de edad que sufrió quemadura térmica en miembros inferiores con dos años y medio de evolución, ameritó injertos, presentó contractura por tejido cicatricial en fosa poplítea, dificultó la deambulación y desarrollo neuro osteomuscular. Se realizó reconstrucción de la fosa poplítea con colgajo fasciocutáneo de la arteria safena. RESULTADOS. El colgajo fasciocutáneo de la arteria safena dio cobertura al defecto en fosa poplítea izquierda tras retiro del tejido cicatricial que producía contractura, limitaba la marcha y el desarrollo neuro osteo-muscular. Seis meses postquirúrgicos brindó cobertura cutánea definitiva y estable en el área crítica, que permitió la deambulación con movimientos de extensión y flexión de rodilla conservados. DISCUSIÓN. Este colgajo al igual que en otros estudios que respaldan su ejecución brindó excelentes resultados en defectos de partes blandas a nivel de la articulación de la rodilla. CONCLUSIÓN. El colgajo fasciocutáneo de la arteria safena demostró utilidad para la reconstrucción del defecto de la fosa poplítea, posibilitó una cobertura definitiva, funcional y estética, restableció los ángulos de movilidad y favoreció el desarrollo pondoestatural del paciente.

INTRODUCTION. Defects of the popliteal fossa pose a reconstructive challenge for the plastic surgeon, because of the intimate relation of this area with the knee joint and the near vital neurovasculature; the purpose of this report was to share the experience of using a fasciocutaneous flap of the saphenous artery. CLINICAL CASE. A 5 year old patient who suffered thermal burn in lower limbs with two and a half years of evolution, he nedeed grafts and presented tissue contracture because the scar in the popliteal fossa hindered ambulation and neuro-osteomuscular growth. Reconstruction of the popliteal fossa was made it with a fasciocutaneous flap of the saphenous artery. RESULTS. The fasciocutaneous flap of the saphenous artery covered the defect in the left popliteal fossa after removal of the scar tissue that caused contracture, limited to walk and growth. Six months after surgery the flap provided definitive and secure skin coverage in the critical area, which allowed to walk with preserved knee extension and flexion movements. DISCUSSION. This flap was useful for the recons-truction of the defect of the popliteal fossa and provided excellent results in soft tissue defects in this area of the knee joint. CONCLUSION. The fasciocutaneous flap of the saphenous artery proved useful for the reconstruction of the popliteal fossa defect, it permited a definitive, functional and esthetic coverage, reestablished the angles of mobility and helped with the patient growth

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Arteries , Regeneration , Surgical Flaps , Burns , Lower Extremity/injuries , Pediatrics , Child Development , Skin Transplantation , Motor Skills Disorders , Knee , Knee Joint
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(1): e310, ene.-abr. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251686


El Estreptococo Pneumoniae es un microorganismo patógeno capaz de causar en humanos diversas infecciones y procesos invasivos severos, siempre graves y potencialmente letales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mostrar la infrecuente presencia del Estreptococo Pneumoniae en la aparición de los aneurismas micóticos aórticos y de arterias periféricas, una asociación muy particular que coloca al cirujano vascular ante una especial conducta terapéutica encaminada a erradicar la infección, evitar la ruptura y sustituir la arteria, para mantener la continuidad de la luz del vaso y prevenir situaciones graves de isquemia(AU)

Streptococcal Pneumoniae is a pathogenic microorganism capable of causing in humans various infections and severe, always serious and potentially lethal invasive processes. The objective of this work was to show the rare presence of Streptococcal Pneumoniae in the onset of aortic mycotic aneurysms and peripheral arteries, a very particular association that places the vascular surgeon in an special therapeutic behavior aimed at eradicating the infection, preventing ruptures and replacing the artery, to maintain the continuity of vessel's light and prevent serious ischemia's situations(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Arteries , Therapeutics , Aneurysm, Infected , Infections
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922128


The preservation of left colonic artery (LCA) has been accepted by more and more surgeons in the radical resection of rectal cancer, but whether it can reduce anastomotic complications and affect the oncology efficacy remains controversial. This consensus elaborates the significance, anatomical structure, key points of operation techniques, indications and contraindications, and surgical approaches of LCA preservation. Each statement and recommendation was recognized by most experts in the field of colorectal surgery. The purpose of this consensus is to improve the cognitive level of Chinese colorectal surgeons on LCA preservation, so as to standardize the surgical strategies and methods of LCA preservation and furthermore practice, and promote it. The pending issues in this consensus need further high-quality clinical studies.

Anastomotic Leak , Arteries , China , Consensus , Humans , Laparoscopy , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942951


Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guideline 2019 recommended that lymph node dissection for advanced rectal cancer should include the lymphatic adipose tissue at the root of the inferior mesenteric vessels, but the ligation site of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was not determined, and the NCCN guideline did not indicate clearly whether to retain the left colonic artery (LCA). Controversy over whether to retain LCA is no more than whether it can reduce the incidence of anastomotic complications or postoperative functional damage without affecting the patients' oncological outcome. Focusing on the above problems, this paper reviews the latest research progress. In conclusion, it is believed that the advantages of retaining LCA are supported by most studies, which can improve the blood supply of the proximal anastomosis, and technically can achieve the same range of lymph node dissection as IMA high ligation. However, whether it affects the survival of patients, reduces the incidence of anastomotic leakage, and improves the quality of life of patients, more high-quality evidence-based medical evidence is still needed.

Arteries , Humans , Laparoscopy , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior/surgery , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942559


Objective: To compare the anatomical position of the lingual artery in people with different body mass index (BMI), and to observe whether there is a correlation between different body mass index, height, weight with tongue length, tongue width, bilateral lingual artery distance and lingual artery depth, so as to estimate the position of the lingual artery during the operation to guide the operation. Methods: Three hundred and fourteen subjects who underwent CT angiography (computed tomography angiograph, CTA) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2020 to September 2020 were randomly selected for retrospective analysis, including 190 males and 124 females people,aged from 20 to 73 years old. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: low body weight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, n=32), normal body weight (18.5 kg/m2≤BMI<24 kg/m2, n=164), super weight group (24 kg/m2≤BMI<28 kg/m2, n=93), and obesity group (BMI≥28 kg/m2, n=25). The subjects' tongue length and tongue width, bilateral lingual artery spacing and lingual artery depth at each measurement point were measured respectively. The differences in anatomical data between the groups were compared to see if there was statistical significance. Meanwhile, the correlation between BMI and various anatomical parameters was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 software. Results: There was no significant difference in age and gender composition ratio between the four groups of subjects (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in tongue width and bilateral lingual artery distance at 3 measurement points in each group (P>0.05). There was significant difference in tongue length and lingual artery depth at each measurement point (P<0.001). Pearson correlation analysis showed that BMI was significantly positively correlated with bilateral lingual artery distance at each measurement point (r=0.372, 0.395, 0.232, P<0.001), and BMI was significantly positively correlated with lingual artery depth at each measurement point (r=0.312, 0.461, 0.453, P>0.001). BMI was significantly positively correlated with tongue length (r=0.441, P<0.001), but not with tongue width. Conclusions: In patients with different BMI values, the location of the lingual artery is different and positively correlated. Individual surgical plans should be made according to patients with different BMI values during tongue body surgery to avoid damage to the lingual artery.

Adult , Aged , Arteries , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942309


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the presentation of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) in subacute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion.@*METHODS@#We collected consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to Peking University First Hospital from December 2017 to August 2019 retrospectively. Those who had intracranial large vessel occlusion and received sensitivity weighted imaging (SWI) within 3 to 14 days after stroke onset were included in our analysis. The diagnosis of large vessel occlusion was based on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The demographic information, clinical characteristics and imaging results were obtained from medical record. The occurrence rates of SVS sign were compared between stroke patients with cardioembolism (CE) and large artery atherosclerosis (LAA). In the sensitivity analysis, we performed a subgroup analysis in those patients who received SWI within 7 to 14 days after stroke onset. We also compared the occurrence rate of SVS sign between the patients with and without atrial fibrillation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 51 patients, 19 females and 32 males, with an average age of (63.04±11.23) years were analyzed in this study. Compared with LAA group, the patients in CE group were older and more likely to have an atrial fibrillation (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the CE group and LAA group in gender, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, smoking, or National Institute of Health stroke scale(NIHSS) score at admission. SVS sign was found in 30 patients. Of whom, 3 were in CE group and 27 in LAA group. The occurrence rate of SVS sign was higher in the LAA group than in the CE group significantly (65.9% vs. 30.0%, P=0.039). The subgroup analysis showed that, in the patients who received SWI examination within 7 to 14 days after stroke onset, the differences between the two groups were still statistically significant (0 vs. 72.7%, P=0.006). Another sensitivity analysis showed that, the rate of SVS in the patients with atrial fibrillation was significantly lower than those patients without atrial fibrillation (25% vs. 65.1%, P=0.043).@*CONCLUSION@#In subacute stroke patients, the occurrence rate of SVS sign in CE group was lower than that of LAA group. The significance of SVS sign in the differentiation of stroke subtype needs further validation.

Aged , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878711


Peripheral artery aneurysms,with low incidence and complex anatomic structure,often involve important branches.This paper introduces a new surgical technique-sleeve shaping on the basis of two cases.The basic data,including characteristics,imaging,operation and follow-up data of the cases,were collected.The data were then combined with the previous literature for explaining in detail that this technique can be used as a supplementary method of reconstruction following resection or endovascular repair.

Aneurysm/surgery , Arteries , Humans , Treatment Outcome
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 492021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363750


Thyroid gland diseases are the most common endocrinopathies in feline practice. Diagnosis and surgical treatment must base on solid anatomical knowledge about the gland size, localization, and blood supply. However, some textbooks provide a general anatomical description of the thyroid gland of domestic carnivores. Thus, specific details of the feline gland are missing. The present study aimed to investigate the dimensions, topography, and arterial supply of the thyroid gland in Brazilian shorthair cats and, therefore, provide additional data to diagnose and treat feline thyroid diseases. Thirty Brazilian shorthair cats formalin-fixed cadavers (15 male and 15 female) were injected with red-stained latex solution by a canula in the thoracic aorta. The necropsy unit of the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro donated the specimens. The study included only adult animals with no history of thyroid disease. After the fixation period, the cadavers were dissected to investigate the measurements (length, width at cranial and caudal poles, and thickness), topography, and in situ arterial supply of the thyroid lobes. The mean measurements of the length, cranial pole width, caudal pole width, and thickness in the right lobe were 19.39 ± 3.10 mm, 5.36 ± 1.40 mm, 3.67 ± 0.93 mm, and 1.30 ± 0.29 mm, respectively; and 20.29 ± 3.35 mm, 4.85 ± 1.58 mm, 3.88 ± 0.91 mm, 1.64 ± 0.65 mm in the left lobe, respectively. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) in the comparison of the measures between sexes or antimers (sides). Pearson's linear correlation detected a positive, moderate (r = 0.55), and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between the right and left lobe lengths. In 70% of the cats, both left and right lobes had the cranial poles located at the same level. Typically, the lobes extended between the first to the eighth tracheal ring. However, the cranial pole of some lobes located as cranially as the cricoid cartilage level, and the caudal pole as caudally as the 12th tracheal ring. Fifty-six percent of the cats had a ventrally located isthmus. In all the sampling, one single thyroid artery emerged as a branch of the common carotid artery and provided branches directly to the thyroid lobe, isthmus and the adjacent muscles and esophagus. Besides establishing average dimensions of normal thyroid lobes in Brazilian shorthair cats, this study detected no significant difference between the average measurements of right and left lobes. Also, a positive linear correlation between the length and width of the right and left lobes became evident. Therefore, the practitioner must consider suspicious any length asymmetry between right and left thyroid lobes until further endocrine test proves otherwise. Most of the cats had the right and left thyroid lobe positioned at the same transversal level; however, positional asymmetries are not uncommon. Unlike dogs, Brazilian shorthair cats have only a single artery to supply each lobe: the thyroid artery. In a feline thyroidectomy, the surgeon must avoid blindly ligating the thyroid artery since this vessel also provided numerous branches to adjacent muscles and esophagus. In a bilateral thyroidectomy, the ventral region between lobes should be thoroughly inspected for the common presence of an isthmus. Sometimes, the surgeon may need to extend the incision caudally beyond the 12th tracheal ring level to visualize the gland tissue entirely.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Arteries , Thyroid Diseases/veterinary , Thyroid Gland/anatomy & histology , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cats
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1560, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248509


ABSTRACT Background: Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) is safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for hemorrhoidal disease, but reports regarding recurrence and postoperative complications (pain and tenesmus) vary significantly. Aim: To evaluate if selective dearterialization and mucopexy at the symptomatic hemorrhoid only, without Doppler guidance, achieves adequate control of the prolapse and bleeding and if postoperative morbidity is reduced with this technique. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with grade II and III hemorrhoids were treated with this new approach and were evaluated for postoperative complications and recurrence. Results: Control of prolapse and bleeding was achieved in all patients (n=20). Postoperative complications were tenesmus (n=2), external hemorrhoidal thrombosis (n=2) and urinary retention (n=2). After a mean follow-up of 13 months no recurrences were diagnosed. Conclusion: Selective dearterialization and mucopexy is safe and achieves adequate control of prolapse and bleeding and, by minimizing sutures in the anal canal, postoperative morbidity is diminished. Doppler probe is unnecessary for this procedure, which makes it also more interesting from an economic perspective.

RESUMO Racional: O tratamento da doença hemorroidária pela técnica de THD (Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization) é minimamente invasivo e tem se mostrado seguro e eficiente. No entanto, dados sobre a recorrência e complicações (dor e tenesmo) no pós-operatório são muito variáveis. Objetivo: Avaliar se a desarterialização e mucopexia seletiva, sem o uso de Doppler, é suficiente para o controle de sintomas e se a morbidade pós-operatória é menor com esta técnica. Métodos: Vinte pacientes foram tratados com essa técnica e avaliados sobre controle de sintomas, morbidade pós-operatória e recorrência. Resultados: Controle do prolapso e sangramento foi observado em todos pacientes (n=20). Complicações pós-operatórias foram: tenesmo (n=2), trombose hemorroidária externa (n=2), retenção urinária (n=2). Após um seguimento médio de 13 meses, nenhuma recorrência foi detectada. Conclusões: O procedimento de desarterialização e mucopexias seletivas é seguro e eficiente em termos de controle do prolapso e sangramento. Esta técnica resulta em menor morbidade cirúrgica, uma vez que diminui o número de suturas no canal anal, resultando em menos dor e tenesmo pós-operatório. Para este procedimento o uso de ultrassom Doppler é desnecessário, o que diminui custos e o torna mais atrativo do ponto de vista econômico.

Humans , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Anal Canal , Arteries/surgery , Rectum , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Ligation