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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e200, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although the peace process in Colombia resulted in a significant reduction in the number of anti-personnel mines across the country, there are no reliable data on the effects of this phenomenon on outcomes for patients who were victims of these devices. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mortality from landmine injuries before and during the Colombian peace process. Furthermore possible associations between peace negotiations and mortality were explored. Methods: For this study, we used the "Colombian Victims of Antipersonnel Mines Injuries registry" (MAP/MUSE database) data from 2002 to 2018. This registry was launched in 2001 by the government of Colombia with the aim of prospectively and systematically collect information on all the cases of anti-personnel mine injuries in the country. The period between 2002-2012 was classified as the pre-negotiation period (período de guerra), and 2014-2018 as the peace negotiations period, with 2013 classified as a washout year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the association between peace negotiations and mortality among anti-personnel landmine injured individuals. Results: A total of 10306 landmine injury cases were registered. Of these, 1180 (11.4%) occurred in the peace-negotiation period. Mortality was significantly lower during the period of peace negotiations. After adjusting for sex, age group, race, active duty soldier status, rural area, and geographic Departamentos case volumes, the peace negotiation period was found to be associated with lower risk-adjusted odds of mortality after suffering a landmine injury (OR= 0.6, 95% CI, 0.5-0.7; p<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between the period of peace negotiation and a lower likelihood of mortality among victims of anti-personnel landmines.


Resumen Introducción: Aunque el proceso de paz colombiano produjo una reducción en la cantidad de minas antipersona en el país, no hay estimativos sobre el efecto de este fenómeno en los desenlaces de los pacientes víctimas de estos artefactos. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la mortalidad por minas antipersona antes y durante la negociación del proceso de paz en Colombia. Además, exploramos posibles asociaciones entre las negociaciones de paz y la mortalidad. Métodos: Para este estudio utilizamos los datos del "Registro de víctimas colombianas de lesiones de minas antipersona" (base de datos MAP / MUSE) de 2002 a 2018. Este registro fue lanzado en 2001 por el gobierno de Colombia con el objetivo de recolectar información de manera prospectiva y sistemática de los casos de trauma por minas antipersona en el país. Clasificamos el período comprendido entre 2002 y 2012 como el período previo a la negociación (período de guerra), el comprendido entre 2014 y 2018 como el período de negociaciones de paz y el año 2013 como período de "depuración". Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística multivariados para explorar las asociaciones entre las negociaciones de paz y la mortalidad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 10306 casos de lesiones por minas antipersona. De estos, 1180 (11.4%) ocurrieron en el período de negociación de paz. La mortalidad fue significativamente menor durante el período de negociaciones de paz. El análisis de regresión logística multivariado determinó que el período de negociación de paz se asoció con una menor probabilidad de mortalidad después de sufrir una lesión por minas antipersona (OR = 0,6, IC 95%, 0,5-0,7; p <0,001). Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren una asociación entre el período de negociación de paz y una menor probabilidad de mortalidad entre las víctimas de las minas antipersona.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Warfare , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality , Artifacts , Amputation , Military Personnel , Alprostadil , Regression Analysis , Colombia , Delivery of Health Care , Government , Mining , Occupational Groups
2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e500, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a potentially fatal paediatric emergency. Our objective was to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to difficult/doubtful diagnosis. Case report 34-month-old girl referred for urgent rigid bronchoscopy after suspected metallic blade ingestion (found chewing on it). She had a previous recurrent history of wheezing. The physical examination revealed face/lip wounds, traces of powder on her teeth but no breathing difficulty. The plain X-Ray revealed radiopaque images of the upper pulmonary field and gastric chamber. In the absence of FBA clinical signs but considering a previous history of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a direct digital radiographic study was performed. There were no images compatible with foreign bodies: the results were interpreted as artefacts and no bronchoscopy was performed. Conclusions A careful pre-anaesthetic evaluation, a high level of suspicion and excellent multidisciplinary communication led to the recognition of false radiologic findings. A conservative approach was followed and invasive procedures in a remote location, with high anaesthetic risk for the paediatric population were avoided.


Resumen Introducción La aspiración de cuerpo extraño (ACE) es una emergencia pediátrica potencialmente fatal. La intención del presente artículo es resaltar la importancia de un abordaje multidisciplinario en caso de un diagnóstico difícil/dudoso. Reporte de caso Se trata de una paciente de 4 meses de edad remitida para broncoscopia rígida de urgencia, luego de la sospecha de ingestión de una hojilla metálica (se encontró a la bebé mordiéndola). La paciente tenía antecedentes de sibilancia. Al examen físico se encontraron heridas en la cara y los labios, rastros de polvo en los dientes, pero no había dificultad respiratoria. El examen de rayos-x mostraba imágenes radio opacas en el cuadrante superior derecho del pulmón y en la cámara gástrica. En virtud de la ausencia de signos clínicos de ACE en una paciente con antecedentes de hiperresponsividad bronquial, se realizó un estudio radiográfico digital. No hubo imágenes compatibles con cuerpos extraños: los resultados se interpretaron como artefactos y no se realizó la broncoscopia. Conclusiones Un cuidadoso examen pre-anestesia, el alto grado de sospecha y una excelente comunicación multidisciplinaria, permitieron el reconocimiento de hallazgos radiológicos falsos. Se siguió un abordaje conservador, evitando así procedimientos invasivos en lugares remotos con alto grado de riesgo para la población pediátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Respiration , Respiratory Sounds , Eating , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Wounds and Injuries , X-Rays , Bronchoscopy , Risk , Artifacts , Absenteeism , Lung , Mastication
3.
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 54-62, Jan-Apr2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348190

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo avaliou a influência de materiais obturadores endodônticos na produção de artefato de imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), por meio da análise de densidade de imagem em incisivos centrais e dentes pré-molares unirradiculares. Métodos: Os dentes foram submetidos a instrumentação endodôntica e divididos em cinco grupos: um grupo controle (sem preenchimento endodôntico) e quatro grupos teste, cada um preenchido por um material obturador endodôntico diferente (PulpCanal Sealer, AHPlus, Sealer26 e BCSealer). Após a aquisição da TCFC, as imagens foram avaliadas para determinar variações de tons de cinza nos três terços da raiz (análise objetiva). A segunda análise (subjetiva) comparou o grupo controle com dois dos grupos teste, em um processo randomizado. Resultados: Na análise objetiva, o Sealer26 e o BCSealer mostraram diferença estatística para valores mínimos, em comparação com outros materiais obturadores endodônticos, para dentes anteriores e posteriores. Para valores máximos, apenas o grupo controle diferiu estatisticamente dos grupos teste. Ao comparar os valores dos pré-molares e dos incisivos centrais em tons cinza pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis, foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para os valores mínimos. Na análise subjetiva, para dentes anteriores e posteriores, o PulpCanal Sealer foi o material mais frequentemente apontado pelos observadores como aquele que produziu mais interferência de artefato. Conclusões: Os materiais obturadores endodônticos nos dentes posteriores apresentaram comportamento semelhante; somente o PulpCanal Sealer no terço apical apresentou diferenças estatísticas em relação aos demais grupos. Para os dentes anteriores, o BCSealer apresentou valores mínimos maiores em relação aos outros materiais obturadores endodônticos, o que poderia representar maior interferência do artefato (AU).


Objective: This study evaluated the influence of canal obturation materials in the production of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images artifact, by means of image density analysis and comparison between four materials in central incisors and monoradicular premolar teeth. Materials and Methods: The teeth were submitted to endodontic instrumentation and divided into 5 groups: one control group (no endodontic filling) and four test groups each one filled by a different endodontic sealer (PulpCanal Sealer, AHPlus, Sealer26 and BCSealer). After CBCT scanning, the images were assessed to determine grayscale variations in three root thirds (objective analysis). The second (subjective) analysis compared the control group with two of the test groups in a randomized process. Results: In the objective analysis, Sealer26 and BCSealer showed statistical difference for minimum values, in comparison with another sealers, for both anterior and posterior teeth. For maximum values, only control group differed statistically from test groups. When comparing premolars and central incisors grayscale values by ANOVA analysis, a statistically significant difference was found mainly for minimum values. At the subjective analysis, for both anterior and posterior teeth, PulpCanal Sealer was the filling most frequently appointed by the observers as the one that produced more artifact interference. Conclusion: Endodontic fillings at posterior teeth performed similar behavior. Only PulpCanal Sealer on apical third presented higher maximum values in relation to others groups, which could represent more white brands. For anterior teeth, BC Sealer performed higher minimum values in relation to other endodontic fillings, which could represent more dark bands (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Obturation , In Vitro Techniques , Materials , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Artifacts , Endodontics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879286

ABSTRACT

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a rapidly developing hybrid biomedical imaging technology, which is capable of providing structural and functional information of biological tissues. Due to inevitable motion of the imaging object, such as respiration, heartbeat or eye rotation, motion artifacts are observed in the reconstructed images, which reduce the imaging resolution and increase the difficulty of obtaining high-quality images. This paper summarizes current methods for correcting and compensating motion artifacts in photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT), discusses their advantages and limits and forecasts possible future work.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Microscopy , Motion , Photoacoustic Techniques , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888203

ABSTRACT

The brain-computer interface (BCI) systems used in practical applications require as few electroencephalogram (EEG) acquisition channels as possible. However, when it is reduced to one channel, it is difficult to remove the electrooculogram (EOG) artifacts. Therefore, this paper proposed an EOG artifact removal algorithm based on wavelet transform and ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Firstly, the single channel EEG signal is subjected to wavelet transform, and the wavelet components which involve EOG artifact are decomposed by ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Then the predefined autocorrelation coefficient threshold is used to automatically select and remove the intrinsic modal functions which mainly composed of EOG components. And finally the 'clean' EEG signal is reconstructed. The comparative experiments on the simulation data and the real data show that the algorithm proposed in this paper solves the problem of automatic removal of EOG artifacts in single-channel EEG signals. It can effectively remove the EOG artifacts when causes less EEG distortion and has less algorithm complexity at the same time. It helps to promote the BCI technology out of the laboratory and toward commercial application.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Artifacts , Computer Simulation , Electroencephalography , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Wavelet Analysis
6.
Dent. press endod ; 10(3): 27-37, Sept-Dec.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344759

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As obturações dos canais radiculares e os pinos intrarradiculares geralmente produzem artefatos de contraste branco e possíveis alterações volumétricas nas imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). Esses artefatos, induzidos pela maior densidade dos materiais obturadores de canais radiculares, cimentos para colocação de coroa e pinos intracanais, podem potencialmente levar a interpretações incorretas, interferindo no diagnóstico de um volume adquirido de TCFC, principalmente na avaliação de potenciais fraturas e perfurações radiculares. Objetivos: Avaliar em seis casos clínicos os efeitos positivos e negativos dos artefatos de contraste branco no diagnóstico de fraturas radiculares, perfurações radiculares e cimentação de restaurações de porcelana. Métodos: O software e-Vol DX, que possui filtros específicos para redução de artefato de contraste (BAR, Blooming Artifact Reduction), foi usado para melhorar o valor diagnóstico dos volumes adquiridos de TCFC. Conclusões: O em- prego do software e-Vol DX para a reconstrução de imagens de TCFC melhorou a visualização das estruturas anatômicas e reduziu os artefatos. A visualização aprimorada de da- dos nas imagens pode auxiliar na identificação de detalhes essenciais que, em conjunto com os achados clínicos, são úteis para uma correta estruturação do diagnóstico (AU).


Introduction: Root canal fillings and intraradicular posts often create white contrast artifacts and possible volumetric changes on CBCT scans known as blooming artifacts. These alterations could lead to the incorrect interpretations reducing the diagnostic of an acquired CBCT volume, particularly when evaluating potential root fractures and root perforations. Methods and Results: In six clinical cases, the positive and negative effects of beam hardening artifacts on the diagnosis of root fractures, root perforations and porcelain restoration cementation were evaluated. These artifacts, induced by the higher density of root canal filling materials, cements for crown placement and intracanal posts, may potentially lead to inaccurate or false interpretations. A novel software, e-Vol DX, which has specific filters for blooming artifact reduction (BAR), was used to improve the diagnostic value of acquired CBCT volumes. Conclusions: The use of the e-Vol DX software package for the reconstruction of CBCT scans improved visualization of anatomical structures and reduced blooming artifacts. Improved data visualization may help reveal essential details that, in conjunction with clinical findings, are useful to achieve a correct diagnosis (AU).


Subject(s)
Software , Filters , Artifacts , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Serial Publications
7.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 18(3): 151-178, jul.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150001

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) En este artículo de investigación cualitativa, la tecnología fotográfica y la memoria visual se convierten en plataformas para producir expresiones artísticas de reconciliación. En tal sentido, la creación fotográfica se usó como medio para exteriorizar significados e interpretaciones visuales sobre un territorio. Estudiantes de una institución educativa rural participaron en talleres de creación fotográfica y laboratorios de fundamentación sobre memoria y reconciliación. Este trabajo empírico permitió aplicar instrumentos de observación participante, explorando el acto creativo a través de una guía de elementos que potenciaron posturas críticas de los jóvenes hacia el territorio. Los resultados de un modelo de acciones creativas, aplicado a procesos de pensamiento crítico, permitieron comprobar que el autorretrato fotográfico se convierte en un artefacto comunicativo autorreferenciado socialmente.


Abstract (analytical) In this qualitative research article, photographic technology and visual memory are used in platforms to produce artistic expressions of reconciliation. Photographic creation was used to express meanings and visual interpretations of a territory. Students from a rural school participated in photographic creation workshops and activities focused on memory and reconciliation. This empirical work facilitated the application of participant observation instruments, exploring the act of creation through a handbook that promoted critical thinking for young people regarding the territory. The results of a creative action model applied to critical thought processes verified that the photographic self-portrait becomes a socially self-referenced communicative artifact.


Resumo (analítico) Neste artigo de pesquisa qualitativa, a tecnologia fotográfica e memória visual tornam-se plataformas para produzir expressões artísticas de reconciliação. Nesse sentido, a criação fotográfica foi utilizada como um meio de externalizar significados visuais e interpretações de um território. Os alunos da instituição educacional rural Giovanni Montini participam de oficinas de criação fotográfica e de laboratórios de fundamentação em memória e reconciliação. Este trabalho empírico permitiu a aplicação de instrumentos de observação participante, explorando o ato criativo por meio de um guia de elementos (estruturação, navegação, programação e representação) que impulsionaram as posições críticas dos jovens em relação ao território. Os resultados de um modelo de ações criativas, aplicadas aos processos de pensamento crítico, permitiram verificar que o autoretrato fotográfico torna-se um dispositivo comunicativo socialmente auto-referenciado.


Subject(s)
Technology , Observation , Qualitative Research , Memory , Schools , Students , Artifacts
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 582-588, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the dimensions of intraradicular posts using a new cone beam CT (CBCT) software, and verified the potential of blooming artifact reduction. Sixty-three single-rooted human teeth were shaped, obturated, prepared for intracanal post placement and distributed into three groups: G1: anatomically customized prefabricated glass fiber posts; G2: low-fusion alloy posts; G3: gold alloy posts. After post fabrication and luting with RelyX U200®, specimens were sectioned axially at 9 mm from the root apex, and markings were made on the root surfaces (X-, Y- and Z-axes). The dimensions of the original posts (control group) were measured using a digital micrometer. CBCT scans of the teeth were obtained using a PreXion 3D Elite® scanner. Posts were measured on CBCT scans using DICOM files and the e-Vol DX software. A specific filter, Blooming Artefact Reduction (BAR), was developed to analyze intracanal posts. Statistical data were evaluated using the Van de Waerden nonparametric analysis of variance and, after that, normalized data were analyzed using the Tukey test. The level of significance was set at α = 5%. The measures of the anatomical prefabricated, low-fusion alloy and gold alloy intracanal posts obtained using the e-Vol DX CBCT software and a micrometer were not significantly different (p>0.05). The use of the BAR filter of the e-Vol DX software application did not induce any dimensional differences on CBCT scans of intracanal posts when compared with measurements made with a micrometer on original posts. The use of the BAR filter eliminated blooming artifacts.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou as dimensões de pinos intrarradiculares usando um novo software de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) e um micrômetro digital, e verificou o potencial da redução do artefato de contraste do branco. Sessenta e três dentes humanos unirradiculares foram modelados, obturados, preparados para colocação de pinos e distribuídos em três grupos: G1: pino de fibra de vidro pré-fabricado anatômico; G2: pino metálico de liga de baixa fusão; G3: pino metálico de liga de ouro. Após a confecção e cimentação dos pinos com RelyX U200®, os espécimes foram cortados no sentido axial a 9 mm do ápice radicular, sendo efetuadas marcações em suas superfícies radiculares (eixos X, Y e Z) para orientação das medidas e sincronizações das imagens. Foi utilizado um micrômetro digital para a mensuração das dimensões dos pinos originais (grupo controle) associado ao microscópio operatório. Posteriormente, as imagens em TCFC foram obtidas usando o PreXion 3D Elite®. Para a mensuração dos pinos nas imagens de TCFC utilizou-se o arquivo DICOM e a ferramenta de medida do software e-Vol DX, configurada para medidas milesimais, com o filtro BAR (Blooming Artifact Reduction). Os dados estatísticos foram avaliados com a análise de variância não-paramétrica de Van der Waerden, seguida pelo Teste de Tukey aplicado aos dados normalizados. O nível de significância foi de α = 5%. Os resultados mostraram que as medidas dos diâmetros dos pinos intrarradiculares (fibra de vidro anatômico, metálico liga de baixa fusão, e em liga de ouro) usando o software e-Vol DX e o micrômetro não mostram diferenças significativas entre si. O uso do filtro BAR do software e-Vol DX não induziu diferenças dimensionais nas imagens de TCFC dos pinos quando comparadas às medidas realizadas com o micrômetro sobre os pinos originais. O uso do filtro BAR eliminou artefatos de contraste do branco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Post and Core Technique , Artifacts , Tooth Root , Software , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the image quality of low-dose (LD) computed tomography (CT) obtained using a deep learning-based denoising algorithm (DLA) with LD CT images reconstructed with a filtered back projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE).MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred routine-dose (RD) abdominal CT studies reconstructed using FBP were used to train the DLA. Simulated CT images were made at dose levels of 13%, 25%, and 50% of the RD (DLA-1, -2, and -3) and reconstructed using FBP. We trained DLAs using the simulated CT images as input data and the RD CT images as ground truth. To test the DLA, the American College of Radiology CT phantom was used together with 18 patients who underwent abdominal LD CT. LD CT images of the phantom and patients were processed using FBP, ADMIRE, and DLAs (LD-FBP, LD-ADMIRE, and LD-DLA images, respectively). To compare the image quality, we measured the noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function (MTF) of phantom images. For patient data, we measured the mean image noise and performed qualitative image analysis. We evaluated the presence of additional artifacts in the LD-DLA images.RESULTS: LD-DLAs achieved lower noise levels than LD-FBP and LD-ADMIRE for both phantom and patient data (all p < 0.001). LD-DLAs trained with a lower radiation dose showed less image noise. However, the MTFs of the LD-DLAs were lower than those of LD-ADMIRE and LD-FBP (all p < 0.001) and decreased with decreasing training image dose. In the qualitative image analysis, the overall image quality of LD-DLAs was best for DLA-3 (50% simulated radiation dose) and not significantly different from LD-ADMIRE. There were no additional artifacts in LD-DLA images.CONCLUSION: DLAs achieved less noise than FBP and ADMIRE in LD CT images, but did not maintain spatial resolution. The DLA trained with 50% simulated radiation dose showed the best overall image quality.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Humans , Noise , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786229

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a primary driver of global mortality and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 17.9 million deaths annually. Consequently, a substantial body of research related to CVD has developed, with an emphasis on identifying strategies for the prevention and effective treatment of CVD. In this review, we critically examine the existing CVD literature, and specifically highlight the contribution of Mendelian randomization analyses in CVD research. Throughout this review, we assess the extent to which research findings agree across a range of studies of differing design within a triangulation framework. If differing study designs are subject to non-overlapping sources of bias, consistent findings limit the extent to which results are merely an artefact of study design. Consequently, broad agreement across differing studies can be viewed as providing more robust causal evidence in contrast to limiting the scope of the review to a single specific study design. Utilising the triangulation approach, we highlight emerging patterns in research findings, and explore the potential of identified risk factors as targets for precision medicine and novel interventions.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Bias , Cardiovascular Diseases , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Mortality , Precision Medicine , Random Allocation , Risk Factors
16.
Dent. press endod ; 9(3): 20-28, Sept-Dec.2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343623

ABSTRACT

As conquistas incorporadas à Endodontia em decorrência das novas tecnologias de informação permitiram avanços que impactaram no êxito clínico e no prognóstico. Essas novas aquisições influenciaram o mundo contemporâneo, que presencia uma profunda mudança proporcionada pela velocidade e qualidade das informações, economia de investimento e tempo, assim beneficiando a área da saúde. Uma revolução do pensamento e modo de viver contemporâneo que se experimenta nos dias atuais é a biotecnologia. O impacto da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico na Endodontia foi capaz de superar várias limitações das radiografias periapicais, como a eliminação das sobreposições, a extraordinária possibilidade de navegação pela imagem, a qualidade das imagens em alta resolução e contraste, entre outras. Esse estudo objetiva apresentar algumas características de um novo software de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico chamado de e-Vol DX, capaz de impactar nas tomadas de decisões clínicas em Endodontia. O software de TCFC e-Vol DX se constitui em um recurso imprescindível na obtenção de imagens de alta qualidade. Vários filtros, com diferentes propriedades, foram desenvolvidos e incorporados, como o filtro BAR, que permite a redução de artefatos de contraste do branco, entre outros. Essa ferramenta é efetiva em tomadas de decisões clínicas para a execução do protocolo terapêutico de casos endodônticos complexos.


The achievements incorporated into endodontics, resulting from new information technologies allowed advances that impacted prognosis and clinical success. These new acquisitions have influenced the contemporary world, that is witnessing a profound change brought about by the speed and quality of information, investment savings and time, thus benefiting the health areas. A revolution in contemporary thinking and living that is being experienced today is biotechnology. The impact of cone beam computed tomography on endodontics was able to overcome several limitations of periapical radiography, such as the removal of overlaps, the extraordinary possibility of image navigation, the quality of high resolution and contrast images, among others. This study aims to present some characteristics of a new cone beam computed tomography software named e-Vol DX which may impact the clinical decision-making in endodontics. The e-Vol DX CBCT software is an indispensable resource for high quality images. Various filters with different properties have been developed and incorporated, such as the Blooming Artifact Reduction (BAR) filter that allows the reduction of white contrast artifacts, among others. This tool is effective in clinical decision-making for the implementation of the therapeutic protocol of complex endodontic cases.


Subject(s)
Software , Artifacts , Endodontics , Decision , Information Technology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Diagnosis , Investments
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719598

ABSTRACT

In pediatric thoracic CT, respiratory motion is generally treated as a motion artifact degrading the image quality. Conversely, respiratory motion in the thorax can be used to answer important clinical questions, that cannot be assessed adequately via conventional static thoracic CT, by utilizing four-dimensional (4D) CT. However, clinical experiences of 4D thoracic CT are quite limited. In order to use 4D thoracic CT properly, imagers should understand imaging techniques, radiation dose optimization methods, and normal as well as typical abnormal imaging appearances. In this article, the imaging techniques of pediatric thoracic 4D CT are reviewed with an emphasis on radiation dose. In addition, several clinical applications of pediatric 4D thoracic CT are addressed in various thoracic functional abnormalities, including upper airway obstruction, tracheobronchomalacia, pulmonary air trapping, abnormal diaphragmatic motion, and tumor invasion. One may further explore the clinical usefulness of 4D thoracic CT in free-breathing children, which can enrich one's clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Artifacts , Child , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Humans , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tracheobronchomalacia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786640

ABSTRACT

The study of coprolites has been a theme of archaeology in the American Southwest. A feature of archaeoparasitology on the Colorado Plateau is the ubiquity of pinworm infection. As a crowd parasite, this ubiquity signals varying concentrations of populations. Our recent analysis of coprolite deposits from 2 sites revealed the highest prevalence of infection ever recorded for the region. For Salmon Ruins, the deposits date from AD 1140 to 1280. For Aztec Ruins, the samples can be dated by artifact association between AD 1182–1253. Both sites can be placed in the Ancestral Pueblo III occupation (AD 1100–1300), which included a period of cultural stress associated with warfare. Although neither of these sites show evidence of warfare, they are typical of large, defensible towns that survived this time of threat by virtue of large populations in stonewalled villages with easily accessible water. We hypothesize that the concentration of large numbers of people promoted pinworm infection and, therefore, explains the phenomenal levels of infection at these sites.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Artifacts , Colorado , Enterobius , Occupations , Parasites , Prevalence , Salmon , Violence , Virtues , Warfare , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740166

ABSTRACT

Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in non-invasive detection and characterization of primary and metastatic lesions in the liver. Recently, efforts have been made to improve spatial and temporal resolution of DCE liver MRI for arterial phase imaging. Review of recent publications related to arterial phase imaging of the liver indicates that there exist primarily two approaches: breath-hold and free-breathing. For breath-hold imaging, acquiring multiple arterial phase images in a breath-hold is the preferred approach over conventional single-phase imaging. For free-breathing imaging, a combination of three-dimensional (3D) stack-of-stars golden-angle sampling and compressed sensing parallel imaging reconstruction is one of emerging techniques. Self-gating can be used to decrease respiratory motion artifact. This article introduces recent MRI technologies relevant to hepatic arterial phase imaging, including differential subsampling with Cartesian ordering (DISCO), golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP), and X-D GRASP. This article also describes techniques related to dynamic 3D image reconstruction of the liver from golden-angle stack-of-stars data.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Hand Strength , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods
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