Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 112
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 676-683, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349986


ABSTRACT Objectives: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme that has antioxidant potential, which confers a protective effect against the atherosclerotic process. However, studies associating genetics, dietary patterns and PON1 activity in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are scarce. Thus, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dietary factors on serum PON1 in CVD patients. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional, sub-study of the BALANCE Program Trial. All patients aged 45 years or older and had evidence of established atherosclerotic disease in the preceding 10 years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were collected. Food intake was assessed with 24-h dietary recall. Data was analyzed using SAS University Edition and a P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sample was divided into three groups, according to the PON1 T(-107)C genotype (CC, CT and TT) and serum PON1 activity (Low, Medium, High). Results: There were no genotype differences for major factors. However, the systolic blood pressure was lower for CT individuals (p<0.05). Intake of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAS) was higher in patients with lower PON1 activity. Lipid ingestion tended to be higher in patients with lower PON1 activity (p=0.08). In the multivariate logistic regression model, SFA intake (P=0.03), genotype (P=0.09), gender (P=0.04), age (P=0.07) and carbohydrate intake (P=0.16) contributed the most to the serum PON1 activity. Conclusion: Based on these findings, nutritional guidance for these patients becomes essential, since dietary components interact with serum PON1 activity more than genotype.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatty Acids , Genotype , Lipids
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 787-793, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349989


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum activity of PON1 in women according to SNPs L55M and T-107C and diet composition. Materials and methods: Blood and serum samples from 26 women were used. DNA extraction, PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes of the PCR fragment were performed for genotyping the PON1 SNPs T-107C and L55M. Serum PON1 activity was measured in a single time point. Patients completed the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and diet composition was estimated. Results: Genotypic distribution for L55M SNP was 56% for the LL genotype, 32% for LM and 12% for MM; for the PON1 C(-107)T SNP it was 28% for the TT genotype, 41% for CT and 31% for CC. Individuals with C and L alleles had higher serum PON1 activity. Combining the two SNPs, we observed that individuals carrying the LL and CC genotypes had twice the activity of carriers of the TT and MM genotypes. Considering food intake, no significant difference was observed between genotypes and intake levels. Conclusion: PON1 T(-107)C and L55M SNPs exert a strong effect on serum PON1 activity in an additive manner and are more important than diet to predict serum PON1 activity.

Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Diet , Alleles , Genotype
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(11): 805-810, Nov. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357083


Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between the PON1 polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Methods In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 100 females. DNA was extracted and PON1 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results Regarding PON1 L55M, the mutated allele (M) frequency was found in 70.5% in RPL and in 53.5% in controls; theMallele was significantly associated with an increased risk of RPL (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]; p<0.001). However, regarding PON1 Q192R, the R mutated allele frequency was found in 28.5% in RPL and in 33% in controls. The R allele did not show any risk for RPL (ORadj 0.81; 95%CI; p=0.329). Conclusion The present study suggests that there is an effect of genetic polymorphism on RPL and provides additional evidence that combines with the growing information about the ways in which certain PON1 genotypes can affect the development of the fetus in the uterus.

Resumo Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a relação entre os polimorfismos PON1 e perda recorrente de gravidez PRG. Métodos Em um estudo transversal, foramcoletadas amostras de sangue de 100 mulheres. O DNA foi extraído e os genótipos PON1 foram determinados por amplificação por PCR. Resultados Com relação ao PON1 L55M, a frequência do alelo mutado (M) foi encontrada em 70,5% no PRG e em 53,5% nos controles; o alelo M foi significativamente associado a um risco aumentado de PRG (odds radio ajustado [ORadj] =2,07; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%; p<0,001). No entanto, em relação ao PON1 Q192R, a frequência do alelo mutado R foi encontrada em 28,5% no PRG e em 33% nos controles. O alelo R não mostrou qualquer risco para PRG (ORadj 0,81; IC 95; p=0,329). Conclusão O presente estudo sugere que há um efeito do polimorfismo genético sobre PRG e fornece evidências adicionais que se combinam com as informações crescentes sobre asmaneiras pelas quais certos genótipos PON1 podemafetar o desenvolvimento do feto no útero.

Humans , Female , Pesticides , Abortion, Habitual/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 249-257, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248973


ABSTRACT Purpose: Paraoxonase-1 activity is associated with age-related macular degeneration. Two polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R) were shown to increase paraoxonase-1 activity and have been implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration. The results of studies that have examined these polymorphisms are conflicting, showing no effect, as well as increased or decreased risk. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of these polymorphisms on age-related macular degeneration. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, LILACS, and Scopus databases, as well as and the retrieved bibliographies of publications were searched for case-control studies that examined for paraoxonase-1 polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.2 and the NCSS Statistical Version 2020 software. Genotype distributions were extracted and, depending on the level of heterogeneity, fixed effects or random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, and allelic genetic models. Results: Overall, for the L55M polymorphism, none of the genetic models demonstrated a significant association. However, for non-Asian populations, a significant association was determined for the heterozygous and dominant genetic models (ORrange=1.24-1.27, p<0.05). For the Asian population, the heterozygous, dominant, and allelic genetic models demonstrated a benefit/protective factor (ORrange=0.29-0.35, p<0.05). For the Q192R polymorphism, none of the genetic models demonstrated a significant association. However, when the cohort was grouped by ethnicity, a significant association was determined in the Asian population for the recessive and allelic genetic models (ORrange=1.63-2.08, p<0.05). However, for the non-Asian population, there was no association observed. Also, there was no identifiable risk when the cohort was stratified into exudative and non-exudative cases. Conclusions: The paraoxonase-1L55M polymorphism increases the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration in non-Asian populations, whereas in Asian populations, the polymorphism exerts a protective effect. However, for the paraoxonase-1 Q192R polymorphism, only the Asian population demonstrated a risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.(AU)

RESUMO Objetivo: A atividade da paraoxonase1 está associada à degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Dois polimorfismos (L55M e Q192R) mostraram aumentar a atividade da paraoxonase1 e foram implicados no desenvolvimento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Os estudos que examinaram esses polimorfismos apresentaram resultados conflitantes: nenhum efeito, risco aumentado ou diminuído. Assim, esta meta-análise foi realizada para determinar o efeito desses polimorfismos na degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Métodos: Foi feita uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed, EBSCO, LILACS e SCOPUS, bem como nas bibliografias compiladas das publicações, buscando-se estudos caso-controle que tivessem analisado os polimorfismos da paraoxonase1 e a degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Os dados foram analisados com software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, versão 2.2, e NCSS Statistical, versão 2020. As distribuições de genótipos foram extraídas e, dependendo do nível de heterogeneidade, modelos de efeitos fixos ou aleatórios foram utilizados para calcular razões de probabilidade (RPs) combinadas, com intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%) para os modelos genéticos heterozigoto, homozigoto, dominante, recessivo e alélico. Resultados: Em geral, nenhum dos modelos genéticos demonstrou associação significativa para o polimorfismo L55M. Entretanto, em populações não asiáticas, foi determinada uma associação significativa para os modelos genéticos heterozigoto e dominante (RPfaixa=1,24-1,27, p<0,05). Para a população asiática, os modelos heterozigoto, dominante e alélico mostraram um fator benéfico ou protetor (RPfaixa=0,29-0,35, p<0,05). Para o polimorfismo Q192R, nenhum dos modelos genéticos demonstrou qualquer associação significativa. Porém, quando a coorte foi agrupada por etnia, determinou-se uma associação significativa na população asiática para os modelos genéticos recessivo e alélico (RPfaixa=1,63-2,08, p<0,05). Contudo, nenhuma associação foi observada para a população não asiática. Não houve risco identificável quando a coorte foi estratificada em exsudativa e não exsudativa. Conclusões: Determinamos que o polimorfismo L55M da paraoxonase1 de fato aumenta o risco de desenvolvimento de degeneração macular relacionada à idade em populações não asiáticas, enquanto que em populações asiáticas, esse polimorfismo tem um efeito protetor. Porém, para o polimorfismo Q192R da paraoxonase1, apenas a população asiática demonstrou risco de desenvolver degeneração macular relacionada à idade.(AU)

Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Ethnicity
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(4): 495-502, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135050


Abstract Objective: The cardioprotective enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) suffers an important influence from genetic polymorphisms and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet, nutritional status, and the C(-107)T polymorphism on PON1 arylesterase activity in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 97 children, aged between 5 and 8 years, of both genders, from a pediatric outpatient clinic in southern Brazil. A sociodemographic, behavioral, and food consumption questionnaire was applied, and anthropometric measurements and laboratory blood samples were taken. PON1 arylesterase activity was measured by phenol extinction (U/mL), and DNA extraction and analysis of the PON1 C(-107)T polymorphism were performed. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested with the chi-squared test and linear regression was used to estimate PON1 activity according to four adjustment models, with an acceptable error of 5%. Results: In the sample, the male gender accounted for 50.5%, 39.2% were 6 years of age, 54.5% had normal weight, and 51.5% had PON1 activity below the median (90.0, 15-30 U/mL). Genotype frequency was 54.6% (53/97), 31.0% (30/97), and 14.4% (14/97), respectively, for CT, CC, and TT, consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.22). In the regression analysis, the model that included sociodemographic variables as well as frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products, and beans estimated a variability of 14.8% in PON1 activity combined with the PON1 C(-107)T polymorphism. Conclusions: During childhood, a good-quality diet with greater inclusion of healthy foods was important to predict the activity of the cardioprotective enzyme PON1 combined with the C(-107)T polymorphism of the PON1 gene.

Resumo Objetivo: A enzima cardioprotetora Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) sofre importante influência de polimorfismos genéticos e fatores nutricionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da alimentação, do estado nutricional e do polimorfismo C(-107)T sobre a atividade arilesterase da PON1 em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 97 crianças entre 5 e 8 anos, de ambos os sexos, de um ambulatório de pediatria no sul do Brasil. Realizou-se questionário sociodemográfico, de comportamento e de consumo alimentar, medidas antropométricas e coleta de sangue em laboratório. A atividade arilesterase da PON1 foi mensurada pela extinção de fenol (U/mL), realizada extração do DNA e análise do polimorfismo PON1 C(-107)T. O equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg foi testado com qui-quadrado e usada regressão linear para estimar a atividade da PON1 segundo quatro modelos de ajuste, erro aceitável de 5%. Resultados: Na amostra o sexo masculino representou 50,5%, 39,2% tinham 6 anos, 54,5% eram eutróficos e 51,5% tinha atividade da PON1 inferior à mediana (90,0;15-30 U/ml). A frequência dos genótipos foi 54,6% (53/97), 31,0% (30/97) e 14,4% (14/97), respectivamente, para CT, CC e TT, estiveram em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (p = 0,22). Na análise de regressão o modelo que incluiu variáveis sociodemográficas, de frequência do consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, laticínios e feijões estimou uma variabilidade de 14,8% na atividade da PON1 combinada ao polimorfismo PON1 C(-107)T. Conclusões: Na infância uma alimentação de boa qualidade, com maior participação de alimentos saudáveis foi importante para predizer a atividade da enzima cardioprotetora PON1 combinada ao polimorfismo C(-107)T do gene da PON1.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 322-328, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019415


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: We examined the effect of intracameral administration of cefuroxime on oxidative stress and endothelial apoptosis in rat corneal tissue. METHODS: In total, 30 rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each (intracameral administration of cefuroxime 0.1 mg/0.01 mL (cefuroxime group); intracameral administration of balanced salt solution 0.01 mL (control group); or absence of intracameral injection (sham group). Corneal endothelial apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-3 and caspase-8. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and paraoxonase and arylesterase levels were examined in corneal endothelial tissue and serum. RESULTS: Paraoxonase levels in the serum were significantly different between the sham and cefuroxime groups (p=0.027). A significant difference was also observed in total oxidant status levels between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.023). In addition, there were significant differences in total antioxidant status levels in corneal tissue between the cefuroxime and sham groups (p<0.001) and between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, significant differences were also observed in oxidative stress index levels between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.001) and between the cefuroxime and sham groups (p=0.026). According to the immunohistochemical staining results, a significant association with caspase-3 activity existed between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.007), while no significant difference was found with caspase-8 activity (p=0.541). Caspase-3 activity exhibited a significant relationship between the sham and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.018), but no relationship was found with caspase-8 activity (p=0.623). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical examination revealed that intracameral cefuroxime increased apoptosis when compared to the sham and balanced salt solution groups. Moreover, intracameral cefuroxime increased oxidative stress in the cornea and simultaneously induced apoptosis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Examinamos o efeito da administração intracameral da cefuroxima sobre o estresse oxidativo e a apoptose endotelial no tecido corneano de ratos. MÉTODOS: No total, 30 ratos foram divididos em 3 grupos de 10 ratos cada (administração intracameral de cefuroxima 0,1 mg/0,01 mL (grupo cefuroxima), administração intracameral de solução salina balanceada 0,01 mL (grupo controle) ou ausência de injeção intracameral (grupo sham)). A apoptose endotelial da córnea foi avaliada por análise imuno-histoquimica usando caspase-3 e -8. O status oxidante total, o status antioxidante total, o índice de estresse oxidativo e os níveis de a paraoxonase e arilesterase foram investigados no tecido endotelial da córnea e no soro. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de paraoxonase no soro foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos sham e cefuroxima (p=0,027). Foi também observada uma diferença significativa nos níveis de estado oxidante total entre os grupos cefuroxima e solução salina balanceada (p=0,023). Além disso, houve diferenças significativas nos níveis de status antioxidante total no tecido da córnea entre os grupos cefuroxima e sham (p<0,001) e entre os grupos cefuroxima e solução salina balanceada (p<0,001). Diferenças significativas também foram observadas nos níveis do índice de estresse oxidativo entre os grupos cefuroxima e solução salina balanceada (p=0,001) e entre os grupos cefuroxima e sham (p=0,026). De acordo com os resultados de coloração imuno-histoquimica, houve associação significativa com a atividade da caspase-3 entre os grupos cefuroxima e solução salina balanceada (p=0,007), enquanto não houve diferença significativa com a atividade da caspase-8 (p=0,541). A atividade da caspase-3 exibiu uma relação significativa entre os grupos sham e solução salina balanceada (p=0,018), mas nenhuma relação foi encontrada com a atividade da caspase-8 (p=0,623). CONCLUSÃO: O exame imuno-histoquímico revelou que a cefuroxima intracameral aumentou a apoptose quando comparada com os grupos sham e solução salina balanceada. Além disso, a cefuroxima intracameral aumentou o estresse oxidativo na córnea e induziu simultaneamente a apoptose.

Animals , Male , Cefuroxime/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cornea/drug effects , Cornea/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Corneal/drug effects , Endothelium, Corneal/metabolism , Endothelium, Corneal/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Oxidants/blood , Rats, Wistar , Cornea/pathology , Aryldialkylphosphatase/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Caspase 8/analysis , Injections, Intraocular
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 272-279, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011169


ABSTRACT Objective The aims of this study were to investigate changes in serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in women at the pre and postmenopausal stages and its association with the PON1 C(-107)T polymorphism and food intake profile. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study with female patients aged between 35 and 59 years old was conducted. Women were divided into two groups: premenopausal (n = 40) and postmenopausal (n = 36). Women enrolled in the study had serum PON1, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose and HbA1c, as well as the BMI measured. Additionally, women were genotyped for the PON1 T(-107)C polymorphism and the food intake profile was obtained through interview. Results Glucose (p = 0.03), HbA1c (p = 0.002) and total cholesterol (p = 0.002)concentrations were higher in post than premenopausal women, however PON1 activity was not different (p > 0.05). Carriers of the C allele had higher PON1 activity (CC: 88.9 ± 6.5 U/mL and CT: 79.9 ± 4.7 U/mL) than women of the TT genotype (66.6 ± 5.9 U/mL) (p < 0.05). However, the model predicting PON1 activity was slightly better when genotype, total fat and cholesterol content in the diet were all included. Conclusion In sum, we observed that the PON1 C(-107)T genotype was the major regulator of PON1 activity, and menopause had no effect on PON1 activity. The lipid and glycemic profile were altered in postmenopausal women.

Humans , Female , Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Premenopause/blood , Postmenopause/blood , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Eating , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premenopause/metabolism , Postmenopause/metabolism , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Genotype
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719355


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, and it is mostly associated with oxidative stress, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) due to its antioxidant properties may play a role in the atherosclerosis development. Although long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of EPA administration on gene expression of PON2 in patients with T2DM. Present study was a randomized, controlled double-blind trial. Thirty-six patients with T2DM were randomly allocated to receive 2 g/day EPA (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences between 2 groups concerning demographic or biochemical variables, and dietary intakes as well (p > 0.05). However, patients received EPA showed a significant increase in the gene expression of PON2 compared with placebo group (p = 0.027). In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly after EPA supplementation compared with control group. Taken together, supplementation with 2 g/day EPA could be atheroprotective via the upregulation of PON2 in patients with T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT03258840

Humans , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Atherosclerosis , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Gene Expression , Lipoproteins , Metabolic Diseases , Oxidative Stress , Up-Regulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785702


Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of death and moderate physical exercise is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between the amount of exercise recorded daily by a wearable gravitometer for 3 months and selected biochemical and clinical parameters. Nineteen sedentary type 2 diabetics were recruited and distributed into three homogenous groups, low, medium, and high exercise, according to the level of physical exercise monitored and expressed as MOVEs. Data showed an inverse correlation between MOVEs and oxidative stress indexes and a significant improvement in paraoxonase-1 activities and endothelial functionality. Decrease of visceral/total adipose tissue ratio, systolic blood pressure and a down-regulation of the inflammatory microRNA-146a in high exercise group were observed. Finally, a decrease of glycosylated hemoglobin and an up-regulation of the angiogenic microRNA-130a in medium exercise one was obtained. In this study, precise daily monitoring permitted to underline the importance of the amount of physical activity to counteract some cardiovascular risk factors persisting in diabetes. Finally, it identifies new microRNA biomarkers for future investigation on the same topic.

Humans , Adipose Tissue , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Biomarkers , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Endothelium , Exercise , Glycated Hemoglobin , MicroRNAs , Motor Activity , Oxidative Stress , Risk Factors , Up-Regulation
Colomb. med ; 49(3): 223-227, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974990


Abstract Background: The serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) associated to HDL presents two common polymorphisms in the positions 192 and 55. These polymorphisms are considered determinant of the capacity of HDL to protect LDL from their oxidative modification. In this context, the PON1 genotype has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including stroke. Objective: To determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of PON1 L55M and Q192R as well as the enzymatic activities of PON1 in subjects with and without atherothrombotic stroke. Methods: There were included 28 people with atherothrombotic stroke and 29 without stroke. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP and the phenotyping by measurement of the activities of paraoxonase and arylesterase in serum. Results: For the polymorphism Q192R, the allelic frequencies (Q/R) were 0.46/0.54 and 0.48/0.52 (p= 0.843) for the control group and the group with stroke, respectively. While for the polymorphism L55M, the allelic frequencies (L/M) were 0.81/0.19 for the control group, and 0.78/0.22 for the group with stroke (p= 0.610). The activity levels of paraoxonase were not significantly different between the control and stroke groups (450 vs. 348 UI/mL, p= 0.093) While the activity levels of arylesterase were significantly different between the studied groups (90 vs. 70 UI/mL, p= 0.001); however, upon adjustment by multiple linear regression, it was not longer significant. Conclusion: The polymorphisms Q192R and L55M, and the paraoxonase activity of PON1 are not risk factors for atherothrombotic stroke according to the results of this study.

Resumen Introducción: La paraoxonasa-1 (PON1) sérica asociada a las HDL presenta dos polimorfismos comunes en las posiciones 192 y 55. Estos polimorfismos se consideran determinantes para la capacidad de las HDL de proteger a las LDL de su modificación oxidativa. En este contexto, el genotipo de PON1 se ha asociado con enfermedades cerebrovasculares, que incluyen el infarto cerebral. Objetivo: Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas de PON1-L55M y PON1- Q192R, así como las actividades enzimáticas de PON1 en sujetos con y sin infarto cerebral aterotrombótico. Métodos: Se incluyeron 28 personas con infarto cerebral aterotrombótico y 29 sin infarto. Las genotipificaciones se realizaron mediante PCR-RFLP y las fenotipificaciones mediante la medición de las actividades paraoxonasa y arilesterasa en suero. Resultados: Para el polimorfismo Q192R, las frecuencias alélicas (Q/R) fueron 0.46/0.54 y 0.48/0.52 (p= 0.843) para el grupo control y el grupo con infarto, respectivamente. Mientras que para el polimorfismo L55M, las frecuencias alélicas (L/M) fueron 0.81/0.19 para el grupo control y 0.78/0.22 para el grupo con infarto (p= 0.610). Los niveles de actividad paraoxonasa no fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos control y con infarto (450 vs. 348 Ul/mL, p= 0.093). Mientras que los niveles de actividad arilesterasa fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos estudiados (90 vs. 70 Ul/mL, p= 0.001), sin embargo, al ajustarla por regresión lineal múltiple, dejo de ser significativa. Conclusión: Los polimorfismos Q192R y L55M, y la actividad paraoxonasa de la PON1 no son factores de riesgo para el infarto cerebral aterotrombótico en este estudio.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Stroke/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Pilot Projects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Stroke/pathology , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Mexico
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 125-133, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886259


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. Results: The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pheniramine/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Testis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Nebivolol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology
Clinics ; 73: e16550, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952790


OBJECTIVES: Consumption of toxic species of mushrooms may have detrimental effects and increase oxidative stress. Paraoxonase, arylesterase and glutathione-S-transferase are antioxidants that resist oxidative stress. In this study, we analyzed the changes in these enzymes during intoxication due to mushrooms. METHODS: The study enrolled 49 adult patients with a diagnosis of mushroom poisoning according to clinical findings and 49 healthy volunteers as the control group. The patients with mild clinical findings were hospitalized due to the possibility that the patient had also eaten the mushrooms and due to clinical findings in the late period, which could be fatal. Paraoxonase, arylesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase concentrations, as well as total antioxidant and oxidant status, were determined in the 49 patients and 49 healthy volunteers by taking blood samples in the emergency department. RESULTS: While paraoxonase, arylesterase, and total antioxidant status were significantly decreased in the patient group (p<0.05), glutathione-S-transferase, total oxidant status and the oxidative stress index were significantly higher (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the hospitalization time and the oxidative stress index (r=0.752, p<0.001), whereas a negative correlation was found with glutathione-S-transferase (r=-0.420, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: We observed a significant decrease in paraoxonase and arylesterase and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase and oxidative stress indexes in patients with mushroom poisoning, indicating that these patients had an oxidative status. In particular, a low total antioxidant status and high oxidative stress index may gain importance in terms of the assessment of hospitalization duration.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/blood , Mushroom Poisoning/enzymology , Mushroom Poisoning/blood , Oxidative Stress , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Glutathione Transferase/blood , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Case-Control Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Antioxidants/analysis
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 49(1): 10-17, jun.16, 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910868


A hemoglobina pode representar uma fonte adicional de espécies reativas do oxigênio; assim, perturbações na função e estrutura dos eritrócitos podem levar ao estresse oxidativo. A auto-oxidação de cadeias de globina e sobrecarga de ferro são os mecanismos sugeridos para o aumento do estresse oxidativo, tanto na beta-talassemia maior quanto na menor. Vários estudos têm avaliado o status oxidante e antioxidante de pacientes beta-talassêmicos, mas a maioria voltada para os estados graves e intermediários da doença. Entretanto, alguns estudos demonstraram aumento do estresse oxidativo e da capacidade antioxidante na beta-talassemia menor. Nos últimos anos, novas evidências sugerem que a oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade é o passo fundamental para aterogênese. A paraoxonase-1, expressa no fígado, tem sido demonstrada por estar associada às partículas de lipoproteínas e alta densidade e por possuir capacidade antioxidante, protegendo ambas as lipoproteínas de baixa e alta densidade da lipoperoxidação. Alguns estudos com beta-talassemia menor demonstraram que, além do aumento do estresse oxidativo, os níveis de paraoxonase-1 estavam diminuídos. Como a paraoxonase-1 inibe a oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade, pode ser sugerido que indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor sejam mais propensos à aterosclerose do que indivíduos saudáveis

Lipid Peroxidation , beta-Thalassemia , Oxidative Stress , Atherosclerosis , Thalassemia , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Erythrocytes , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5660, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839238


Clopidogrel and aspirin are the most commonly used medications worldwide for dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness related to gene polymorphisms is a concern. Populations with higher degrees of genetic admixture may have increased prevalence of clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness. To assess this, we genotyped CYP2C19, ABCB1, and PON1 in 187 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Race was self-defined by patients. We also performed light transmission aggregometry with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid during dual antiplatelet therapy. We found a significant difference for presence of the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism between white and non-white patients. Although 7% of patients had platelet resistance to clopidogrel, this did not correlate with any of the tested genetic polymorphisms. We did not find platelet resistance to aspirin in this cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with PON1 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms had higher light transmission after ADP aggregometry than patients with native alleles. There was no preponderance of any race in patients with higher light transmission aggregometry. In brief, PON1 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms were associated with lower clopidogrel responsiveness in this sample. Despite differences in CYP2C19 polymorphisms across white and non-white patients, genetic admixture by itself was not able to identify clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aspirin/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Alleles , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prospective Studies , Ticlopidine/pharmacology
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 86(4): 350-357, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838398


Abstract Objectives Oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a bioscavenger enzyme associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We evaluate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PON1 gene, and enzyme activities with lipid profile and glycemia. Methods This case-control study consisted of 126 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 203 healthy controls. PON Q192R and L55M polymorphisms were detected by real-time PCR. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL were measured. Results PON1 QR192 polymorphism had a major effect on paraoxonase but no effect on arylesterase serum activities. Paraoxonase activity was higher in RR genotype and lowest in QQ genotype. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were higher in LL and lower in MM genotypes of PON1 LM55 polymorphism. RQ and LM variants showed intermediate activities between respective homozygous. Elevated concentrations of triglycerides in cases correlate with QQ variant or the presence of M allele. Glucose levels were elevated in cases with QQ variant or with the presence of M allele. Cholesterol and LDL did not show variations in control and cases with any variant of both polymorphisms. HDL is lower in cases with respect to controls independently of genotypes. All differences were significant with p < 0.05. Conclusions Our results confirm the relationship between variations in PON1 activities and lipid metabolism, and showed that genetically programmed low PON1 activities would have certain responsibility in the increase in glycemia and concomitantly the aggravation of atherosclerotic disease.

Resumen Objetivos La enzima paraoxonasa 1 (PON1), está asociada con el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación, procesos importantes en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis. Evaluamos la asociación de 2 polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido en el gen PON1 y sus actividades enzimáticas con el perfil lipídico y la glucemia. Métodos Estudio caso-control en 126 pacientes con enfermedad coronaria y 203 controles sanos. Los polimorfismos PON Q192R y L55M fueron detectados por PCR en tiempo real y las actividades de paraoxonasa y arilesterasa por espectrofotometría. Se midieron glucemia, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL y LDL. Resultados El polimorfismo PON1 QR192 afectó la actividad de paraoxonasa pero no la de arilesterasa. La actividad de paraoxonasa fue mayor en el genotipo RR y menor en QQ. Ambas actividades fueron mayores en el genotipo LL y menores en MM del polimorfismo PON1 LM55. Las variantes RQ y LM mostraron actividades intermedias entre los respectivos homocigotos. Concentraciones elevadas de triglicéridos en los casos correlacionaron con la variante QQ o la presencia del alelo M. Los niveles de glucosa fueron elevados en los casos QQ o con la presencia del alelo M. El colesterol y el LDL no variaron ni en los casos ni en los controles con ambos polimorfismos. El HDL fue menor en los casos respecto de los controles, independientemente del genotipo. Conclusiones Los resultados confirman la relación entre las variaciones en las actividades de PON1 y el metabolismo lipídico y mostraron que las bajas actividades de PON1 genéticamente programadas tendrían cierta responsabilidad en el aumento de la glucemia y, concomitantemente, en la agravación de la enfermedad aterosclerótica.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Triglycerides/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/enzymology , Case-Control Studies
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 41: 1-6, Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-880306


BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme that possesses anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties with serum levels determined by genetic and exogenous factors. Lower serum PON1 arylesterase activity is associated to metabolic alterations related to childhood overweight and onset and/or development of diabetes and CVD later in life. However, data on the relationship between genetic PON1 polymorphisms and nutritional status as well as lipid profile in children are limited. To investigate the distribution of the C(−107)T PON1 gene polymorphism and its relation with serum PON1 enzyme activity, nutritional status and lipid profile in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including 73 children aged 5 to 7 years who attended public pediatric clinics. PON1 C(−107)T, arylesterase activity, body mass index for the age, and serum lipid profile were evaluated. RESULTS: PON1 activity was higher in overweight children compared to the normal weight ones (p= 0.02). The genotypic frequency did not differ between the two groups (p> 0.05). Carriers of CC genotype had higher enzyme activity than T allele carriers, and this difference was greater among normal weight children. HDL levels were higher among normal weight children carrying CC genotype, compared to those carrying the T allele (p< 0.01).CONCLUSION: The PON1 C(−107)T polymorphism is associated with higher serum enzyme activity in children, as observed previously in adults. In addition, this polymorphism also shows association to higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and serum PON1 arylesterase activity in the normal weight children studied.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aryldialkylphosphatase/analysis , Lipoproteins , Nutritional Status/physiology , Overweight/genetics , Overweight/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 426-435, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798175


ABSTRACT Objective Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms are associated with an increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662) partially determine PON1 hydrolytic activity and protect against oxidation of LDL and HDL. This study aimed to delineate the association of PON1 status (functional 192 genotype and plasma activity levels) and atherogenicity in urbans residents aged 40 years or more. Materials and methods Anthropometric data, lipid profiles, the atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP) and Framingham score risk were measured. Three kinetic assays were conducted to assay PON1 status using phenylacetate and 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate as substrates. Results Smoking per se did not significantly impact the AIP but the interaction PON1 genotype by smoking significantly increased the AIP. In subjects with the RR genotype smoking increased the AIP index from (estimated mean ± SEM) -0.038 ± 0.039 to 0.224 ± 0.094. The QR genotype increased the Framingham risk index by around 1.3 points. Smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased the Framingham risk score (17.23 ± 2.04) as compared to smoking (13.00 ± 1.06) and non-smoking (7.79 ± 0.70) by QQ+QR genotype carriers. The interaction RR genotype by smoking was a more important predictor (odds ratio = 7.90) of an increased Framingham risk score (> 20) than smoking per se (odds ratio = 2.73). The interaction smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased triglycerides and lowered HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Smoking per se has no (AIP) or a mild (Framingham risk score) effect on atherogenicity, while the interaction smoking by PON1 RR genotype has a clinically highly significant impact on atherogenicity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Risk Assessment/methods , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Genotype , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Smoking/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Genetic Association Studies , Gene-Environment Interaction , Hydrolysis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Sâo Paulo med. j ; 134(3): 234-239, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785803


ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Red grape seed extract (RGSE) contains oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes as a class of flavonoids. These compounds are potent antioxidants and exert many health-promoting effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of RGSE on serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI) levels and paraoxonase (PON) activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia (MMH). DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Shahid-Modarres Hospital (Tehran, Iran) and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy MMH patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment (200 mg/day of RGSE) or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: Significant elevation in serum levels of apo-AI (P = 0.001), HDL-C (P = 0.001) and PON activity (P = 0.001) and marked decreases in concentrations of TC (P = 0.015), TG (P = 0.011) and LDL-C (P = 0.014) were found in the cases. PON activity was significantly correlated with apo-AI (r = 0.270; P < 0.01) and HDL-C (r = 0.45; P < 0.001). Significant differences between the RGSE and control groups (before and after treatment) for TC (P = 0.001), TG (P = 0.001), PON (P = 0.03), apo-AI (P = 0.001) and LDL-C (P = 0.002) were seen. CONCLUSION: It is possible that RGSE increases PON activity mostly through increasing HDL-C and apo-AI levels in MMH patients. It may thus have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in these patients.

RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Extrato de semente de uva vermelha (RGSE) contém complexos de proantocianidinas oligoméricas como classe de flavonoides. Estes compostos são antioxidantes potentes e exercem muitos efeitos de promoção da saúde. Este estudo visou determinar os efeitos de RGSE nos níveis séricos de triglicérides (TG), colesterol total (TC), colesterol de lipoproteína alta-densidade (HDL-C), colesterol de lipoproteína baixa-densidade (LDL-C), apolipoproteína AI (apo-AI) e atividade de paraoxonase (PON) em pacientes com hiperlipidemia leve a moderada (MMH). DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo clínico randomizado duplo-cego controlado com placebo, realizado no Hospital Shahid-Modarres (Teerã, Irã) e na Universidade de Ciências Médicas de Tabriz. Setenta pacientes com MMH foram aleatoriamente designados para receber tratamento (200 mg/dia de RGSE) ou placebo durante oito semanas. RESULTADOS: Elevação significativa nos níveis séricos de apo-AI (P = 0,001), HDL-C (P = 0,001) e atividade de PON (P = 0,001) e diminuição marcada nas concentrações de TC (P = 0,015), TG (P = 0,011) e LDL-C (P = 0,014) foram encontradas nos casos. Atividade de PON mostrou correlação significativa com apo-AI (r = 0,270; P < 0,01) e HDL-C (r = 0,45; P < 0,001). Diferenças significativas entre os grupos RGSE e controle (antes e após tratamento) para TC (P = 0,001), TG (P = 0,001), PON (P = 0,03), apo-AI (P = 0,001) e LDL-C (P = 0,002) foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: É possível que RGSE aumente atividade de PON principalmente através da elevação dos níveis de HDL-C e apo-AI em pacientes MMH. Ele pode, assim, ter efeitos benéficos potenciais na prevenção de estresse oxidativo e aterosclerose nesses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Placebos , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Double-Blind Method , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Phytotherapy
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 309-314, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42549


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of statin-induced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) changes is not well known. We investigated whether rosuvastatin-induced HDL-C changes can influence the anti-oxidative action of high-density lipoprotein particle. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 240 patients with stable ischemic heart disease were studied. Anti-oxidative property was assessed by paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. We compared the lipid profile and PON1 activity at baseline and at 8 weeks after rosuvastatin 10 mg treatment. RESULTS: Rosuvastatin treatment increased the mean HDL-C concentration by 1.9±9.2 mg/dL (6.4±21.4%). HDL-C increased in 138 patients (57.5%), but decreased in 102 patients (42.5%) after statin treatment. PON1 activity increased to 19.1% in all patients. In both, the patients with increased HDL-C and with decreased HDL-C, PON1 activity significantly increased after rosuvastatin treatment (+19.3% in increased HDL-C responder; p=0.018, +18.8% in decreased HDL-C responder; p=0.045 by paired t-test). Baseline PON1 activity modestly correlated with HDL-C levels (r=0.248, p=0.009); however, the PON1 activity evaluated during the course of the treatment did not correlate with HDL-C levels (r=0.153, p=0.075). CONCLUSION: Rosuvastatin treatment improved the anti-oxidative properties as assessed by PON1 activity, regardless of on-treatment HDL-C levels, in patients with stable ischemic heart disease.

Humans , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipoproteins , Lipoproteins, HDL , Myocardial Ischemia , Rosuvastatin Calcium
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26940


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. RESULTS: In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus.

Humans , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Oxidative Stress , Tinnitus