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1.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

ABSTRACT

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Eating , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Control , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
2.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(6): 310-316, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115586

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: determinar los valores séricos de la enzima lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa en un grupo de mujeres postmenopáusicas, y establecer su relación con factores asociados a riesgo cardiovascular. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal prospectivo, correlacional, que incluyó 56 mujeres postmenopáusicas en quienes se evaluaron variables antropométricas y bioquímicas (perfil lipídico y glicemia basal) asociadas a riesgo cardiovascular y se correlacionaron con las concentraciones séricas de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa. Resultados: los valores séricos promedio de dicha enzima fueron 7,89 ± 1,26 (g/ml. Las mujeres con valores de índice de masa corporal superior a 25 tienen niveles séricos de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa significativamente mayores que aquellas que tienen índice de masa corporal normal. No se observaron relaciones significativas entre los niveles de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa y las variables bioquímicas evaluadas. Conclusiones: este trabajo es uno de los primeros que evalúa los niveles séricos de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa en mujeres postmenopáusicas del Caribe colombiano. Se encontró una relación significativa entre los niveles séricos de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa y los valores de índice de masa corporal elevados. Se requieren nuevos estudios para entender mejor la relación entre los niveles séricos de lecitina colesterol aciltransferasa y el riesgo cardiovascular en mujeres postmenopáusicas.


Abstract Objective: To determine the serum levels of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase in a group of postmenopausal women and to establish their relationship with factors associated with cardiovascular risk. Materials and methods: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study was performed that included 56 postmenopausal women. Anthropometric and biochemical (lipid profile and baseline blood glucose) variables associated with cardiovascular risk were measured, and were correlated with the serum concentrations of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Results: The mean serum level of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase was 7.89 ± 1.26 (g/ml. The women with a body mass index greater than 25 had significantly higher serum levels of the enzyme than those that had a normal body mass index. No significant relationships were observed between the levels of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and the biochemical variables evaluated. Conclusions: This study is one of the first that has evaluated the serum levels of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase in postmenopausal women of the Colombian Caribbean. A significant relationship was found between the serum levels of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and elevated values of the body mass index. Further studies are required for a better understanding of the relationship between the serum levels of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Postmenopause , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase , Arteriosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(2): e506, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139010

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipotiroidismo es considerado un factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular por su relación con la dislipidemia, la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica. En Cuba, después de la diabetes, ocupa el segundo lugar en la prevalencia de las enfermedades endocrinas. Objetivo: Identificar si existe relación entre la presencia de hipotiroidismo primario e insulinorresistencia y la aterosclerosis carotídea subclínica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico, multicéntrico, de corte transversal, en 150 pacientes divididos en dos grupos de comparación: 1) hipotiroidismo primario (n=75) y 2) insulinorresistencia sin hipotiroidismo (n=75) a los cuales se les realizaron procederes de laboratorio y ecográficos. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en las consultas de endocrinología de Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico 10 de Octubre, Hospital Miguel Enríquez y del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Resultados: En el grupo con hipotiroidismo, los valores medios de índice de masa corporal, colesterol total, hormona estimulante de la tiroides y grosor íntima-media carotideo fueron significativamente mayores respecto a los insulinorresistentes. El HOMA-IR fue significativamente mayor en el grupo con insulinorresistencia. El valor de TSH 8805; 4,20 µmol/L mostró sensibilidad de 95,5 por ciento y especificidad de 73,3 por ciento en la predicción de aumento del GIMC. El HOMA-IR 8805;3,10 tuvo sensibilidad de 95,5 por ciento y especificidad de 73,1 por ciento. Conclusiones: El hipotiroidismo y la insulinorresistencia son predictores independientes de aterosclerosis carotídea subclínica(AU)


Introduction: Hypothyroidism is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its relationship with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease. In Cuba, after diabetes, it ranks second in the prevalence of endocrine diseases. Objective: To identify if there is a relationship between the presence of primary hypothyroidism and insulin resistance and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: An analytical, multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 patients separated into two comparison groups: 1) primary hypothyroidism (n = 75) and 2) insulin resistance with no hypothyroidism (n = 75). They underwent laboratory and ultrasound procedures. The patients were treated at the endocrinology consultations from 10 de Octubre Clinical Surgical Hospital, Miguel Enríquez Hospital and the National Institute of Endocrinology. Results: The hypothyroidism group showed mean values of body mass index, total cholesterol, thyroid-stimulating hormone and carotid intima-media thickness significantly higher compared to insulin-resistant drugs. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in the insulin resistance group. TSH value #8805; 4.20 µmol / L showed 95.5 and 73.3 percent specificity in predicting GIMC increase. HOMA-IR #8805; 3.10 had 95.5 percent sensitivity and 73.1 percent specificity. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism and insulin resistance are independent predictors of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis/complications , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Hypothyroidism/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 238-246, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate ApoB/ApoA1 ratio and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 258 children aged 8 and 9 years old, enrolled in all urban schools in the city of Viçosa-MG. Anthropometric and body composition assessment, as well as biochemical profile of the children was performed. Socioeconomic variables and sedentary lifestyle were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Many children had excess weight (35.2%), abdominal adiposity (10.5%), and body fat (15.6%), as well as increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (14.7%), total cholesterol (51.8%), and triglycerides (19.8%). Children with excess weight and total and central fat had a higher prevalence of having a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, as well as those with atherogenic lipid profile (increased LDL-c and triglycerides and low HDL-c). A direct association was found between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (p = 0.001), regardless of age and income. Conclusion: The increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was associated with excess weight, body adiposity (total and central), and altered lipid profile in children. Children with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors had higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, in both genders.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a razão ApoB/ApoA1 e sua relação com fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 258 crianças de 8 e 9 anos, matriculadas em todas as escolas urbanas de Viçosa-MG. Foi feita avaliação antropométrica, da composição corporal e bioquímica das crianças. As variáveis socioeconômicas e o sedentarismo foram avaliados por questionário semiestruturado. Resultados: Muitas crianças apresentaram excesso de peso (35,2%), de adiposidade abdominal (10,5%) e de gordura corporal (15,6%), bem como a razão ApoB/ApoA1 (14,7%), colesterol-total (51,8%) e triglicerídeos (19,8%) aumentados. Crianças com excesso de peso e de gordura total e central apresentaram maiores prevalências de maior razão ApoB/ApoA1, bem como as com perfil lipídico aterogênico (LDL-c e triglicerídeos aumentados e baixo HDL-c). Foi encontrada associação direta entre o número de fatores de risco cardiovascular e a razão ApoB/ApoA1 (p = 0,001), independente da idade e renda. Conclusão: A razão ApoB/ApoA1 aumentada esteve associada ao excesso de peso, de adiposidade corporal (total e central) e ao perfil lipídico alterado nas crianças. As crianças com maior número de fatores de risco cardiovascular apresentaram maior razão ApoB/ApoA1, em ambos os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Arteriosclerosis/blood , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Apolipoprotein B-100/blood , Lipids/blood , Obesity/blood , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Body Composition , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Adiposity , Sedentary Behavior , Obesity/complications
5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 500-510, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786306

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis is important for reduction of cardiovascular risk. However, the current diagnostic strategy, which focuses on traditional risk factors or the use of risk scoring, is unsatisfactory. Arterial walls thicken and stiffen with age, a process known as arteriosclerosis. There is a close interaction between arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. Increased luminal pressure and shear stress caused by arterial stiffening result in endothelial dysfunction, accelerate the formation of atheromas, and stimulate excessive collagen production and deposition in the arterial wall. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to predict cardiovascular risk in many large studies. However, there is controversy regarding the value of CIMT for prediction of cardiovascular risk because of differences in study design, specifically with respect to CIMT measurements. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most widely used measure of arterial stiffness; measurement of PWV is simple, non-invasive, and reproducible. Many clinical studies and meta-analyses have shown that PWV has predictive value in cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors, both in the general population and in patients with various diseases. Brachial pressure has been a poor surrogate for aortic pressure for more than 50 years. However, recent studies have shown a closer relationship between central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes or cardiovascular target organ damage, compared to the respective relationships with brachial blood pressure. Considering the non-invasiveness and ability to collect multiple types of clinical data, measurement of CIMT, PWV, and central blood pressure may be useful to identify patients at high risk for development of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Arteriosclerosis , Atherosclerosis , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Collagen , Humans , Mortality , Phenobarbital , Phenotype , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Pulse Wave Analysis , Risk Factors , Vascular Stiffness
6.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180093, 2019. tab, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990122

ABSTRACT

A análise de rigidez arterial tem sido feita em vários grupos populacionais com o objetivo de identificar precocemente o risco cardiovascular e realizar medidas terapêuticas específicas. O aumento da rigidez arterial leva à perda de capacidade de adaptação da aorta e das artérias elásticas às variações de pressão durante o ciclo cardíaco. Os principais marcadores de rigidez arterial são a velocidade de onda de pulso (VOP), o índice de aumentação (AIx) e a pressão aórtica central. Esses índices podem ser obtidos de maneira não invasiva. Ocorre aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com doença coronariana ou em hemodiálise que apresentam aumento da VOP ou do AIx. A associação com a doença arterial periférica é pouco estudada. O objetivo desta revisão é mostrar a aplicabilidade e a utilidade de realizar medidas de rigidez arterial em pacientes com doença arterial periférica


Arterial stiffness has been analyzed in many different population groups with the objective of identifying cardiovascular risk early and performing specific therapeutic interventions. Increased arterial stiffness affects the capacity of the aorta and elastic arteries to adapt to pressure variations during the cardiac cycle. The main markers of arterial stiffness are pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) and central aortic pressure. They can be measured noninvasively. Patients with coronary disease or on hemodialysis who have elevated PWV or AIx have increased mortality. The association with peripheral arterial disease has been studied little. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the applicability and utility of assessing measures of arterial stiffness in patients with peripheral arterial disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Vascular Stiffness , Pulse Wave Analysis , Arteriosclerosis , Pulse , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors , Femoral Artery , Hypertension
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of vascular change may improve prediction of subclinical stage of cardiovascular disease, allowing intervention to prevent overt vascular damage. High heart rate is known to increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate in the general population and in individuals with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) measured using electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial stiffness measured using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in men. METHODS: Data were collected from 5,629 men aged between 20 and 78 years who visited a single-site health promotion center. RHR was measured in a supine posture after resting for 10 minutes using an ECG. Arterial stiffness was measured using the CAVI. The cutoff value for high CAVI was ≥9.0. RESULTS: RHR was one of the major determinants of high CAVI after adjusting for age, waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin level, triglyceride level, white blood cell count, and lifestyle factors. When RHR groups were defined according to the RHR quartiles, the odds ratio of group with RHR ≥70 bpm, for high CAVI was 3.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.21–5.91) after adjusting for age and lifestyle factors. This association was not changed after adjusting for all other covariates (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.36–4.19). CONCLUSIONS: RHR measured using ECG is significantly associated with arterial stiffness in men not taking medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. These findings suggest that RHR may be useful in assessing cardiovascular risk in men.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Arteriosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Electrocardiography , Health Promotion , Heart Rate , Heart , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypertension , Leukocyte Count , Life Style , Male , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Posture , Risk Assessment , Triglycerides , Vascular Stiffness , Waist Circumference
8.
Rev. cuba. med ; 57(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003940

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cerebrovascular constituye la tercera causa de muerte en la población adulta, la primera causa de discapacidad a escala mundial y la segunda causa de demencia, problema de salud actual relacionado con otras enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se presenta un caso de un infarto isquémico mesencefálico aterotrombótico en una anciana de 77 años con la expresión clínica de un síndrome de Weber. El síndrome de Weber es uno de los síndromes cruzados o alternos de la clínica y la neurología por lesión peduncular. Es poco frecuente y a la vez, el más frecuente de los alternos de tronco encefálico(AU)


Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the adult population, the leading cause of disability worldwide and the second cause of dementia. It is a current health problem related to other chronic noncommunicable diseases. We present a case of atherothrombotic mesencephalic ischemic infarction in a 77-year-old woman with the clinical expression of Weber syndrome, which is a crossed or alternating clinical syndrome and neurology by pedicle injury. It is rare and, at the same time, the most frequent alternating brainstem(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Brain Stem Infarctions/epidemiology , Brain Stem Infarctions/mortality , Cuba
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a form of arteriosclerosis that occurs in the extremities and involves ischemia. Previous studies have reported that patients with periodontitis are at high risk for PAD. However, the relationship between these 2 diseases has not yet been fully elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated this relationship by comparing patients with PAD to those with arrhythmia (ARR) as a control group. METHODS: A large-scale survey was conducted of patients with cardiovascular disease who visited Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital. We investigated their oral condition and dental clinical measurements, including probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and number of missing teeth; we also collected salivary and subgingival plaque samples and peripheral blood samples. All patients with PAD were extracted from the whole population (n = 25), and a matching number of patients with ARR were extracted (n = 25). Simultaneously, ARR patients were matched to PAD patients in terms of age, gender, prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and the smoking rate (n = 25 in both groups). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the bacterial counts, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to measure anti-bacterial antibody titers and proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum. RESULTS: PAD patients had more missing teeth (18.4±2.0) and higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (1.57±0.85 mg/dL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (70.3±5.7 pg/mL) than ARR patients (12.0±1.7, 0.38±0.21 mg/dL, and 39.3±4.5 pg/mL, respectively). Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were found in other dental clinical measurements, bacterial antibody titers, or bacterial counts between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that PAD patients had poorer oral and periodontal state with enhanced systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arteriosclerosis , Bacterial Load , C-Reactive Protein , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyslipidemias , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Extremities , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Inflammation , Ischemia , Methods , Obesity , Periodontitis , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Smoke , Smoking , Tooth , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the interventional effects of 16-week aerobic exercises on the elderly's arteriosclerosis and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Twenty-seven elderly people with the average age of 62. 70 ±3. 26 joined a 16-week square dance/taijiquan exercise program that conducted 60 minutes each time, six times per week. Arterial stiffness and its related indexes such as systolic pressure(SBP), diastolic pressure(DBP), left brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (L-baPWV), right brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(R-baPWV), left ankle brachial index (L-ABI), right ankle brachial index(R-ABI), serum triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected at 3 time points including before exercise program, by the end of exercise for 8 weeks and 16 weeks.@*RESULTS@#① Compared with pre-exercise, the R-baPWV and R-ABI of the elderly people were decreased at the end of the 8 week, and the L-baPWV, RbaPWV, R-ABI and L-ABI were decreased significantly at the end of the 16 week. ②Compared with pre-exercise, SBP and DBP were declined markedly (<0.01, <0.05) at the end of the 8 week, SBP, DBP and pulse pressure were decreased significantly (<0.01, <0.05) at the end of the 16 week. ③Compared with pre-exercise, TC and LDL-c were declined markedly (<0.01) at the end of the 8 and the 16 week, and there was no difference of the level of TG and LDL-c between pre-exercise and post-exercise. ④There was no evident difference of serum level of SOD, GSH-Px, MDA between pre-exercise and post-exercise at the end of the 8 week. Compared with pre-exercise, the level of serum SOD, GSH-Px was increased evidently while the content of serum MDA was decreased significantly (<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sixteen-week aerobic exercises could reduce baPWV and ABI levels, regulate blood pressure, blood lipids and lipid peroxides levels of the elderly evidently, thus improve the controlling quality of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ankle , Ankle Brachial Index , Arteriosclerosis , Therapeutics , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol , Blood , Exercise , Glutathione Peroxidase , Blood , Humans , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Middle Aged , Pulse Wave Analysis , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood , Triglycerides , Blood
14.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 24(4): 382-387, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-900549

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de Kounis es la asociación de síndrome coronario agudo secundario a una reacción de anafilaxis, la cual es producida por mediadores inflamatorios y vasoactivos liberados principalmente por activación y degranulación de mastocitos que actúan en el sistema cardiovascular. Es una patología subdiagnosticada por cuanto no es considerada en los servicios de urgencias y cuidado coronario pues son pocos los registros en la literatura médica. El síndrome de Kounis es producido por diferentes mediadores como medicamentos, medios de contraste, enfermedades alérgicas, mastocitosis, venenos de insectos, etc.; en sí todo lo que conlleve a la activación de mastocitos puede producir el síndrome. Se puede presentar en cualquier grupo etáreo dado que ha sido descrito en niños y adultos. Debido a la falta de estudios clínicos, hasta el momento no hay un consenso acerca del tratamiento de esta patología.


Abstract Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated to an anaphylaxis reaction, which is produced by vasoactive and inflammatory mediators, released mostly by activation and degranulation of mast cells that act in the cardiovascular system. It is an underdiagnosed condition, not included in the emergency room services or coronary care, as there are only few registers in medical literature. Kounis syndrome is produced by different mediators, such as drugs, contrast agents, allergic diseases, mastocytosis, insect stings, etc.; anything that could activate mast cells may trigger the syndrome. It can appear in any age group, in fact it has been described in children and adults. Due to the lack of clinical studies, until today there is no consensus on the treatment for this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis , Kounis Syndrome , Thromboxanes , Inflammation , Ischemia
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(1): 3-11, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838673

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The prevalence of atherosclerosis is higher in HIV-positive people, who also experience it earlier than the general population. Objectives: To assess and compare the prevalence of atherosclerosis evaluated by the intima-media thickness of carotid and femoral arteries, and by the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) in HIV patients treated or not treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) and controls. Methods: Eighty HIV+ subjects (40 using PIs and 40 not using PIs) and 65 controls were included in the study. Atherosclerosis was diagnosed by (carotid and femoral) ITM measurement and ABPI. Classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and HIV were compared between the groups by statistical tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: An IMT > P75 or the presence of plaque was higher in the HIV+ than in the control group (37.5% vs 19%, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis showed a significant difference (p=0.014) in carotid IMT between HIV+ with PIs (0.71 ± 0.28 mm), without PIs 0.63 ± 0.11 mm and, and controls (0.59 ± 0.11 mm). There was no significant difference in femoral IMT between the groups or in ABPI between HIV+ subjects and controls. However, a significant difference (p=0.015) was found between HIV+ patients not treated with PIs (1.17 [1.08 - 1.23]), and controls 1.08 [1.07 - 1.17]). Conclusion: In HIV patients, atherosclerosis is more prevalent and seems to occur earlier with particular characteristics compared with HIV-negative subjects.


Resumo Fundamento: Pessoas que vivem com o HIV (HIV +) têm maior prevalência de aterosclerose e a desenvolvem mais precocemente do que a população geral. Objetivos: Foi avaliar e comparar as prevalências de aterosclerose avaliada pela medida da espessura mediointimal (EMI) das carótidas comuns e femorais, e do índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB) nos grupos controle e HIV com e sem inibidores de protease (IPs). Métodos: Foram incluídas 80 pessoas com HIV + [40 usavam IPs e 40 não] e 65 controles. O diagnóstico de aterosclerose foi determinado pela medição da EMI (carótidas e femorais) e do ITB. Fatores de risco clássicos para aterosclerose e específicos para o HIV foram comparados entre os grupos, usando testes estatístcos. O valor de p ≤ 0,05 foi cosiderado significativo. Resultados: A EMI > P75 ou presença de placa foi mais elevada no grupo de HIV sem IP que no controle (37,5% vs 19%, p = 0,04). A análise comparativa mostrou diferença significativa (p=0,014) na EMI nas artérias carótidas entre HIV + com IPs (0,71 ± 0,28 mm), sem IPs (0,63 ± 0,11 mm) e controles (0,59 ± 0,11 mm), A EMI na femoral não teve diferença significante entre os grupos. Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos controle e de HIV + quanto ao ITB. No entanto, observou-se uma diferença significativa (p=0,015) no ITB entre os grupos HIV + sem IPs (1,17 [1,08 - 1,23]), e controles [1,08 (1,07 - 1,17)]. Conclusão: Em pacientes com HIV, a aterosclerose é mais prevalente e parece ocorrer mais precocemente, com características distintas, em comparação a indivíduos HIV-negativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Ankle Brachial Index , Femoral Artery/diagnostic imaging
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311351

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the potential risk of arteriosclerosis caused by desalinated seawater, Wistar rats were provided desalinated seawater over a 1-year period, and blood samples were collected at 0, 90, 180, and 360 days. Blood calcium, magnesium, and arteriosclerosis-related indicators were investigated. Female rats treated with desalinated seawater for 180 days showed lower magnesium levels than the control rats (P < 0.05). The calcium and magnesium levels in female rats and the magnesium level in male rats were lower than the levels in the controls, following treatment with desalinated seawater for 360 days (P < 0.05). Blood levels of arteriosclerosis-related lipid peroxidation indicators and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the treatment group did not differ from those in the controls. The levels of lipid peroxidation indicators and CRP in rats were not significantly affected by drinking desalinated seawater, and no increase in risk of arteriosclerosis was observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteriosclerosis , Calcium , Blood , Female , Lipid Peroxidation , Magnesium , Blood , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Seawater , Chemistry , Sodium Chloride , Chemistry
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209184

ABSTRACT

If there is coronary plaque, do we need statin therapy? Many studies have been conducted to answer this question. According to global guidelines, there is a high-risk patient population who could benefit from statin therapy. According to the guidelines, patients with a history of previous cardiovascular disease are subject to statin therapy. In addition, several other studies have shown that asymptomatic coronary plaque could cause future cardiovascular events. Therefore, statin therapy could be considered in patients with coronary artery plaque. These coronary plaques can be quantified through invasive intra-coronary imaging equipment. Especially, vulnerable arteriosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular events. Use of statins in the presence of coronary plaques may help reduce atheroma volume and stabilize vulnerability. In conclusion, coronary artery imaging is very useful for the initiation and evaluation of statin therapy.


Subject(s)
Arteriosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Plaque, Atherosclerotic
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed to obtain preliminary data on the associations between atherosclerosisand periodontitis, physical health status, and general and oral health behaviors. METHODS: Thirty-three subjects were recruited from among those who underwent carotid computed tomography (CT) angiography and general health check-up at the Seoul National University Hospital Health Examination Center (SNUHHEC). Two trained dentists conducted a periodontal examination to evaluate probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by study subjects, following informed consent. Data on physical health status were collected through review of medical records from the SNUHHEC. Information on general health behavior was obtainedfrom the self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0®. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: A marginal, but non-significant association was noted between atherosclerosis and periodontitis(P=0.373). Flossing habit showed a significant association with periodontitis (P=0.007) and obesity (P=0.033). A possible association was noted between daily exercise and flossing (P=0.073). The habitual use of interdental brush also showed borderline association with smoking (P=0.098) and a stronger associationwith previous periodontal treatment (P=0.067); however, these associations were not statisticallysignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study did not show an association between arteriosclerosis and periodontal disease.However, positive oral health care behavior, especially flossing, seems to alleviate arteriosclerosis. In other words, in this pilot survey, we confirmed the possibility that healthy oral care behavior can help to alleviate arteriosclerosis. Future large-scale studies are needed to confirm whether positive oral health care behaviors improve overall health.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteriosclerosis , Atherosclerosis , Dental Care , Dentists , Health Behavior , Humans , Informed Consent , Medical Records , Obesity , Oral Health , Overweight , Periodontitis , Pilot Projects , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 81 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-877233

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A doença cardiovascular é a maior causa de mortalidade no mundo e o Brasil está entre os 10 países com maiores índices, principalmente entre homens com idade inferior a 70 anos. A alimentação é um fator de risco modificável, que pode influenciar a expressão gênica e a concentração de biomarcadores inflamatórios relacionados à obesidade e à aterosclerose. Objetivo: Este subestudo avaliou se uma intervenção nutricional baseada na alimentação habitual brasileira modifica a expressão de genes envolvidos com aterosclerose e a concentração plasmática de biomarcadores inflamatórios, na prevenção secundária para doença cardiovascular. Métodos: Foram selecionados seis pacientes do sexo masculino, idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, obesos e com circunferência abdominal elevada, em acompanhamento do plano alimentar quali-quantitativo por 6 meses, para determinação da concentração plasmática de biomarcadores inflamatórios (interleucina (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, fator de necrose tumoral alfa, proteína C reativa e adiponectina) e expressão de 84 genes relacionados à aterosclerose em células totais do sangue periférico, bem como perfil lipídico, glicemia, insulinemia, ácidos graxos plasmáticos, dados sobre ingestão alimentar (recordatório de 24 horas) e antropometria (peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura), nas visitas inicial e final. Resultados: Após a intervenção nutricional, os pacientes reduziram o peso, a circunferência abdominal, o índice Homeostasis Model Assessment para resistência à insulina (p= 0,046) e a contagem global de leucócitos (p= 0,046) e de neutrófilos (p= 0,028). Não houve alteração significativa na concentração plasmática dos biomarcadores inflamatórios, contudo, verificou-se aumento significativo na expressão dos genes Apo A1 (p= 0,011), ELN (p= 0,017) e IL4 (p= 0,037). Conclusão: Assim, o plano alimentar quali-quantitativo, composto de alimentos habituais brasileiros, não reduziu a concentração de biomarcadores inflamatórios, mas aumentou a expressão de três genes envolvidos com aterosclerose, em pacientes obesos, na prevenção secundária para doença cardiovascular


Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality in the world and Brazil is among the 10 countries with the highest rates, especially among men under 70 years of age. Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. Objective: This substudy evaluated whether a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modifies the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and the plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Methods: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese and with high waist circumference were selected, to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months, in order to determine the plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin) and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, as well as lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, plasma fatty acids, food intake data (24-hour recall) and anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) at the initial and final visits. Results: After nutritional intervention, patients reduced weight, waist circumference, Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p = 0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p = 0.046) and neutrophils (p = 0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers. However, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p = 0.011), ELN (p = 0.017) and IL4 (p = 0.037) genes. Conclusion: Thus, the qualitative-quantitative food plan, composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased the expression of three genes involved with atherosclerosis in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arteriosclerosis/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Anthropometry , Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy , Clinical Trial , Obesity , Secondary Prevention
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160677

ABSTRACT

The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) provides optimal vascular access for hemodialysis; it has a higher long-term patency rate and fewer complications than other vascular access methods. However, the AVF has a high primary failure rate. The presence of small-diameter vessels at anastomosis sites is an important risk factor for AVF failure. However, in a recent study, despite selecting an adequate artery and vein for creating an AVF by routine preoperative vascular mapping, AVF maturation and primary failure occurred. Thus, pre-existing arteriosclerosis at AVF anastomosis sites likely contributes to AVF failure. In this review, we discuss the relationship between pathologic changes and AVF patency in hemodialysis patients. Because arteriosclerosis of the major arteries such as the coronary and carotid arteries is associated with cardiovascular mortality, we also review the impact of arteriosclerosis of upper arm arteries at AVF anastomosis sites on cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arteries , Arteriosclerosis , Arteriovenous Fistula , Carotid Arteries , Humans , Mortality , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Vascular Calcification , Veins
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