Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 14, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The objective of this paper is to analyze the prices of biological drugs in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia and Mexico), as well as in Spain and the United States of America (US), from the point of market entry of biosimilars. Methods: We analyzed products authorized for commercialization in the last 20 years, in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico, comparing them to the United States of America (USA) and Spain. For this analysis, we sought the prices and registries of drugs marketed between 1999 and October 1, 2019, in the regulatory agencies' databases. The pricing between countries was based on purchasing power parity (PPP). Results: The US authorized the commercialization of 13 distinct biologicals and four biosimilars in the period. Spain and Brazil marketed 14 biopharmaceuticals for RA, ten original, four biosimilars. Colombia and Mexico have authorized three biosimilars in addition to the ten biological ones. For biological drug prices, the US is the most expensive country. Spain's price behavior seems intermediate when compared to the three LA countries. Brazil has the highest LA prices, followed by Mexico and Colombia, which has the lowest prices. Spain has the lowest values in PPP, compared to LA countries, while the US has the highest prices. Conclusions: The economic effort that LA countries make to access these medicines is much higher than the US and Spain. The use of the PPP ensured a better understanding of the actual access to these inputs in the countries analyzed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Drug Price , Biological Products/economics , Antirheumatic Agents/economics , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Spain , United States , Health Evaluation , Brazil , Colombia , Mexico
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(4): 1241-1253, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952630

ABSTRACT

Resumo A artrite reumatoide (AR) é uma doença crônica que afeta cerca de 1% da população adulta. No estudo de coorte histórica de pacientes de Minas Gerais, registrados no Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais (SIA), em 2008-2013, foram identificados 11.573 indivíduos. A perspectiva foi a do financiador público e os valores observados como gastos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) foram ajustados pelo Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo (IPCA), de dezembro de 2015. O Etanercept foi o tratamento mais caro. A análise múltipla mostrou uma relação negativa entre o aumento das despesas e idade, sexo feminino e diagnóstico de entrada na coorte, e relação positiva para as variáveis Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDH-M) e o uso de medicamentos bloqueadores do fator de necrose tumoral (ANTI-TNF). Este estudo identificou os fatores que têm impacto sobre o gasto com o tratamento medicamentoso da AR. Também apontou que métodos que permitem extrair dados demográficos e de gastos de sistemas de informação administrativos podem ser ferramentas importantes na construção de estudos econômicos capazes de subsidiar as avaliações econômicas de saúde, especialmente do ponto de vista da gestão.


Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that affects about 1% of the adult population. In a historical cohort of Minas Gerais State, 11,573 RA patients registered in the Outpatient Information System (SIA) between 2008 and 2013 were identified. For this study we adopted the public funding body's perspective and the values were adjusted by the national inflation index (IPCA) of December 2015. Etanercept was the most expensive treatment. The mean cohort age was 52 years old and most of the patients were women. Multiple regression analysis indicated a negative association between higher expenditure and age, female sex, and diagnosis at entry in the cohort and positive association between high expenditure and the Human Development Index (HDI) of the municipality and use of tumor necrosis factor agents. This study identified the factors that have an impact on RA drug treatment expenditure. Also, we showed that methods that enable extracting demographic and expenditure data of administrative information systems may represent important tools in the construction of economic studies to subsidize economic health evaluations, especially from the standpoint of the managers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Health Expenditures , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , National Health Programs/economics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Brazil , Regression Analysis , Cohort Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Antirheumatic Agents/economics , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Etanercept/economics , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(3): 204-209, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899420

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There are few studies that carried out a descriptive and trend analysis based on available data from the Unified Health System (SUS) between pre- and post-free dispensing of pharmacological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the perspective of the public health system, in terms of the direct cost of the disease among adults and elderly residents of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. This study aims to characterize the direct cost of medical and surgical procedures before and after the dispensing of drugs in this state. Methods: This is a time series-type study with a cross-sectional survey of data from the Hospital (SIH) and Outpatient (SIA) Information System of SUS during the period from 1996 to 2009. Results: Between 1996 and 2009, the total expenditure for hospital- and outpatient pharmacological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was R$ 26,659,127.20. After the dispensing of drug treatment by SUS a decrease of 36% in the number of hospital admissions was observed; however, an increase of 19% in clinical procedures was noted. Conclusion: During the observed period, a reduction in the number of hospital admissions for both clinical and orthopedic surgical procedures related to this disease was observed. Nevertheless, there was an increase in the cost of medical admissions.


RESUMO Introdução: Poucos estudos fizeram uma análise descritiva e de tendência dos dados disponíveis do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) entre os períodos pré e pós-dispensação gratuita do tratamento medicamentoso da artrite reumatoide (AR) sob a perspectiva do sistema público de saúde em termos de custo direto da doença entre adultos e idosos moradores do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de caracterizar o custo direto de procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos antes e após o fornecimento de medicamentos no estado. Métodos: Estudo do tipo série temporal com levantamentos transversais entre 1996 e 2009 dos dados do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar (SIH) e Ambulatorial (SIA) do SUS. Resultados: Entre 1996 a 2009, o gasto total para o tratamento hospitalar e medicamentoso ambulatorial da artrite reumatoide foi de R$ 26.659.127,20. Após a dispensação do tratamento medicamentoso pelo SUS observou-se queda de 36% do número de internações hospitalares. Entretanto notou-se um aumento de 19% nos procedimentos clínicos. Conclusão: No período observado notou-se uma redução do número de internações hospitalares tanto para procedimentos clínicos quanto cirúrgicos ortopédicos relacionadas a essa doença. Apesar disso, ocorreu um aumento do custo das internações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Health Care Costs/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , National Health Programs/economics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/economics , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Health Care Surveys , Facilities and Services Utilization/economics , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/trends , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/trends
5.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(2): 283-295, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703187

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho buscou-se caracterizar o perfil dos usuários e os gastos relacionados com infliximabe e medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença (MMCD) sintéticos para tratamento da artrite reumatoide no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), Brasil. Uma coorte de 2003-2006 foi construída com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação Ambulatorial do SUS, e as análises foram estratificadas por características clínicas e sociodemográficas. Calculou-se o gasto médio mensal per capita para cada ano de seguimento e fatores que o influenciaram. Foram incluídos 26.228 pacientes, a maioria mulheres entre 40-59 anos, residentes na macrorregião Sudeste e com diagnóstico de síndrome de Felty. Medicamentos para artrite reumatoide somaram R$ 74.306.087,18. A mediana de gasto mensal per capita foi de R$ 3.466,03 para pacientes que usaram infliximabe versus R$ 143,85 para os que usaram MMCD sintéticos. O tratamento medicamentoso para artrite reumatoide constituiu a principal despesa no SUS, com elevado impacto econômico devido ao infliximabe. Sexo, diagnóstico, idade e região de residência foram fatores que influenciaram os gastos.


This study aimed to characterize the profile of users and related expenses with infliximab and synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) for rheumatoid arthritis treatment in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). We constructed a cohort from 2003 to 2006 drawing on databases of the SUS Outpatient Information System. Analyses were stratified by clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. We calculated average monthly expenditure per individual follow-up year and the factors that influenced it. The cohort consisted of 26,228 patients, mostly female, between 40 and 59 years of age, living in the Southeast of Brazil, and diagnosed with Felty's syndrome. Medicines for rheumatoid arthritis totalized BRL 74,306,087.18, of which infliximab accounted for 70%. Median monthly per capita expenditure was BRL 3,466.03 for patients receiving infliximab compared to BRL 143.85 for patients treated with synthetic DMARD. Drug treatment for rheumatoid arthritis was the main expense in SUS, with high economic impact from infliximab. Sex, diagnosis, age, and region of residence were factors that influenced expenditures.


Este trabajo caracterizó el perfil de los usuarios y los gastos con infliximab y fármacos modificadores de la enfermedad (FARME) sintéticos para tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS), Brasil. Se construyó una cohorte de 2003-2006 a partir de bases de datos del Sistema de Información Ambulatorio de SUS y los análisis fueron estratificados por características clínicas y sociodemográficas. Se calculó el promedio de gasto per cápita mensual por año de seguimiento y los factores que influyeron en él. Fueron incluidos 26.228 pacientes, la mayoría mujeres, entre 40-59 años que vivían en Sudeste y con diagnóstico del síndrome de Felty. Se gastaron R$ 74.306.087,18 con medicamentos para la artritis reumatoide. El gasto medio mensual per cápita fue de R$ 3.466,03 en pacientes que utilizaran infliximab frente a R$ 143,85 para los que usaron FARME sintéticos. El tratamiento farmacológico de la artritis reumatoide fue el principal gasto en el SUS, con alto impacto económico debido al infliximab. El sexo, diagnóstico, edad y región de residencia fueron factores que influyeron en el gasto.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/economics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Drug Costs , Health Expenditures , National Health Programs/economics , Age Factors , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(supl.1): s81-s91, Nov. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690740

ABSTRACT

O tratamento da artrite reumatoide envolve a utilização de medicamentos, terapias não farmacológicas, consultas médicas, exames complementares, entre outros procedimentos. O artigo apresenta, conforme as fontes pagadoras, os custos diretos médicos relacionados ao tratamento da artrite reumatoide. Trata-se de um estudo de custo-análise envolvendo 103 pacientes com artrite reumatoide grave atendidos por meio do Componente Especializado da Assistência Farmacêutica em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O custo direto médico total foi R$ 2.045.596,55/ano, correspondendo a R$ 19.860,16 por paciente/ano. Do custo total, 90,8% foram para despesas com medicamentos, 2,5% às hospitalizações, 2,2% aos exames complementares, 2,1% às consultas médicas e 2,4% à soma dos demais componentes. O setor público foi responsável por 73,6% do custo direto médico total e por 79,3% do custo com a aquisição de medicamentos. A análise dos custos permitiu traçar um perfil de como uma população portadora de doença crônico-degenerativa altamente demandante de recursos transita pela composição público-privada que caracteriza o sistema de saúde brasileiro.


Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis involves the use of medicines, non-pharmaceutical therapies, medical appointments, and complimentary tests, among other procedures. Based on sources of payment, this article presents the direct medical costs related to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The cost analysis included 103 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis treated at the Specialized Division of Pharmaceutical Care in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Total annual direct cost was R$ 2,045,596.55 (approximately one million US dollars), or R$ 19,860.16 per patient/year (slightly less than ten thousand US dollars). Total cost breakdown was as follows: 90.8% for medicines, 2.5% for hospitalizations, 2.2% for complimentary tests, 2.1% for medical appointments, and 2.4% for all other costs. The public sector accounted for 73.6% of the total direct medical costs and 79.3% of the cost of medicines. The cost analysis provided a profile of how a group of individuals with a chronic non-communicable disease that requires resources circulates in the public-private mix that characterizes the Brazilian health system.


El tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide incluye la utilización de medicamentos, terapias no farmacológicas, consultas médicas, exámenes clínicos, entre otros procedimientos. El artículo presenta, de acuerdo con las fuentes pagadoras, los costes médicos directos del tratamiento de artritis reumatoide. Se trata de un estudio de análisis de costes que incluyó 103 pacientes con artritis reumatoide severa, atendidos a través del Dispositivo Especializado de Asistencia Farmacéutica en Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. El coste médico directo total fue de R$ 2.045.596,55/año, equivalente a R$ 19.860,16 por paciente/año. Del coste total, un 90,8% correspondió a medicamentos; 2,5% a hospitalizaciones y un 2,2% a exámenes clínicos. El sector público fue responsable de un 73,6% del coste médico directo total y de un 79,3% del coste de adquisición de medicamentos. El análisis de costes permitió trazar un perfil de cómo una población portadora de una enfermedad crónicodegenerativa, con una alta demanda de recursos transita por el sistema público-privado que caracteriza al sistema de salud brasileño.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Health Care Costs , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Rev. saúde pública ; 45(2): 233-240, abr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-577038

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever aspectos técnicos do Programa de Medicamentos de Dispensação em Caráter Excepcional do Ministério de Saúde do Brasil, especialmente em relação aos gastos com os medicamentos distribuídos. MÉTODOS: Os aspectos técnicos foram obtidos por meio de consulta a todas as portarias que regulamentaram o Programa. Gastos no período de 2000 a 2007 foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do Sistema Único de Saúde. Foram analisados os medicamentos dispensados de 1993 a 2009, quantidades e valor de cada procedimento informados nas autorizações de procedimentos de alta complexidade para cada estado. RESULTADOS: O Programa mudou, com aumento do número de fármacos e apresentações farmacêuticas distribuídas e de doenças contempladas. Eram distribuídos 15 fármacos em 31 diferentes apresentações farmacêuticas em 1993, passando para 109 fármacos em 243 apresentações em 2009. Os gastos totais do Ministério da Saúde com medicamentos somaram, em 2007, R$ 1.410.181.600,74, quase o dobro do valor gasto em 2000: R$ 684.975.404,43. Algumas das doenças que representaram maiores gastos nesse período foram: insuficiência renal crônica, transplante e hepatite C. CONCLUSÕES: O Programa de Medicamentos de Dispensação em Caráter Excepcional está em constante transformação, visando aprimorar os instrumentos e estratégias que assegurem e ampliem o acesso da população aos medicamentos. Devem-se buscar alternativas para reduzir o impacto financeiro do Programa para que não haja prejuízos às outras áreas do sistema de saúde, dado o custo elevado das novas tecnologias.


OBJETIVO: Describir aspectos técnicos del Programa de Medicamentos de Dispensación en Carácter Excepcional del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, especialmente con relación a los gastos con los medicamentos distribuidos.MÉTODOS: Los aspectos técnicos fueron obtenidos por medio de consulta a todas los reglamentos que rigen el Programa. Gastos en el período de 2000 a 2007 fueron obtenidos del Sistema de Informaciones Ambulatorias del Sistema Único de Salud. Se analizaron los medicamentos dispensados de 1993 a 2009, cantidades y valor de cada procedimiento, informado en las autorizaciones de procedimientos de alta complejidad para cada estado.RESULTADOS: El Programa cambió, con aumento del número de fármacos y presentaciones farmacéuticas distribuidas y de enfermedades contempladas. Eran distribuidos 15 fármacos en 31 diferentes presentaciones farmacéuticas en 1993, pasando para 109 fármacos en 243 presentaciones en 2009. Los gastos totales del Ministerio de Salud con medicamentos sumaron, en 2007, R$ 1.410.181.600,74, casi el doble del valor gastado en el año 2000: R$ 684.975.404,43. Algunas enfermedades que representaron mayor gastos en ese período fueron: insuficiencia renal crónica, trasplante y hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONES: El Programa de Medicamentos de Dispensación en Carácter Excepcional está en constante transformación, buscando mejorar los instrumentos y estrategias que aseguren y amplíen el acceso de la población a los medicamentos. Se deben buscar alternativas para reducir el impacto financiero del Programa para que no exista prejuicio hacia las otras áreas del sistema de salud, dado el costo elevado de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Drug Costs , Drugs from the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Care , Drugs of Continuous Use , Health Expenditures , National Drug Policy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Multiple Sclerosis/economics , Schizophrenia/economics , Hepatitis C/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Ordinances , Health Policy , Health Policy/economics
8.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 21(2): 395-416, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596059

ABSTRACT

O artigo visa a estimar o custo direto médico do tratamento hospitalar de pacientes idosos com fraturas de fêmur proximal, no Hospital Municipal Lourenço Jorge, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Estudo observacional, prospectivo, para estimar a utilização de recursos e custos diretos médicos associados à hospitalização por fratura de fêmur proximal em idosos, em 2007 e 2008, sob a perspectiva do prestador de serviços. Foi utilizado um instrumento de coleta de dados através do qual foram registrados recursos identificados na revisão prospectiva dos prontuários. Aos recursos utilizados foram atribuídos custos em reais (R$) baseando-se em valores do ano 2010. Foram realizadas análises descritivas dos custos e utilização de recursos, bem como avaliada a associação de variáveis clínicas e demográficas com o custo final observado. Foram incluídos 82 pacientes, 81,7 por cento do sexo feminino, idade média de 76,96 anos, hospitalização média de 12,66 dias. A mediana de custo por paciente foi de R$ 3.064,76 (IC95 por cento: 2.817,63 a 3.463,98). Hospitalização clínica e procedimento cirúrgico foram responsáveis por 65,61 por cento e 24,94 por cento dos custos, respectivamente. Pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico até o quarto dia de hospitalização apresentaram mediana de custos menor do que pacientes submetidos após o quarto dia (R$ 2.136,31 e R$ 3.281,45, p<0,00001). Observou-se também diferença significativa nos custos finais por tipo de procedimento cirúrgico realizado. O custo do tratamento das fraturas de fêmur proximal no idoso foi significativamente maior nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia após o quarto dia de hospitalização. Hospitalização clínica e procedimento cirúrgico foram os principais componentes do custo final observado.


This paper aims to assess direct medical costs associated to hospital treatment of hip fractures in the elderly in the Municipal Hospital Lourenço Jorge (HMLJ), Rio de Janeiro. Observational, prospective study to assess resource utilization and direct medical costs associated to elderly hip fracture hospitalization in 2007 and 2008, under the health care provider perspective. A standard data collection instrument was used to register identified resources during prospective medical charts review. The resource utilization was converted into Brazilian Real (R$), based on 2010 prices. Descriptive analysis of costs and resource utilization and their association with clinical and demographic variables were performed. Eighty two patients were included, 81.7 percent female, mean age of 76.96 years, hospitalization mean time of 12.66 days. Median total costs per patient were R$ 3,064.76 (IC95 percent: 2,817.63 - 3,463.98). Clinical hospitalization and surgical procedure were responsible for 65.61 percent and 24.94 percent of costs, respectively. Median costs for patients submitted to surgical procedure until the fourth day of hospitalization were lower than median costs for patients submitted after the fourth day (R$ 2,136.45 and R$ 3,281.45, respectively, p<0.00001). A significant difference in average costs per type of surgical procedure was also observed. Cost associated to inpatient treatment of hip fractures in the elderly was higher in patients who performed surgery after the fourth day of hospitalization. Clinical hospitalization and surgical procedure were the main cost components observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation , Health Care Costs/ethics , Femoral Fractures/economics , Femoral Fractures/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/economics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/ethics , Hospital Costs , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Drug Costs/ethics , Fracture Fixation/economics , Fracture Fixation , Methotrexate/antagonists & inhibitors , Methotrexate/pharmacology , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Surgical Procedures, Operative/economics , Sulfasalazine/economics , Sulfasalazine/therapeutic use
9.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 144(3): 225-231, mayo-jun. 2008. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-568067

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar el costo de la artritis reumatoide (AR), la espondilitis anquilosante (EA) y la gota, desde la perspectiva del paciente. Métodos: Análisis transversal de los costos y utilización de recursos de 690 pacientes con AR, EA y gota, de 10 departamentos de centros hospitalarios y consultorios privados de cinco ciudades del país, al momento de ser incluidos en una cohorte dinámica. Se incluye una estimación de los gastos de bolsillo, los costos médicos directos institucionales y el costo médico directo real. Resultados: El gasto de bolsillo promedio (SD) anual (en dólares) en pacientes con AR ascendió a $610.0 ($302.2), en EA a $578.6 ($220.5) y en gota a $245.3 ($124.0), lo que equivalió a 15, 9.6 y 2.5% del ingreso familiar, respectivamente. El gasto de bolsillo representó 26.1% del costo total anual por paciente con AR, 25.3% con EA y 24.4% con gota. Los costos directos institucionales esperados por paciente/año con AR fueron de $1724.2, con EA de $1710.8 y con gota de $760.7. El costo total anual por paciente con AR fue de $2334.3, con EA de $2289.4 y con gota de $1006.1. Los componentes del gasto de bolsillo de mayor cuantía fueron los medicamentos, exámenes de laboratorio y gabinete y las terapias alternativas. Conclusiones: Se concluye que desde la perspectiva del paciente, el costo de la AR, EA y gota equivale a la cuarta parte del costo médico directo. La AR es la enfermedad que mayor gasto implica.


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the social costs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gout from the patient's perspective. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of the cost and resource utilization of 690 RA, AS, and gout patients from 10 medical centers and private facilities in five cities of Mexico. The information was obtained from the baseline of a dynamic cohort. We estimated out-of-pocket expenses, institutional direct costs, and direct medical costs. RESULTS: The mean (SD) annual out-of-pocket expense (USD) was $610.0 ($302.2) for RA, $578.6 ($220.5) for AS, and $245.3 ($124.0) for gout. Figures correspond to 15%, 9.6%, and 2.5% of the family income. They also represented 26.1%, 25.3%, and 24.4% of the total annual cost per RA, AS, and gout patients, respectively. The expected direct institutional patient/year costs were 1,724.2 for RA, $1,710.8 for AS, and $760.7 for gout. The total patient annual costs were $2,334.3 for RA, $2,289.4 for AS, and $1,006.1 for gout. Most out-of-pocket expenses were used to purchase drugs, pay for laboratory tests, imaging studies, and alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: From the patient's perspective, the cost of RA, AS, and gout represents 25% of direct medical costs. The cost of RA is higher than that for AS and gout.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Cost of Illness , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/economics , Gout/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with marked physical disability. In addition, it has an impact on patients' psyche and social well-being, and entails a major financial burden. The impact of the disease in different cultural and social backgrounds is varied. Limited data are available from India on this aspect. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis satisfying the 1987 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria were included. Besides demographic data, functional impact was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The psychosocial impact was measured using the medical outcomes study short form 36 (SF-36) with minor modifications. Data on direct and indirect health costs were collected by direct interview. RESULTS: The mean age of 101 patients (90 women) was 43.2 years and mean duration of disease was 8 years. Their mean (SD) HAQ score was 0.97 (0.69) with 8 patients having scores > 2. On the SF-36 scale (0-100) the mean (SD) score for various domains were: physical functioning 49.90 (28.55), social functioning 55.51 (20.59), role limitation due to physical problems 32.67 (41.34), role limitation due to emotional problems 47.54 (40.08), mental health 47.36 (7.99), general health perception 52.38 (8.30), energy and vitality 58.56 (6.09), and bodily pain 49.26 (18.87). The summary score for the physical component was 37.95 (9.03) and for the mental component it was 47.71 (4.81). While the physical component summary score had excellent negative correlation with the HAQ score (r = -0.84), correlation with the mental component summary score was poor (r = 0.32). The annual average total cost burden per patient was Rs 16 758, of which Rs 11 617 (67%) was spent on health services and the rest on non-health services (travel, home help and loss of wages). CONCLUSION: Rheumatoid arthritis causes significant physical and social disability besides being an economic burden. Indian patients had good scores for mental and social health suggesting good family support systems or reluctance to express their feelings despite physical disability.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/economics , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL