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1.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 35(2): e410, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357326

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones traumáticas de la cadera ocupan uno de los propósitos más importantes de la cirugía traumatológica. El uso de la artroplastia como regla de oro en el tratamiento quirúrgico de las mismas, es el fundamento del trabajo. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con diagnóstico de fractura de cadera, intervenidos con artroplastia total y parcial y estudiar la mortalidad, según el tipo de prótesis utilizada. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal retrospectivo en 1506 pacientes del Hospital Ortopédico Docente Fructuoso Rodríguez entre 2015 y 2019, portadores de fractura de cadera, y tratados con artroplastia. Se analizaron variables tales como edad, sexo y comorbilidades presentes. Resultados: Se colocaron prótesis totales a 427 pacientes y en 1079 se utilizó la modalidad de prótesis parcial. Predominaron las personas entre 61 y 80 años de edad. El sexo femenino prevaleció en el estudio, con una relación 3:1. Predominó el grupo de pacientes con 1 o 2 enfermedades asociadas. La mortalidad < 30 días resultó el 1,1 por ciento y ≥ 30 días el 9,2 por ciento. Conclusiones: La utilización de prótesis totales dista mucho de la media interpuesta actualmente en el mundo, donde la prótesis total se maneja como herramienta de elección. Las prótesis parciales quedan reservadas para pacientes que tienen una corta expectativa de vida y muy poco validismo(AU)


Introduction: Traumatic hip injuries occupy one of the most important purposes of trauma surgery. The use of arthroplasty as a golden rule in their surgical treatment is the foundation of the work. Objectives: To characterize patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture, who underwent total and partial arthroplasty and to study mortality, according to the type of prosthesis used. Methods: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in 1506 patients from Fructuoso Rodríguez Orthopedic Teaching Hospital from 2015 to 2019, with hip fracture, and treated with arthroplasty. Variables such as age, sex, and present comorbidities were analyzed. Results: Total prostheses were placed in 427 patients and in 1079 the partial prosthesis modality was used. Persons between 61 and 80 years of age predominated. The female sex prevailed in this study, with a 3: 1 ratio. The group of patients with 1 or 2 associated diseases predominated. Mortality <30 days was 1.1 percent and ≥30 days was 9.2 percent. Conclusions: The use of total prostheses is far from the current average in the world, where the total prosthesis is used as the tool of choice. Partial prostheses are reserved for patients who have short life expectancy and very little validity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty/methods , Comorbidity , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Joint Prosthesis
2.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 35(1): e347, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289553

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las convulsiones pueden producir una tensión muscular significativa capaz de fracturar el hueso. Se halló que el aumento significativo en la incidencia de fracturas se encuentra dentro del grupo de edad entre 45 a 64 años, lo que demuestra que los epilépticos no solo son más vulnerables a las fracturas, sino que tienen un comienzo de fractura más precoz. Las medidas de prevención comprenden suplementos de calcio, vitamina D, densitometría ósea y tratamiento con bifosfonatos, que deben reforzarse en pacientes con epilepsia que tienen riesgo de osteoporosis. Objetivo: Presentar casos de fracturas extracapsular e intracapsular de la cadera por convulsiones epilépticas, atendidos en el hospital Víctor Lazarte Echegaray, Trujillo, Perú, en el periodo comprendido entre 2013 y 2019. Presentación de los casos: Se reporta dos casos de fractura de cadera por convulsiones epilépticas, uno con fractura del acetábulo e iliaco izquierdo y otro a nivel del cuello femoral y subtrocantérica. Conclusiones: Las personas con convulsiones epilépticas poseen un mayor peligro de fracturas, por consiguiente se recomienda a los médicos que maximicen su conciencia sobre las fracturas relacionadas a convulsiones, en especial a pacientes con dolor postictal, debido a que los síntomas pueden ser inespecíficos y una mala interpretación puede impedir la rehabilitación(AU)


Introduction: Seizures can produce significant muscle tension capable of fracturing the bone. The significant increase in the incidence of fractures was found to be within the age group between 45 and 64 years, which shows that epileptics are not only more vulnerable to fractures, but also have earlier fracture onset. Prevention measures include calcium supplements, vitamin D, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonate treatment that should be reinforced in patients with epilepsy who are at risk for osteoporosis. Objective: To present cases of hip fractures due to epileptic seizures, treated at Víctor Lazarte Echegaray Hospital, Trujillo, Peru, from 2013 to 2019. Case report: Cases of hip fracture due to epileptic seizures have been reported, one with fracture of the acetabulum and left iliac and another at the level of the femoral and subtrochanteric neck. Conclusions: Individuals with epileptic seizures have greater risk of fractures, it is recommended that physicians maximize their awareness of seizure-related fractures, especially in patients with postictal pain, since the symptoms can be nonspecific and misinterpretation can prevent rehabilitation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Seizures/etiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hip Fractures/complications , Peru , Arthroplasty/methods , Acetabulum/surgery
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the method and clinical effects of the treatment of recurrent anterior dislocation of shoulder with Hill-Sachs injury by arthroscopic Bankart repair and Remplissage.@*METHODS@#From March 2016 to March 2019, 106 patients with recurrent anterior dislocation of shoulder with glenoid bone defect less than 20% underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair, including 76 males and 30 females, aged from 18 to 45 (27.3±8.6) years, 59 cases of left shoulder and 47 cases of right shoulder. Range of motion (ROM), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons(ASES) score, Constant-Murley score and Rowe score were used to evaluate shoulder functionand stability before and after operation.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 21 to 60 months, with a mean of (41.5± 8.5) months. One patient developed infection after operation, and the infection was controlled after arthroscopic debridement again. The remaining patients did not have clinical complications such as infection, intra articular hematocele and redislocation. Shoulder flexion and lifting increased from (158.33±15.72) ° preoperatively to (169.43±10.04) ° at the latest follow up, and internal rotation changed from T7 (T4 to T10) preoperatively to T8 (T5 to T10) at the latest follow up;the average lateral external rotation and abduction 90 ° external rotation decreased from (58.46±15.51) ° preoperatively and (99.37±14.09) ° to (53.18±14.90) ° and (92.52±13.10) ° at the latest follow up, respectively. The ASES score, Constant -Murley score and Rowe score were significantly improved.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical effect of rehabilitation of Bankart repair combined with Remplissageunder arthroscopy in the treatment of recurrent dislocation of shoulder joint in adults with Hill-Sachs defect is satisfactory. Although the external rotation function is weaker than that before operation, it can effectively reconstruct the shoulder function and avoid the occurrence ofdislocation after operation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arthroplasty , Arthroscopy , Female , Humans , Joint Instability/surgery , Male , Range of Motion, Articular , Recurrence , Shoulder/surgery , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Joint/surgery
4.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(2): e302, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156593

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cobertura de dispositivos ortopédicos expuestos y las infecciones en el hueso con colgajos es un tema controvertido. No existe un consenso claro sobre el tratamiento de esta complicación. En los últimos años se aprecia una tendencia a mantener el material de osteosíntesis y a controlar la infección aportando tejido bien vascularizado en forma de colgajo muscular o fasciocutáneo. Objetivo: Evaluar el éxito reconstructivo con colgajos de defectos de partes blandas en miembros que han precisado de una osteosíntesis, en función de la presencia de infección y el estado de los dispositivos de implante en el momento de la reconstrucción. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de una serie de 15 casos con un defecto de partes blandas en las extremidades inferiores secundario a la implantación de dispositivos ortopédicos en el hueso. Todos los casos recibieron cobertura con un colgajo muscular o fasciocutáneo con o sin retirada de los implantes. Se estudió la presencia o ausencia de infección previa a la reconstrucción (signos clínicos, resultado del cultivo microbiológico y exposición del material ortopédico), la retirada o mantenimiento del implante durante la reconstrucción, y la presencia de complicaciones posoperatorias. Se relacionaron estas variables con el éxito reconstructivo posoperatorio. El análisis de las variables se realizó con los estadísticos chi cuadrado, Wilcoxon y U de Mann Whitney, según el tipo de variable, y para una significación de 0,05. Resultados: La frecuencia de éxito reconstructivo fue mayor en aquellos pacientes con cultivo negativo sin exposición de material óseo (p = 0,038). Se encontró menor tasa de complicaciones en los pacientes que presentaban infección antes de la reconstrucción (p = 0,039), y en aquellos con cultivo positivo y exposición del material previos a la cirugía, cuyos implantes habían sido retirados durante la reconstrucción (p = 0,032). Conclusiones: El aporte de tejido bien vascularizado en forma de colgajo permite el mantenimiento del material ortopédico con una frecuencia de éxito de 66,67 %, y resultados favorables de mediano a largo plazo. La exposición y el resultado del cultivo son indicadores predictivos de los resultados de la cirugía(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The covering of exposed orthopedic devices and bone infections with flaps are a controversial issue. There is no clear consensus concerning the treatment of this complication. In recent years, there has been a trend to maintain the osteosynthesis material and to control the infection by providing well vascularized tissue in the form of a muscular or fasciocutaneous flap. Objective: To assess the reconstructive success with flaps of soft tissue defects in limbs that have required osteosynthesis, based on the presence of infection and the status of the implant devices at the time of reconstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of a series of 15 cases with soft tissue defect in the lower limbs after implantation of orthopedic devices to the bone. All the cases were covered with muscle or fasciocutaneous flap, with or without removal of the implants. The presence or absence of infection prior to reconstruction (clinical signs, results of microbiological culture, and exposure of the orthopedic material), removal or maintenance of the implant during reconstruction, and the presence of postoperative complications were studied. These variables were associated with postoperative reconstructive success. The analysis of the variables was performed using the chi-square, as well as Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U tests, according to the type of variable, and for a significance of 0.05. Results: The frequency of reconstructive success was higher in those patients with negative culture and without exposure of bone material (P=0.038). A lower rate of complications was found in patients with infection before reconstruction (P=0.039), and in those with positive culture and exposure of the material prior to surgery, whose implants had been removed during reconstruction (P=0.032). Conclusions: The provision of well vascularized tissue in the form of flap allows maintenance of the orthopedic material with a success rate of 66.67%, as well as favorable outcomes in the mid to long terms. The results of exposure and culture are predictive indicators of surgery outcomes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty/adverse effects , Surgical Flaps/transplantation , Lower Extremity/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 708-714, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the incidence of prosthetic instability in a consecutive series of 42 cases of total hip arthroplasty using dual mobility cup. Methods A retrospective study of 38 patients undergoing primary or revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using the acetabular dual-mobility cup (DMC) implant between January 2012 and January 2018. The rates of complications and instability after surgery were evaluated. Results In total, 42 arthroplasties were performed in 38 patients, with a minimum follow-up of 16 months. The mean age of the sample was 60 years. In 38 cases, we used a cementless DMC, and, in the other 4 cases, a cemented DMC. There were no cases of early or late instability. Conclusion The series herein presented proves the good result of the DMC in cases of primary arthroplasty, complex and complicated cases of failed osteosynthesis of proximal femoral fractures, and revision for THA instability. The absence of episodes of prosthetic instability and complications in complex cases of primary and revision THA increases the confidence in this concept.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de instabilidade protética em uma série consecutiva de 42 casos de artroplastia total do quadril com uso do acetábulo de dupla mobilidade. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de 39 pacientes que passaram por artroplastia total de quadril (ATQ) primária ou de revisão usando taça de dupla mobilidade (TDM) acetabular entre janeiro de 2012 e janeiro de 2018. Foram avaliadas as taxas de complicações e de instabilidade após a cirurgia. Resultados Foram feitas 42 artroplastias em 38 pacientes, com um seguimento mínimo de 16 meses. A média de idade da amostra foi de 60 anos. Em 38 casos, usamos TDM sem cimento, e nos outros 4 casos, TDM cimentada. Não houve instabilidade precoce ou tardia. Conclusão A série aqui apresentada prova o bom resultado da TDM em artroplastias primárias, casos complexos e complicados de falha de osteossíntese de fratura proximal do fêmur, e cirurgia de revisão por instabilidade na ATQ. A falta de episódios de instabilidade prostética e complicações em casos complexos de ATQ primária ou de revisão aumentou a confiança nesse conceito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthroplasty , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Femoral Fractures , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Hip Prosthesis , Hospitals, University , Acetabulum
6.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 169-173, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126299

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Regional anesthesia is widely used for postopera tive analgesia in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although it is a safe and effective procedure, serious complications may still develop. In the event of an unusual or torpid evolution, the possibility of local anesthetic-induced myotoxicity should be suspected. Case presentation: A 54-year old patient, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, underwent TKA due to primary gonarthrosis.. The analgesic technique used was a femoral nerve block associated with continuous perineural infusion. 24 hours later, the patient's medical condition deteriorated presenting pain, edema, and functional limitation of the thigh of the operated extremity. The symptoms were suggestive of myotoxicity, confirmed with diagnostic images leading to the removal of the catheter. The patient experienced then a significant improvement and was discharged 5 days after surgery. Conclusion: The diagnosis of myotoxicity from local anes thetics is rare, since its manifestations may be masked by the usual symptoms of the postoperative period. Early identification of the condition is fundamental to reduce its negative impact on the patient's recovery and satisfaction. Since the scope of the damage depends particularly on the concentration and duration of the exposure to the local anesthetic agent, there is a need to implement protocols that enable an effective block with the lowest concentration and volume of the medication.


Resumen Introducción: La anestesia regional es ampliamente usada para la analgesia posoperatoria en la Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla (ARR). Aunque son procedimientos seguros y efectivos, la posibilidad de complicaciones graves existe. Ante una evolución inusual o tórpida se debe sospechar la posibilidad de miotoxicidad inducida por anestésicos locales. Presentación del caso: En un paciente de 54 años, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II, se llevó a cabo ARR por gonartrosis primaria. Como técnica analgésica se usó el bloqueo de nervio femoral asociado a infusión continua perineural. 24 horas después el paciente presenta deterioro clínico dado por dolor, edema y limitación funcional en muslo de extremidad operada. Ante síntomas sugestivos de miotoxicidad confirmada por imágenes diagnósticas, el catéter fue retirado. Posteriormente, presentó una mejoría significa tiva y egresó del hospital al quinto día posoperatorio. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de miotoxicidad por anestésicos locales es poco frecuente debido a que sus manifestaciones pueden estar enmascaradas por los síntomas habituales durante el periodo posoperatorio. Su identificación temprana es funda mental para disminuir el efecto negativo sobre la recuperación y la satisfacción del paciente. Dado que la magnitud del daño depende especialmente de la concentración y la duración de la exposición al anestésico local, es necesario implementar proto colos que permitan lograr un bloqueo efectivo con la menor concentración y volumen posible del medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty , Bupivacaine , Myotoxicity , Analgesia , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Toxicity
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 463-469, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate and compare subscapular muscle function among patients undergoing subscapular tenotomy (Group A) and lesser tuberosity osteotomy (Group B), in patients treated with total and partial anatomic shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthrosis. Methods Retrospective study of patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthrosis surgically undergoing total or partial anatomic shoulder prosthesis implant, evaluated by clinical examination, imaging exams, analogue pain scale and Constant and Murley functional score. A total of 28 patients were evaluated, totalizing a sample of 32 operated shoulders. The minimum follow-up was of 12 months (mean 47.45 months). Results Among patients submitted to subscapularis tendon tenotomy, 10 had an ultrasound with total rupture of its thickness (56%). All of the patients of the group B showed lesser tuberosity healing. There was no difference between groups comparing strength evaluated by Belly press and Bear hug tests as well as clinical outcome, through the Constant and Murley score. Conclusions We did not find differences between Groups A and B evidenciated by comparing strength in the Lift-off test, in the Belly press and Bear hug tests and through he Constant and Murley score.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar e comparar a função do músculo subescapular entre os grupos submetidos a tenotomia do subescapular (Grupo A) e osteotomia do tubérculo menor (Grupo B), em pacientes tratados por artroplastia anatômica total e parcial de ombros apresentando osteoartrose primária. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes portadores de osteoartrose primária glenoumeral tratados cirurgicamente com prótese anatômica total ou parcial de ombro, avaliados por exame clínico, exames de imagens, escala visual analógica de dor e escore funcional de Constant e Murley. Foram avaliados 28 pacientes, totalizando uma amostra de 32 ombros operados. O seguimento mínimo foi de 12 meses (média 47,45 meses). Resultados Nos pacientes submetidos à tenotomia do tendão subescapular, dez obtiveram resultado ultrassonográfico com ruptura de sua espessura total (56%). A consolidação ocorreu em todos pacientes submetidos a osteotomia do tubérculo menor. Não houve diferença entre os grupos na comparação do teste Lift Off, da força nos testes Belly Press e Bear hug, e no escore de Constant e Murley. Conclusões Não encontramos diferença entre os grupos A e B na comparação do teste Lift Off, da força nos testes Belly Press e Bear hug, e no escore de Constant e Murley.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis , Osteotomy , Arthroplasty , Prostheses and Implants , Rupture , Retrospective Studies , Rotator Cuff , Shoulder Prosthesis
8.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(2): 78-84, Jan.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Pain control in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a determining factor in the patient's rehabilitation process. With conventional peripheral blocking techniques for the posterior compartment, foot drop, and distal motor deficit have been reported. The infiltration between popliteal artery and capsule of the knee (IPACK) block is a promising emerging analgesic technique. Objective: To describe analgesic control, opioid consumption, and mobility of patients scheduled for TKA using IPACK block as adjunct analgesic to the femoral block. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study over a 6-month period in adults taken to TKA. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, laterality, postoperative pain, and opioid consumption, patient and surgeon satisfaction (Likert), postoperative nausea and vomiting, and walk in the first 24hours, were evaluated and reported with a descriptive analysis. Results: Twenty-seven patients taken to TKA received an IPACK block. The pain score remained in a mild level during the 48 hours of evaluation. In 73% of the cases, an opioid rescue dose was not required; 81% of the patients managed to walk in the first 24 hours. Conclusion: The IPACK block, combined with femoral block and neuraxial anesthesia, turn out to be an excellent analgesic strategy for TKA, achieving adequate pain management, prompt rehabilitation, and early ambulation of the patient.


Resumen Introducción: El control del dolor en artroplastia total de rodilla (ATR) es determinante en el proceso de rehabilitación del paciente. Con las técnicas convencionales de bloqueo periférico para el compartimiento posterior se ha reportado pie caído y déficit motor distal. Por lo anterior, se decidió evaluar en una cohorte las cualidades analgésicas del bloqueo IPACK como una técnica emergente prometedora. Objetivo: Describir el control analgésico, consumo de opioides y movilidad de pacientes programados para ATR usando bloqueo IPACK como adyuvante analgésico al bloqueo femoral. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo, en adultos llevados a ATR, durante 6 meses. Se evaluaron las características sociodemográficas, antropométricas, lateralidad, dolor postopera torio y consumo de opioides, satisfacción del paciente y del cirujano, náuseas y vómito postoperatorio, caminata en las primeras 48 h. Se informar los resultados de forma descriptiva. Resultados: En total, 27 pacientes a quienes se les realizó ATR obtuvieron bloqueo IPACK. La puntuación del dolor se mantuvo en una escala leve en un rango de 1-3 durante las 48 horas de seguimiento. En el 73% de los casos no se requirió una dosis de opioide de rescate. El 81% de los pacientes logró caminar en las primeras 24 horas. Conclusión: El IPACK, combinado con el bloqueo femoral y la anestesia neuroaxial, resultan ser una excelente estrategia analgésica para logar un adecuado control del dolor en ATR, pronta rehabilitación y deambulación temprana del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Femoral Artery , Knee , Nerve Block , Arthroplasty , Orthopedic Procedures/rehabilitation , Analgesia
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(2): 185-190, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137997

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective In the present study, we present the results with at least 10 years of follow-up of the cervical disc prosthesis implanted in a single level. Methods Retrospective study of patients undergoing single-level total cervical disc replacement (TCDR). Clinical results included the neck disability index (NDI) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) in the preoperative period, one year postoperatively, and a minimum of 10 years of follow-up. The radiographic parameters included cervical mobility, segmental lordosis, C2-C7 angle, heterotopic ossification (HO), facet and joint degeneration (FJD) and adjacent segment disease (ASD). Results We identified 22 patients, 16 women and 6 men with mean age of 39.7 years old (26-51 years old), of which fifteen completed a minimum follow-up of 10 years. There was a statistically significant improvement of NDI and VAS (p < 0.001) between the preoperative and the postoperative periods (1 year or > 10 years). At the end of 10 years, HO was observed in 59% of the cases. The mobility of the implant was preserved in 80% of the patients. Radiological evidence of ASD was recorded in 6 patients (40%). There was no correlation between the clinical parameters evaluated and the presence of ASD or the different classes of HO. Conclusion Clinical improvement in all evaluated parameters, which persists over time. Most implants maintained mobility, as has already been demonstrated in other studies with shorter follow-ups. In a significant percentage of cases, ASD was observed, questioning the concept of motion preserving technology. However, we did not have any surgical intervention for this reason, since there was no correlation with worse clinical results.


Resumo Objetivo No presente estudo, apresentamos os resultados com um acompanhamento mínimo de 10 anos da artroplastia total do disco cervical (ATDC) em um nível. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes submetidos a ATDC em um nível. Os resultados clínicos incluíram o índice de incapacidade relacionada ao pescoço (IIRP) e a escala visual analógica (EVA) no período pré-operatório, um ano pós-operatório e um mínimo de 10 anos de acompanhamento. Os parâmetros radiográficos incluíram a mobilidade cervical, lordose segmentar, ângulo C2-C7, ossificação heterotópica (OH), degeneração facetária e articular (DFA) e doença do segmento adjacente (DSA). Resultados Identificados 22 pacientes, 16 mulheres e 6 homens com média de idade de 39,7 anos (26-51 anos), dos quais 15 tiveram um acompanhamento mínimo de 10 anos. Foi verificada melhoria estatisticamente significativa do IIRP e EVA (p < 0,001) entre pré-operatório e pós-operatório. (1 ano ou > 10 anos). Ao final de 10 anos, OH foi observada em 59% dos casos. A mobilidade do implante foi preservada em 80% dos pacientes. Houve evidência radiológica de DSA em 6 pacientes (40%). Não houve correlação entre os parâmetros clínicos avaliados e a presença de DSA ou as diferentes classes de OH. Conclusão Melhoria clínica em todos os parâmetros avaliados, que persiste ao longo do tempo. A maioria dos implantes manteve a mobilidade, como já demonstrado em estudos anteriores com acompanhamentos mais curtos. Numa percentagem significativa, a DSA estava presente, questionando o conceito da tecnologia de preservação de movimento. No entanto, sem nenhuma intervenção cirúrgica por esse motivo, uma vez que não houve correlação com piores resultados clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty , Prostheses and Implants , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Cervical Vertebrae , Retrospective Studies , Ossification, Heterotopic , Total Disc Replacement , Joints
10.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(1): 63-66, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125784

ABSTRACT

Los tumores retroperitoneales son lesiones infrecuentes. Las tumoraciones nerviosas benignas como los schwannomas representan menos del 3% de ellos, siendo extremadamente raros los que afectan el nervio obturador. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con importante afectación funcional en miembro inferior izquierdo y dolor pélvico, al que se le diagnosticó neoplasia retroperitoneal. Fue intervenido por vía laparoscópica objetivándose la dependencia de la lesión del nervio obturador. Se llevó a cabo una exéresis completa de la lesión preservando parcialmente el nervio. El paciente tuvo una evolución funcional y álgica muy favorable. La anatomía patología reveló la presencia de schwannoma, del denominado subtipo "anciano", sin datos de malignidad. Consideramos que el informe de un caso como este puede ayudar a conocer una patología muy infrecuente y a tener en consideración algunos puntos clave como la técnica de abordaje y la necesidad de preservación de las estructuras nerviosas.


Retroperitoneal tumors are uncommon; benign tumors originating in the nerve cells as schwannomas represent less than 3%, while schwannomas of the obturator nerve are extremely rare. We report the case of a male patient with significant functional compromise of the left lower limb and pelvic pain who was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal tumor. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery during which the compromise of the obturator nerve was evident. The lesion was completely resected with partial preservation of the nerve. The patient progressed with favorable functional recovery and pain relief. The histopathological examination reported a benign ancient schwannoma. We believe that this case report can help to understand a very rare condition and consider some key points such as the technique of approach and the need for preservation of the nerve structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/surgery , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Obturator Nerve/injuries , Arthroplasty/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Colonoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Neuralgia/diagnostic imaging , Neurilemmoma/diagnostic imaging
11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(1): 40-47, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092683

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Historical results of arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1MTP) are relatively poor; however, improvements in the understanding of the normal foot biomechanics, implant materials and design currently make arthroplasty a reasonable option in appropriately selected patients. The present study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic results of 1MTP arthrodesis and arthroplasty in the treatment of hallux rigidus and to present a rationale for patient selection for arthroplasty. Methods A total of 36 patients (38 feet) with hallux rigidus submitted to surgery (12 arthrodesis and 26 arthroplasties) were prospectively included in the study. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the functional status was assessed using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (AOFAS-HMI) scale. Complications and radiographic results were also analyzed, and survival rates were calculated for both procedures. Results All of the patients reported significant improvement in pain and functional status after surgery. Patients submitted to arthroplasty had better functional results on the AOFAS-HMI scale (89.7 versus 65.7 points; p < 0.001) and better pain relief (VAS 1.6 versus 3.9 points; p = 0.002) when compared with the group submitted to arthrodesis. There was one case of infection in the arthroplasty group and 2 cases of pseudarthrosis in the arthrodesis group. Conclusion Arthrodesis provides pain relief and satisfactory results but alters the biomechanics of gait. Like arthrodesis, arthroplasty improves pain significantly, being a more physiological alternative to preserve the biomechanics of the foot. While the two surgical methods yielded good clinical results, selected patients submitted to arthroplasty had better clinical scores and lower revision rates.


Resumo Objetivo Historicamente, os resultados da artroplastia da primeira articulação metatarsofalângica (1MTP) eram relativamente ruins; no entanto, melhorias na compreensão da biomecânica normal do pé, nos materiais e no design dos implantes, tornam a artroplastia um tratamento aceitável em pacientes selecionados. O presente estudo pretendeu comparar os resultados clínicos e radiográficos da artrodese com os da artroplastia da 1MTP no tratamento de hallux rigidus e apresentar um racional para seleção de pacientes para artroplastia. Métodos Um total de 36 pacientes (38 pés) com hallux rigidus operados (12 artrodeses e 26 artroplastias) foram prospectivamente incluídos. A dor foi avaliada com recurso à escala visual analógica (VAS) e o resultado funcional usando a escala American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (AOFAS-HMI). As complicações e os resultados radiográficos foram também registrados e a taxa de sobrevida calculada para os dois procedimentos. Resultados Todos os pacientes referiram uma melhoria significativa na dor e nos resultados funcionais após a cirurgia. Os pacientes submetidos a artroplastia tiveram melhor resultado funcional na escala AOFAS-HMI (89,7 versus 65.7 pontos; p < 0.001) e melhor alívio da dor (VAS 1,6 versus 3,9 pontos; p = 0,002) quando comparados com os doentes submetidos a artrodese. Registrou-se um caso de infecção no grupo da artroplastia e 2 casos de pseudoartrose no grupo da artrodese. Conclusão A artrodese permite alívio da dor e resultados satisfatórios, mas altera a biomecânica da marcha. Tal como a artrodese, a artroplastia melhora a dor significativamente, sendo uma alternativa mais fisiológica para preservar a biomecânica do pé. Apesar dos dois tratamentos terem bons resultados clínicos, em pacientes selecionados, a artroplastia teve melhores resultados clínicos e menor taxa de revisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain , Arthrodesis , Arthroplasty , Pseudarthrosis , Comparative Study , Incidence , Arthroplasty, Replacement , Hallux Rigidus
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(1): 88-94, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate possible connections between the weight and height of patients submitted to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with the length, width and area of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fovea, as verified during surgery. Methods A total of 33 proximal tibial joint surfaces, obtained from TKA tibial sections of 33 patients, were used in the present study. The ACL was resected with a delicate scalpel to expose the ACL tibial fovea. Then the periphery of this fovea was delimited with a marker pen by means of small dots. Each piece was photographed, and the ACL tibial fovea length, width, and area were measured with the ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) software. Statistical analysis studied the correlation between anthropometrics data of the patients and the measurements of the ACL tibial fovea. Results The ACL tibial fovea length, width, and area were, respectively, 11.7 ± 2.0 mm, 7.1 ± 1.4 mm and 151.3 ± 22.2 mm2. There was a statistically significant relationship between the height of the patients and the width of the ACL tibial fovea. The width of the ACL fovea could be predicted by the formula: width = 107 . 294 − 133 . 179 × height + 44 . 009 × squared height. Conclusion The height of the patients may predict the width of the ACL tibial fovea, and therefore, may allow surgeons to choose the more adequate graft for each patient in ACL reconstruction.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar possíveis relações entre o peso e altura de pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho com o comprimento, largura e área da fóvea do ligamento cruzado anterior, verificados na cirurgia. Métodos Um total de 33 superfícies articulares tibias proximais, obtidas nos cortes tibiais de artroplastia total do joelho de 33 pacientes, foram utilizadas no presente estudo. O ligamento cruzado anterior foi dissecado cuidadosamente e ressecado com bisturi delicado, para expor sua fóvea. Depois, a periferia dessa fóvea foi demarcada por pequenos pontos, com um marcador. Cada peça foi fotografada e as medições do comprimento, largura e área da fóvea tibial do ligamento cruzado anterior foram feitas com o programa ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, EUA). A análise estatística avaliou a correlação entre os dados antropométricos dos pacientes com as medidas da fóvea tibial do ligamento cruzado anterior. Resultados O comprimento, a largura e a área médios da fóvea tibial do ligamento cruzado anterior foram, respectivamente 11,7 ± 2,0 mm, 7,1 ± 1,4 mm e 151,3 ± 22,2 mm2. Houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre a altura dos pacientes e a largura da fóvea tibial do ligamento cruzado anterior. A largura da fóvea do ligamento cruzado anterior pôde ser predita pela fórmula: largura = 107 , 294 − 133 , 179 × altura + 44 , 009 × altura ao quadrado. Conclusão A altura dos pacientes pôde a prever a largura da fóvea tibial do ligamento cruzado anterior e, assim, pode ajudar os cirurgiões escolher o enxerto mais adequado para cada paciente, nas reconstruções do ligamento cruzado anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroplasty , Tibia , Weights and Measures , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/anatomy & histology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Knee
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828226

ABSTRACT

Rotator cuff repair is a common treatment for rotator cuff tear, which could effectively relieve shoulder pain and improve shoulder movement, and the incidence of rotator cuff retear after rotator cuff repair is still high. The main reason is poor tendon-bone healing in rotator cuff enthesis after rotator cuff repair and could not recover the original histological structure and biomechanical properties. Therefore, the key to solve the problem is how to effectively improve the healing of tendon bone at the end of rotator cuff. With the in-depth study of rotator cuff enthesis, various treatments have made great progress on improving tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff. Our study will discuss the researchprogress on tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff in recent years from three following aspects to provide some guidance for the clinical treatment of rotator cuff tear:the factors affecting the tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff, the recovery of tendon to bone interface promoting the tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff and the application of tissue engineering in tendon to bone healing.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Humans , Rotator Cuff , General Surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries , General Surgery , Tendons , General Surgery , Wound Healing
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879337

ABSTRACT

The rate of rotator cuff injury repair and retear is high in elderly patients due to the combination of different degrees of osteoporosis. To solve this problem, many surgeons try to reduce retear rate of rotator cuff injuries in these patients by increasing the initial fixation strength of anchors and changing local bone conditions. The rapid advances of tissue engineering have made it possible to use growth factors as an aid. However, repair of rotator cuff injury with osteoporosis is still a great challenge for clinical workers. How to better increase anchor fixation strength, improve micro-environment of tendon and bone healing, reduce the rotator cuff retear rate have become the research focus in recent years. The paper reviewed literatures on the relationshipbetween osteoporosis and rotator cuff injury, effect of osteoporosis in rotator cuff tendon healing, methods of reducing osteoporosis on rotator cuff tendon healing, in order to guide clinical treatment, improve operative effect and postoperative satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthroplasty , Humans , Osteoporosis , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Tendons/surgery
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811280

ABSTRACT

Although the incidence of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures after hip arthroplasty is expected to increase, these complex fractures are still challenging complications. To obtain optimal results for these fractures, thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation, precise classification, and understanding of modern management principles are mandatory. The Vancouver classification system is a simple, effective, and reproducible method for planning proper treatments of these injuries. The fractures associated with a stable femoral stem can be effectively treated with osteosynthesis, though periprosthetic femoral fractures associated with a loose stem require revision arthroplasty. We describe here the principles of proper treatment for the patients with periprosthetic femoral fractures as well as how to avoid complications.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Classification , Femoral Fractures , Femur , Hip , Humans , Incidence , Methods , Periprosthetic Fractures
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811279

ABSTRACT

Recently, as the elderly population increases, the incidence of total knee arthroplasty has increased, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of periprosthetic fractures. To determine the treatment plan for fractures, the treatment method should be determined by the patient's age, osteoporosis, fixation status of the implant, and type of fracture. In recent years, operative treatment with reduction and stable fixation, rather than non-operative treatment, was used to promote early joint movement and gait. On the other hand, it is necessary to select an appropriate operative method to reduce complications of surgery, such as nonunion and infection, and expect a good prognosis. In this review, periprosthetic fractures were divided into femur, tibia, and patella fractures, and their causes, risk factors, classification, and treatment are discussed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Classification , Femur , Gait , Hand , Humans , Incidence , Joints , Knee , Methods , Osteoporosis , Patella , Periprosthetic Fractures , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Tibia
17.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 26-34, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Currently, standard management of a peri-prosthetic infection is a two-stage revision precedure. However, removal of well-fixed cement is technically demanding and associated with numerous potential complications. For theses reasons, two-stage revision with preservation of the original femoral stem can be considered and several previous studies have achieved successful results. While most prior studies used cemented stems, the use of cementless stems during arthroplasty has been gradually increasing; this study aims to assess the comparative effectiveness of a two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasties at preserving cemented and cementless stems.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2001 and February 2017, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital treated 45 cases of deep infections following hip arthroplasty with a two stage revisional arthroplasty using antibiotics-loaded cement spacers. This approach was applied in an effort to preserve the previously implanted femoral stem. Of these 45 cases, 20 were followed-up for at least two years and included in this analysis. Perioperative clinical symptoms, radiological findings, function and complications during insertion of an antibiotics-loaded cement spacer were analyzed in this study.RESULTS: Peri-prothetic infections were controlled in 19 of the 20 included cases. Clinical outcomes, as assessed using the Harris hip score, Western Ontario and McMaster University score, also improved. Importantly, similarly improved outcomes were achieved for both cemented and cementless femoral stems.CONCLUSION: In cases of deep infection following hip arthroplasty, two-stage revision arthroplasty to preserve the previously implanted femoral stem (cemented or cementless) effectively controls infections and preserves joint function.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Hip , Joints , Ontario
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the commonly found catastrophic complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, proper skin cleansing, shortened operative time, and sterility of surgical field and equipment are essential to minimize the risk of PJI. Although bacterial contamination of electrocautery tips has been reported, contamination of residual product of electrocoagulation, burnt necrotic tissue (BNT), is not well known. Therefore, we aimed to assess the contamination rate of BNT and association between contaminated BNT and PJI, and risk factors.METHODS: BNTs from 183 patients who had undergone unilateral primary TKA at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient, three to five specimens of BNT were routinely collected in the operative field of primary TKA. Collecting time was defined as the duration from start of using the electrocautery device to the first collection of BNT.RESULTS: Culture was positive in eight of 183 patients (4.4%; contaminated BNT group), and the most commonly isolated organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.5%). The average operative time was 103.1 ± 44.2 minutes in the contaminated BNT group and 79.0 ± 16.7 minutes in the non-contaminated BNT group (p = 0.17), and collecting time was 48.0 ± 44.3 minutes and 29.7 ± 17.0 minutes (p = 0.28), respectively. None of the patients with contaminated BNT developed PJI, whereas four patients with culture-negative BNT developed PJI within 2 postoperative years.CONCLUSIONS: BNT in surgical field can become a reservoir of contaminating bacteria. However, contamination of BNT was not associated with PJI. Therefore, routine removal of all BNTs may be unnecessary.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bacteria , Electrocoagulation , Humans , Infertility , Joints , Knee , Operative Time , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skin , Staphylococcus , Surgical Instruments
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4831, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090046

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the impact of training in the Practical Life Room on patients experience during hospitalization. Methods Subjects submitted to orthopedic surgeries were randomized to two groups (Control and Intervention) in the postoperative period. The Control Group received only the printed guidelines regarding the postoperative period, and the Intervention Group received the printed guidelines and a demonstration and training session with a physical therapist, in an environment created to simulate a house and its rooms (living room, bedroom, kitchen, laundry and bathroom). The participants of both groups answered the questionnaire Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems on the day of discharge. Results Sixty-eight subjects were included in the study, 30 (44.1%) in the Control Group and 38 (55.9%) in the Intervention Group. The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questionnaire score showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.496). Conclusion There was no influence of the proposed intervention on the results of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questionnaire, perhaps because of the limitation of the instrument or due to the fact it was employed when patients were still hospitalized. However, by reports from patients in the Intervention Group about felling better prepared and safer for performing daily activities, it is believed that patient education approaches through demonstration should be included as part of the process to prepare for discharge, whenever possible.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto do treinamento no Ambiente Vida Prática na experiência do paciente durante a internação. Métodos Pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgias ortopédicas foram randomizados em dois grupos (Controle e Intervenção). O Grupo Controle recebeu orientações por escrito quanto ao pós-operatório, e o Grupo Intervenção recebeu adicionalmente uma sessão de demonstração e treinamento em um ambiente criado para simular uma casa e seus cômodos (sala, quarto, cozinha, lavanderia e banheiro) com profissional fisioterapeuta. Os participantes de ambos os grupos responderam o Questionário de Avaliação do Paciente Internado Relativo aos Sistemas e Prestadores de Cuidados de Saúde no dia da alta hospitalar. Resultados Foram analisados 68 indivíduos, sendo 30 (44,1%) do Grupo Controle e 38 (55,9%) do Grupo Intervenção. O escore do Questionário de Avaliação do Paciente Internado Relativo aos Sistemas e Prestadores de Cuidados de Saúde foi semelhante entre os dois grupos (p=0,496). Conclusão Não houve influência da intervenção proposta nos resultados do Questionário de Avaliação do Paciente Internado Relativo aos Sistemas e Prestadores de Cuidados de Saúde, talvez por limitação do instrumento ou por sua aplicação com o paciente ainda internado. Entretanto, por relatos dos pacientes do Grupo Intervenção sobre maior preparo e segurança para a execução das atividades do cotidiano, acredita-se que abordagens de educação do paciente por meio de demonstração devam ser inseridas como parte do processo de preparação para a alta, sempre que possível.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Activities of Daily Living , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Orthopedic Procedures/rehabilitation , Simulation Training/methods , Patient Discharge , Postoperative Period , Arthroplasty/rehabilitation , Scoliosis/surgery , Scoliosis/rehabilitation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hospitalization , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/rehabilitation
20.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 101-107, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS La artroplastia de resección de hombro (ARH) se presenta como una técnica obsoleta y una opción no válida en la actualidad, debido a la evolución de las técnicas quirúrgicas y de los implantes. Pero, como consecuencia del aumento exponencial del uso de artroplastias de hombro, están aumentando en paralelo el número de fracasos e infecciones, con necesidad de revisión y rescate. Es por ello que, en determinadas situaciones y pacientes, esa técnica vuelve a ser una opción necesaria como salvataje, aunque tiene un alto coste funcional. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo, es presentar dos casos de artroplastia de resección de hombro como una opción válida de tratamiento en la actualidad y la revisión de la literatura. CASOS Se presentan dos casos de ARH como tratamiento de rescate, en un caso de osteomielitis crónica de cabeza humeral y un caso de infección de hemiartroplastia de hombro. Ambos pacientes se encontraban sin dolor y libres de infección con un seguimiento de más de 30 meses. En un caso la funcionalidad fue limitada con un Constant de 45 pero el otro caso la funcionalidad fue aceptable con un Constant de 67. CONCLUSIONES La ARH sigue siendo una técnica útil tras el fracaso de procedimientos de revisión, para resolver infecciones protésicas recalcitrantes u osteomielitis. Los resultados funcionales son pobres, por lo que debe reservarse para pacientes con baja demanda funcional y como salvataje, tras agotar otras opciones.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES shoulder resection arthroplasty (SRA) is currently considered as an outdated technique, due to the advances in surgical techniques and new prosthesis designs. However, with the exponential increase in the use of shoulder arthroplasties, the number of failures and infections is equally increasing, as well as the revisions and salvage procedures. In certain situations, SRA is therefore a necessary solution, although it grossly compromise shoulder function. The aim of our study is to present two cases who underwent SRA as a valid treatment option nowadays and a literature review. CASES We present two cases of SRA as salvatage treatment. First case in a chronic humeral head osteomyelitis and second in a partial shoulder prosthesis recalcitrant infection. Both patients had complete pain relief and infection was solved with a follow-up over 30 months. In the first case, postoperative shoulder function was limited with a Constant­Murley score of 45. In the second case, function was fairly good with a Constant of 67. CONCLUSIONS SRA remains a valuable technique after the failure of revision procedures, as a salvage for recalcitrant prosthetic infections or osteomyelitis. The functional results are poor, so it should be reserved for patients with low functional demand and as salvatage procedure, after assess other options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthroplasty/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/adverse effects , Osteomyelitis , Reoperation , Salvage Therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Shoulder Prosthesis
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