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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 726-732, Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143424

ABSTRACT

Hylaeamys megacephalus (G. Fisher, 1814) presents great genetic diversity and wide geographical distribution, and occurs in both the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Because of its generalist aspect, this species tolerates different eating habits and habitats. It occurs in flooded and dry areas and is predominantly terrestrial, which allows greater gene flow between populations even over long distances. Studies that seek a better understanding of morphological variations resulting from differences imposed by the environment throughout this species' distribution are still lacking. This study aimed to analyze the differences between H. megacephalus populations based on craniometry, investigating whether the environment has an influence on morphology. We analyzed a total of 142 specimens from three scientific mammal collections: National Museum, "Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro" (MN-UFRJ); "Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres", "Instituto Oswaldo Cruz", "Fundação Oswaldo Cruz"(LBCE-Fiocruz); and "Laboratório de Biodiversidade", "Universidade Federal de Goiás", "Regional Jataí" (LZE-UFG), and took 20 craniometric measurements. Craniometry was explored using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), canonical variate analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA). The results led us to conclude that there are three craniometric groups of H. megacephalus with a tendency to differentiate as a result of geographical influences.(AU)


Com grande diversidade genética e distribuição geográfica, Hylaeamys megacephalus (G. Fisher, 1814) ocorre tanto na Amazônia quanto no Cerrado. Visto seu aspecto generalista, esta espécie tolera diversos hábitos alimentares e habitats, ocorrendo em áreas inundadas ou não, sendo predominantemente terrestre, permitindo maior fluxo de genes entre as populações, mesmo em longas distâncias. Apresenta ampla distribuição, e carece de estudos que busquem um melhor entendimento sobre as variações morfológicas resultantes das diferenças impostas pelo meio ao longo de sua distribuição. O estudo teve como objetivo, analisar as diferenças entre as populações de H. megacephalus, com base na craniometria investigando se o ambiente interfere na morfologia. Analisamos um total de 142 espécimes oriundos de coleções científicas de mamíferos, do Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MN-UFRJ), Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (LBCE-Fiocruz) e Laboratório de Biodiversidade, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Regional Jataí, nos quais foram tomadas 20 medidas craniométricas. A craniometria foi explorada nas análises estatísticas de agrupamento de pares não ponderados com médias aritméticas (UPGMA), variação canônica e análise dos Componentes Principais (PCA). Os resultados encontrados nos levaram a concluir a existência de três grupos craniométricos da espécie de H. megacephalus com tendência a se diferenciarem, por influências geográficas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/veterinary , Arvicolinae/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Amazonian Ecosystem , Grassland , Gene-Environment Interaction
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 119-125, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990802

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminth parasites are still not a well-known component of animal biodiversity. In this study, we describe and compare the endoparasite assemblages of three native rodent species from a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem. A total of eight species of gastrointestinal helminth parasites were detected. The endoparasitic communities of the rodents Phyllotis darwini (5 species), Octodon degus (4 species), and Abrothrix olivaceus (3 species) were described in terms of their prevalence and mean abundance. In addition, endoparasite records by rodent species were submitted to rarefaction analyses to verify sampling robustness and used to compare richness and similarity among rodent species. O. degus presented the highest prevalence and parasitic load, but was of low diversity, while P. darwini presented the highest diversity, but had a low prevalence rate. Conversely, A. olivaceus presented the lowest prevalence and diversity. This study contributes to the existing knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of rodent species from semiarid Mediterranean zones.


Resumo Os helmintos parasitas não são um componente ainda bem conhecido da biodiversidade animal. Neste trabalho, descreveu-se e comparou-se as redes de endoparasitas de três espécies de roedores nativos de um ecossistema mediterrâneo semiárido. No estudo foram detectadas um total de oito de espécies de helmintos gastrointestinais parasitas. As comunidades endoparasíticas dos roedores Phyllotis darwini (5 espécies), Octodon degus (4 espécies) e Abrothrix olivaceus (3 espécies) foram descritas por meio da sua prevalência e abundância média. Além disso, os registros de endoparasitas achados nas diferentes espécies de roedores foram submetidos a uma análise de rarefação para verificar a robustez da amostragem, e utilizados para comparar a riqueza e a similaridade entre espécies de roedores. Octodon degus apresentou a maior prevalência e carga parasitária, menor diversidade, enquanto P. darwini apresentou a maior diversidade, mas uma baixa prevalência. Porém, A. olivaceus apresentou a menor prevalência e diversidade de parásitas. Este estudo representa uma contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna endoparasitária das espécies de roedores próprias das zonas semi-áridas do Mediterrâneo chileno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Arvicolinae/parasitology , Octodon/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Seasons , Chile , Ecosystem , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 433-438, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899303

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, Litomosoides silvai parasitizing Akodon montensis in the southern region of Brazil is reported for the first time. New morphological information is provided for some structures of this nematode species, such as a flattened cephalic extremity, presence of two dorsal cephalic papillae, female tail with a constriction at its tip, "s" shaped vagina, spicules characteristic of the carinii species group and microfilaria tail constricted at the tip. This nematode was found parasitizing the thoracic cavity with a prevalence of 10% (2/20), mean intensity of 4 (6/2), mean abundance of 0.4 (8/20) and range of infection of 2-6 specimens per host, in southern Brazil. This occurrence of L. silvai in A. montensis is a new geographical record for southern Brazil, in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion of the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome.


Resumo No presente estudo é relatado pela primeira vez Litomosoides silvai parasitando Akodon montensis coletados na região Sul do Brasil. Foram fornecidas novas informações morfológicas para algumas estruturas desta espécie de nematódeo, tais como extremidade cefálica achatada, a presença de duas papilas cefálicas dorsais, cauda das fêmeas com uma constrição na ponta da cauda, vagina em forma de "s", espículas de característica do grupo de espécies de carinii e cauda da microfilária com constrição na ponta. Este nematódeo parasitava a cavidade torácica com uma prevalência de 10% (2/20), intensidade média de 4 (8/2) e abundância média de 0,4 (8/20), e intervalo de infecção de 2-6 espécimes por hospedeiro no Sul do Brasil. A ocorrência de L. silvai em A. montensis é um novo registro geográfico, no sul do Brasil, a noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, na ecorregião da Mata Atlântica do Alto Paraná, parte do bioma da Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Onchocerciasis/veterinary , Arvicolinae/parasitology , Onchocerca/anatomy & histology , Onchocerca/physiology , Brazil
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 1-11, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intra-specific color variation is often underestimated by researchers, and among mammals, intra-specific differences in coloration are poorly documented for most species. The main goal of this study was to apply an objective color measurement methodology to the study of a specific problem: the detection, if any, of patterns of changes in the fur color of specimens of Akodon budini in relation to biological (i.e., sex) and environmental (i.e., season) variables. We hypothesize that coat color will be more homogeneous in males than in females and that coat color will be darker in winter than in summer, the latter being orange. We measured the pelage color on five points over the dorsal surface of 26 A. budini museum specimens using a spectroradiometer and a diffuse illumination cabin. We used Principal Component Analysis to describe the association between the color variables, sex and season, and each of the observations. We then used general linear models of Analysis of Variance to examine relationships between color data, season, and sex. The results clearly confirm the hypothesis related to seasonal coat color change but do not directly confirm the hypothesis related to changes in coat color in relation to sex, and we show the complexity of the studied pattern. In conclusion, undoubtedly, the studied variables should accordingly be considered when studying the coloration of specimens for characterization, identification and discrimination of different taxonomic units based on color.


Resumo Variação de cor intra-específica é muitas vezes subestimada pelos pesquisadores, e entre espécies de mamíferos, as diferenças intra-específicas na coloração são pouco conhecidas para a maioria das espécies. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi aplicar uma metodologia objetiva de medição de cor para o estudo de um problema específico: a detecção de padrões de mudanças na cor da pele de espécimes de Akodon budini em relação a variáveis biológicas (i.e., sexo) e ambientais (i.e., temporada), se houver. Nossa hipótese é que a cor da pelagem do sexo masculino será mais homogênea do que a de fêmeas e que a cor da pelagem do inverno vai ser mais escura do que a de verão, sendo esta última mais laranja. Medimos a cor da pelagem em cinco pontos sobre a superfície dorsal de 26 espécimes de museu de A. budini usando um espectroradiômetro e uma cabine de iluminação difusa. Usamos Análise de Componentes Principais para descrever a associação entre as variáveis de cor, sexo e temporada, e cada uma das observações. Em seguida, usamos modelos lineares gerais da Análise de Variância para verificar as relações entre os dados de cor, temporada, e sexo. Os resultados confirmam claramente a hipótese relacionada à mudança sazonal de cor da pelagem, mas não confirmam diretamente a hipótese relacionada com alterações na cor da pelagem em relação ao sexo, e vamos mostrar a complexidade do modelo estudado. Em conclusão, sem dúvida, as variáveis estudadas devem consequentemente ser tidas em conta quando se estuda a coloração de amostras para caracterização, identificação e discriminação de diferentes unidades taxonômicas com base na cor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Hair Color/physiology , Arvicolinae/physiology , Seasons , Sex Characteristics , Environment , Mammals
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180606

ABSTRACT

Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114–112°E, 34–38°N), from January to December 2011. Overall, 225/286 (78.7%) rodents captured were infested with chigger mites. A total of 451 chigger mites were identified as belonging to 5 most commonly collected species and 3 genera in 1 family. Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium intermedia were the most commonly collected chigger mites. L. scutellare (66.2%, 36.7%, and 49.0%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Microtus fortis, respectively, whereas L. intermedia (61.5% and 63.2%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Cricetulus triton and Mus musculus, respectively. This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of chigger mites that varied seasonally in Shandong Province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Arvicolinae , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Invertebrates , Mice , Mites , Murinae , Neptune , Parasites , Prevalence , Public Health , Rats , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Trombiculidae , Vertebrates , Zoonoses
8.
Biol. Res ; 50: 10, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The muskrat is a seasonal breeder. Males secrete musk to attract females during the breeding season. The testosterone binding to the androgen receptor (AR) in musk glands of muskrat may play an important role conducting the musk secretion process. METHODS: The musk gland, testis and blood samples of musk rats are collected in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. Some part of the samples are kept in liquid nitrogen for transcriptome analysis and Western blotting test. Some part of the samples are kept in 70% alcohol for histology experiment, blood samples are kept at -20 °C for the serum testosterone measurement experiment. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that the quantity of secreted musk, the volume of the musk glands, the diameter of the gland cells and AR expression are all higher during the breeding season than at other times (p < 0.01). StAR, P450scc and 3ß-HSD expression in the Leydig cells of the testis were also higher during this season, as was serum testosterone. AR was also observed in the gland cells of two other musk-secreting animals, the musk deer and small Indian civet, in their musk glands. These results suggest that the testes and musk glands co-develop seasonally. CONCLUSION: The musk glands' seasonal development and musk secretion are regulated by the testes, and testosterone plays an important role in the seasonal development of musk glands.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Scent Glands/growth & development , Scent Glands/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism , Organ Size , Reference Values , Reproduction/physiology , Scent Glands/anatomy & histology , Seasons , Testis/growth & development , Testosterone/blood , Breeding , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Arvicolinae , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Leydig Cells/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 1054-1057, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828111

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudoryzomys simplex is a small to medium sized terrestrial rodent confined to lowland open areas with strong seasonal rainfall throughout the Chaco, Cerrado and Caatinga. Despite its extensive range, the species is difficult to trap. In this report we provide the first record of P. simplex in the Pantanal, where three specimens were collected in a pasture of exotic grass. The specimens are morpometrically similar to the population from Paraguay (Chaco). In this sense, our report shows how interesting a taxonomic review of the species would be to better understand the real significance of the geographic variation herein observed.


Resumo Pseudoryzomys simplex é um roedor terrestre de pequeno a médio porte que ocorre em áreas abertas de planícies com fortes precipitações sazonais ao longo dos Chaco, Cerrado e Caatinga. Apesar de sua extensa distribuição, a espécie é difícil de ser capturada. No presente estudo, fornecemos o primeiro registro de P. simplex no Pantanal, onde três espécimes foram coletados em uma pastagem de capim exótico. Os espécimes são morfometricamente semelhantes à da população do Paraguai (Chaco). Neste sentido, o nosso relatório mostra quão interessante seria uma revisão taxonômica das espécies para melhor compreender o significado real da variação geográfica aqui observada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sigmodontinae , Arvicolinae , Floods , Brazil
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 34-40, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776525

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus diseases are emerging human diseases caused by Hantavirus spp. of the Bunnyaviridae family. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been detected in the Federal District (DF) of Brazil since 2004. Among the 27 Brazilian Federal Units, DF has the highest fatality rate. More than 10 years have already passed since then, with confirmation of cases caused by the Araraquara and Paranoa species. The reservoir is Necromys lasiurus. METHODS: Local surveillance data of the confirmed cases were analyzed, including age, sex, month and year of occurrence, clinical symptoms, syndromes and outcomes, and probable transmission place (PTP). The cases were mainly confirmed by IgM detection with a capture enzyme immunoassay. The cases were classified as autochthonous if PTPs were in the DF area. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2013, in the DF, 126 cases of hantavirus were confirmed, and the cumulative incidence was 5.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. The occurrence of cases was predominantly from April to August. At least 75% of the cases were autochthonous. Acute respiratory failure was reported in 47.5% of cases, and the fatality rate was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: In the DF, the cumulative incidence of HPS was one of the highest worldwide. A seasonal pattern of hantavirus disease in the dry season is clear. There was a high frequency of severe clinical signals and symptoms as well as a high fatality rate. For the near future, visitors and inhabitants of DF rural areas, particularly male adults, should receive continuous education about hantavirus transmission and prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Arvicolinae/virology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Middle Aged
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166326

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Globus Pallidus , Hantavirus , Korea , Leptospira , Mammals , Mites , Murinae , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rickettsia , Rodentia , Sequence Homology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trombiculidae , Zoonoses
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290166

ABSTRACT

Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Molar , Diagnostic Imaging , Pedigree , X-Ray Microtomography
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210964

ABSTRACT

This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 microm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities.


Subject(s)
Animal Structures/anatomy & histology , Animals , Arvicolinae/parasitology , China , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Microscopy , Murinae/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Trombiculidae/anatomy & histology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 865-872, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696017

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae/parasitology , Schistosoma japonicum/drug effects , Serum Albumin/pharmacology , Chromatography, Affinity , Serum Albumin/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 159-161, jan-mar/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671624

ABSTRACT

Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca is an endemic tick to Brazil and has already been reported in the northern (State of Rondonia), southeastern (States of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo) and southern (State of Santa Catarina) regions, always found in association with the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Brandt). This communication records the first occurrence of this tick species in the State of Parana, southern region of Brazil, and it constitutes its first report on Akodon montensis (Thomas) and Oryzomys russatus (Wagner) hosts.


Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca é um carrapato endêmico do Brasil e já foi relatado nas regiões Norte (estado de Rondônia), Sudeste (estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) e Sul (estado de Santa Catarina), tendo sido encontrado sempre em associação com o rato d'água Nectomys squamipes (Brandt). Esta comunicação registra a primeira ocorrência dessa espécie de carrapato no estado do Paraná, região Sul do Brasil e constitui o primeiro relato de Akodon montensis (Thomas) e Oryzomys russatus (Wagner) como hospedeiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Arvicolinae/parasitology , Ixodidae/physiology , Sigmodontinae/parasitology , Brazil
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355737

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial distribution regularities of plague epidemic and the pathogens characteristics, meanwhile the polymorphism of plague ecological geographic landscape leds to the complexity of Yersinia pestis' genotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Microbiology , China , Epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Microbiology , Ecology , Genotype , Marmota , Microbiology , Plague , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Virulence , Genetics , Yersinia pestis , Genetics , Virulence
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2834-2837, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292793

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The rodentia and lagomorpha animals are the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis, their distribution and infection of this parasite may facilitate the infection of definitive hosts such as dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis in Shiqu County, Sichuan, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A systematic sampling method was used to investigate the density of burrows of rodents and lagomorphs at 97 pasture sites in winter and summer pastureland and remote sensing (RS) technology was used to correlate their densities to the distribution of these animals in different landscape types.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Based on the densities of Ochotona curzoniae, Microtus fuscus (dependent variable) and their burrow densities (independent variable) in survey points, regression equations were fitted respectively (Ochotona curzoniae, P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.8705; Microtus fuscus, P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.9736). Their burrow density in summer pastureland was higher than in winter pastureland (F = 36.65, P < 0.0001). The burrow densities of Ochotona curzoniae and Microtus fuscus in bareland and half-bareland are higher than in grassland (F = 7.73, P < 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The regression relationship between the densities of Ochotona curzoniae and Microtus fuscus and their burrow densities indicate that the burrow densities could reflect the animal densities and that the burrow density was greater in summer pastureland than in winter pastureland. The main distribution areas of the intermediate hosts were in bareland and half-bareland.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Parasitology , China , Echinococcosis , Epidemiology , Echinococcus multilocularis , Virulence , Lagomorpha , Parasitology
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 155-163, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336006

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tissues angiogenesis. The adaptation of animals to hypoxic environment is relative to the microvessel density (MVD) in tissues. To further explore the adaptation mechanisms of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) to the hypoxic-hypercapnic burrows, the VEGF mRNA and the MVD in cerebral tissues of the plateau zokor were studied. Total RNA was isolated from liver, and VEGF cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR, then the VEGF cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The coding sequence of plateau pika (Ochotona curzniae), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and mouse (Mus musculus) VEGF cDNA are obtained from GenBank, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology of plateau zokor VEGF cDNA coding sequence with that of plateau pika, rat and mouse were analyzed and compared by using of bioinformatics software. The VEGF mRNA was detected by real-time PCR, and the MVDs in cerebral tissues of the plateau zokor, plateau pika and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that the open reading frame of the plateau zokor VEGF was 645 bp, and the coding sequence of the plateau zokor VEGF cDNA shared 92.1%, 93.6% and 93.8% nucleotide sequence homology to that of the plateau pika, rat and mouse, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of the plateau zokor VEGF cDNA was composed of 188 amino acids and the amino acids from 1 to 26 were signal peptide sequence. The plateau zokor VEGF188 was 90.2%, 94.9% and 94.4% homologous to that of plateau pika, rat and mouse. The level of VEGF mRNA in brain of the plateau zokor was significantly lower than that of SD rat, but there was no obvious difference in VEGF mRNA level between plateau zokor and plateau pika. The MVD in brain of the plateau zokor was markedly higher than that of plateau pika and SD rat. In conclusion, plateau zokor enhances its adaptation to the hypoxic environment by increasing the MVD. The level of VEGF mRNA in the brain of plateau zokor is lower than that of SD rat, which may be as a result of inhibition by the higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the burrow.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Arvicolinae , Physiology , Base Sequence , Brain , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Microvessels , Molecular Sequence Data , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Species Specificity , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 137-142, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337767

ABSTRACT

Mandarin vole (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) spends almost all of its life underground and must have evolved remarkable adaptations to cope with the subterranean hypoxic stress. The aim of present study is to explore the adaptation mechanism through the comparison of hemogram changes under chronic intermittent hypoxia in Mandarin vole and Kunming (KM) mouse (Mus musculus). Mandarin vole and KM mouse were treated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (10.0% oxygen), which was maintained by an oxygen cabin, for 4 h per day during four weeks. Then blood samples from the animals with and without hypoxia treatment were analyzed by a hematology analyzer. The results showed that under normoxic condition mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet (PLT) in Mandarin vole were significantly lower than those in KM mouse. On the contrast, red blood cell count (RBC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in Mandarin vole were higher than that in KM mouse. After four-week chronic intermittent hypoxia treatment, the hemogram changes were as following. MCV and HCT were elevated in Mandarin vole, not affected in KM mouse. Both hemoglobin (HGB) content and MCH in KM mouse increased, while only MCH increased in Mandarin vole. No obvious changes of WBC and PLT were found in two species. These results suggest that the adaptive mechanism of blood system in Mandarin vole responding to hypoxic conditions is different from that of KM mouse. As a subterranean vole, the Mandarin vole has a better tolerance to hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Physiology , Animals , Arvicolinae , Blood , Chronic Disease , Erythrocytes , Hemoglobins , Hypoxia , Blood , Mice , Blood , Species Specificity
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