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1.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 276-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986027

ABSTRACT

Objective: Through comparative analysis of the disease burden of occupational pneumoconiosis in Gansu Province from 2010 to 2020, the main influencing factors are screened, and scientific basis is provided for rational allocation of limited health resources, precise management and policy implementation. Methods: In August 2021, survey and collect information on surviving occupational pneumoconiosis patients and dead occupational pneumoconiosis patients diagnosed in Gansu Province from 2010 to 2020, and analyze and calculate indicators such as morbidity, mortality, and disability adjusted of life years (DALY). Analyzing the influencing factors of disease burden usirrg multiple linear regression. Results: From 2010 to 2020, the average annual incidence of occupational pneumoconiosis in Gansu Province was 0.9992/100000, the average annual mortality was 0.897/100000, the cumulative case fatality rate was 25.75%, and the cumulative DALY was 28932.96 person-years. The first stage of occupational pneumoconiosis was the highest among DALY loss (19920.14 person-years), and the DALY loss was positively correlated with the stage of occupational pneumoconiosis. Among occupational pneumoconiosis in Gansu Province, silicosis (13753.66 person-years) and coal worker's pneumoconiosis (13414.73 person-years) caused the highest disease burden, followed by cement pneumoconiosis and asbestos lung. Period, length of service, type of disease, and region are all influencing factors of DALY loss (P<0.05). Conclusion: From 2010 to 2020, the DALY losses caused by occupational pneumoconiosis in Gansu Province showed a fluctuating decrease, with the composition of DALY mainly changing from the loss of life years due to premature death to the loss of years due to injury and disability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology , Anthracosis/epidemiology , Asbestos , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 197 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415667

ABSTRACT

A gestão dos resíduos da construção civil (RCC) é desafio aos administradores públicos, o estudo do sistema de gestão do município de São Paulo realizado nessa Tese, após cinco anos da efetivação do sistema de rastreamento Coletas Online no município, apontou melhorias, como o aprimoramento da fiscalização dos RCC no transporte e destino, e a ampliação do número de Ecopontos, porém apesar do aumento do fluxo para os pequenos volumes, os RCC perigosos continuam à margem desta infraestrutura, dependendo de logística reversa que nem sempre atende a diversidade de RCC gerados, como para os pequenos volumes de materiais de cimento-amianto (MCA). Para o cálculo estimativo da quantidade de MCA foram pesquisadas a evolução de mercado e banimento do amianto, levantados dados de consumo interno de crisotila, de 1998 (período de permissão de uso) até 2017 (ano do banimento), a geração de resíduos de cimento-amianto (RCA) (2012 a 2017), assim como o percentual de fibras por compósito e fator durabilidade. Constatou-se significativa diferença entre a média anual de produção de MCA (1,38 milhões t) e a geração de RCA (17 mil t), evidenciando grande quantidade em uso e que a capacidade instalada dos aterros classe I no país está aquém da demanda projetada de RCA. O Sistema de gestão internacional do Reino Unido (RU) escolhido fornece instruções técnicas aos autoconstrutores, para a remoção segura de pequenos volumes de cimento-amianto e proporciona o fluxo desses resíduos pelo transporte e destinação adequados, por meio de contratação de empresa regulamentada, intermediada pelo Poder Público. O fluxograma elaborado nesta tese possibilita de forma simples aos gestores, verificar o risco do uso das telhas de cimento-amianto (TCA) em moradias de baixa renda, pela identificação das TCA, verificação de seu estado de conservação, caracterização construtiva das moradias, e após a associação dos dados, a tomada de decisão sobre a necessidade de coleta de amostras atmosféricas. Os resultados das quantidades de fibras /cm³ definem as medidas, monitoramento para (≤ 0,1 f /cm³) ou para (> 0,1 f/cm³), gestão de risco à Saúde Pública e Ambiental na localidade. Instruções técnicas de segurança foram adaptadas do R U para a realidade nacional, com a finalidade de capacitar gestores públicos para ações de desamiantização de pequenas áreas de TCA (20m²) de regiões onde há risco de inalação de fibras de amianto pela população local. Foram elaboradas orientações que abrangem a remoção, manejo, uso de EPIs, EPRs, sinalizações, limpeza, embalagem, coleta, transporte e destinação com segurança ocupacional e ambiental para a grande demanda projetada de pequenos volumes de resíduos de cimento-amianto, geradas de forma difusa, nas moradias de baixa renda do país. Portanto, é premente inserir a gestão sustentável dos MCA em uso e dos RCA de forma segura, na agenda de políticas públicas ambientais e de saúde no país. A desamiantização das moradias será cada vez mais urgente devido a aceleração da degradação das TCA ao longo do tempo pelas alterações climáticas. Os diagnósticos das condições ambientais das moradias ajudam a prevenir problemas de saúde causados pela inalação das fibras de amianto. A capacitação de gestores por meio das instruções técnicas proporciona parceria para a desamiantização das moradias de baixa renda e reduzem o descarte irregular dos RCA, enquanto novas rotas tecnológicas devem ser estabelecidas para seu retorno ao mercado consumidor, mitigando a destinação em aterros classe I. Medidas alinhadas aos objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável, ODS 12 para consumo e produção responsáveis.


The management of waste construction (CDW) is a challenge to public administrators, the study of the management system of the municipality of São Paulo conducted in this Thesis, after five years of effectiveness of the online collection tracking system in the city, pointed out improvements, such as the improvement of the supervision of the CDW in transport and at destination, and the increase in the number of Ecopontos, however, despite the increase in the flow for small volumes, hazardous CDW remain on the margin of this infrastructure, depending on reverse logistics that does not always meet the diversity of CDW generated, such as small volumes of asbestos-cement materials (ACM). For the estimation of the amount of ACM, the evolution of the market and the banning of asbestos were researched, collecting data on the internal consumption of chrysotile, from 1998 (period of use permission) to 2017 (year of ban), the generation of cement waste -asbestos (CWA) (2012 to 2017), as well as the percentage of fibers per composite and durability factor. There was a significant difference between the average annual production of ACM (1.38 million t) and the generation of CWA (17 thousand t), evidencing a large amount in use and that the installed capacity of class I landfills in the country is below the projected CWA demand. The UK international management system chosen provides clear technical instructions to the self-builders, for the safe removal of small volumes of asbestos cement and provides the flow of these wastes by the appropriate transport and disposal, through the hiring of a regulated company, intermediated by the Government. The elaborate flowchart makes it possible for managers verify in a simplified way the risk of using asbestos-cement tiles (ACT) in low-income homes, by identifying ACT, checking their state of conservation, constructive characterization of the homes, and after associating the data, decision making on the need to collect atmospheric samples. The results of the amounts of fibers /cm³ define the measures, monitoring for (≤ 0.1 f/cm³) or for (> 0.1 f/cm³), risk management to Public and Environmental Health in the location. Technical safety instructions were adapted from the R U to the national reality, with the purpose of training public managers for asbestos removal actions in small areas of ACT (20m²) in regions where there is a risk of inhalation of asbestos fibers by the local population. Guidelines were developed covering the removal, handling, use of PPE, EPRs, signaling, cleaning, packaging, collection, transportation and disposal with occupational and environmental safety for the large projected demand of small volumes of asbestos-cement waste, generated in a diffuse, in the country's low-income housing. Therefore, it is urgent to insert the sustainable management of the ACMs in use and the ACWs in a safe manner, on the agenda of environmental and health public policies in the country. The asbestos removal of housing will be increasingly urgent due to the acceleration degradation of ACTs over time by climate change. Diagnosing the environmental conditions of the housing will help prevent health problems caused by the inhalation asbestos fibers. The training of managers through technical instructions provides a partnership for the asbestos removal of low-income housing and reduces the irregular disposal of ACW, while new technological routes must be established for their return to the consumer market, mitigating the disposal in class I landfills. Measures aligned with sustainable development goals, SDG 12 for responsible consumption and production.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Hazardous Waste , Construction Wastes , Asbestos, Serpentine/radiation effects , Waste Management , Impacts of Polution on Health
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 231-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935783

ABSTRACT

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a long latency, poor prognosis and asbestos exposure related malignant disease. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNA with a length of more than 200 nucleotides that does not encode protein. It plays an important role in epigenetic regulation, cell cycle regulation and cell differentiation regulation. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal expression or function of lncRNA is closely related to the diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In this paper, the lncRNA research on MM is reviewed to better understand the role of lncRNA in MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Epigenesis, Genetic , Mesothelioma/genetics , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Prognosis , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 1-6, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the radiological characteristics of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with asbestosis, and to investigate the signs of predicting the disease progression of asbestosis. Methods: A prospective method was used to enroll 68 patients with asbestosis who were regularly followed up from 2013 to 2016. The radiological characteristics of patients with asbestosis were described by the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) , and the differences between patients with and without progression were compared during the observation period. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the chest HRCT radiological signs predicting the progression of asbestosis. Results: The study included 68 patients with asbestosis aged (65.5±7.8) years old, of which 64.7% (44/68) were female, 29.4% (20/68) had a history of smoking. There was no significant difference in age, sex, smoking and asbestos exposure between patients with progressive asbestosis (20.6%, 14/68) and patients without progressive asbestosis (79.4%, 54/68) (P>0.05) . Chest HRCT of patients with asbestosis showed irregular and/or linear opacities, of which 5.9% (4/68) were accompanied by honeycombing. Irregular and/or linear opacities were mainly lower lung preponderant, often accompanied with ground glass opacity and mosaic perfusion. 98.5% (67/68) had pleural abnormalities, of which 39.7% (27/68) had diffuse pleural thickening with parenchymal bands and/or rounded atelectasis. The analysis of multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the risk of the progression of asbestosis was increased with higher irregular and/or linears opacities cores (HR=1.184, 95%CI: 1.012-1.384, P=0.034) and the appearance of honeycombing (HR=6.488, 95%CI: 1.447-29.097, P=0.015) . Conclusion: The irregular and/or linear opacities scores and honeycombing on chest HRCT are independent influencing factors for predicting the disease progression of asbestosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Asbestos/adverse effects , Asbestosis/diagnostic imaging , Lung , Pleural Diseases/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1358031

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma es considerado en el mundo industrializado a consecuencia de la exposición ocupacional a fibras de asbesto. A nivel país se considera una enfermedad profesional. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer y describir casos de mesotelioma notificados en Uruguay entre los años 2002 y 2014, con énfasis en los aspectos de la exposición ocupacional. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, a partir de los casos notificados se recrearon historias médicas enlazando con datos de servicios asistenciales. Se identificaron fuentes de exposición al asbesto en diferentes ocupaciones e industrias en el país. Resultados: fueron notificados 122 casos. Se accedió a la historia clínica en un tercio (47/122). El dato ocupación estaba consignado solo en 27/47, en 3/47 se explicitaba la exposición al asbesto/amianto. Los sectores productivos identificados mayoritariamente correspondieron a transporte, metalúrgico, construcción y limpieza. Se evidenció un registro insuficiente del dato ocupación y de los antecedentes laborales. Ésta información laboral es fundamental para establecer el nexo causal de la exposición en estudio y la condición de enfermedad profesional. La gravedad de la enfermedad y el conocimiento del riesgo derivado de la exposición, laboral, justifica el desarrollo de políticas en salud ocupacional. Es necesario fortalecer la formación de los profesionales de la salud sobre la importancia del trabajo como determinante del proceso salud - enfermedad.


Mesothelioma is considered in the industrialized world as a consequence of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers - asbestos. At the country level it is considered an occupational disease. The objective was to know and describe cases of mesothelioma notified in Uruguay between the years 2002 and 2014, with emphasis on aspects of occupational exposure. The present work corresponds to a retrospective descriptive study, from the reported cases medical records were recreated linking with data from healthcare services. Sources of asbestos exposure were identified in different occupations and industries in the country. Results: 122 cases were notified. The medical history was accessed in one third (47/122). The occupation data was only in 27/47, in 3/47 the exposure to asbestos / asbestos was specified. The productive sectors identified mainly corresponded to transportation, metallurgy, construction and cleaning. Insufficient registration of occupation and employment history was evidenced. This work information is essential to establish the causal link between the exposure under study and the occupational disease condition. The severity of the disease and knowledge of the risk derived from exposure occupational, justify the development of occupation health policies. It is necessary to strengthen the training of health professionals on the importance of work as a determinant of the health - disease process.


O mesotelioma é considerado no mundo industrializado como consequência da exposição ocupacional às fibras de amianto - o asbesto. Em nível nacional, é considerada uma doença ocupacional. O objetivo foi conhecer e descrever os casos de mesotelioma notificados no Uruguai entre os anos de 2002 a 2014, com ênfase nos aspectos de exposição ocupacional. O presente trabalho corresponde a um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, a partir dos casos relatados, prontuários médicos foram recriados vinculando-os a dados de serviços de saúde. Fontes de exposição ao amianto foram identificadas em diferentes ocupações e indústrias no país. Resultados: foram notificados 122 casos. O histórico médico foi acessado em um terço (47/122). Os dados de ocupação foram apenas em 27/47, em 3/47 foi especificada a exposição ao amianto / amianto. Os setores produtivos identificados corresponderam principalmente a transportes, metalurgia, construção e limpeza. Foi evidenciado registro insuficiente de ocupação e histórico de empregos. Essas informações de trabalho são essenciais para estabelecer o nexo causal entre a exposição em estudo e a condição de doença ocupacional. A gravidade da doença e o conhecimento do risco decorrente da exposição ocupacional, justificam o desenvolvimento de políticas de saúde ocupacional. É preciso fortalecer a formação dos profissionais de saúde sobre a importância do trabalho como determinante do processo saúde - doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asbestos/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Mesothelioma/mortality , Mesothelioma/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Mesothelioma/chemically induced
6.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(3): 01022105, Jul-Set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373498

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Mesotelioma pleural é uma doença que acomete a pleura e é definida pela exposição ocupacional ao amianto que constitui seu único fator de risco. Realizar o diagnóstico é um grande desafio para médicos, pelo fato de ser uma doença silenciosa e que se manifesta mesmo anos após a exposição ao mineral. Atualmente, não há definição do melhor tratamento para a doença, há grandes divergências na literatura; deve, portanto, individualizar cada caso. Sabe-se que a terapia multimodal é superior estatisticamente a terapia monomodal de tratamento da doença. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho é revisar artigos que descrevam a doença, a qual relaciona a exposição ocupacional ao asbesto e alternativas globais para diminuir sua incidência; e, por conseguinte, aprimorar o seu tratamento. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Asbestos, mesotelioma, pleura


ABSTRACT Pleural mesothelioma is a disease that affects the pleura and is defined by occupational exposure to asbestos, which is its only risk factor. Diagnosis is a major challenge for physicians, as it is a silent disease that manifests itself years after exposure to the mineral. Currently, there is no definition of the best treatment for the disease, there are great divergences in the literature; it must, therefore, be individualized for each case. It is known that multimodal therapy is statistically superior to monomodal therapy for treating the disease. Thus, the objective of the work is to review articles that describe the disease, which relates occupational exposure to asbestos and global alternatives to reduce its incidence; and, therefore, improve its treatment. KEYWORDS: Asbestos, mesothelioma, pleura


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleura , Asbestos , Mesothelioma
7.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55219, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339623

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar a sensibilidade e especificidade das notificações de mesotelioma maligno do Registro de Câncer Base Populacional de Curitiba/Paraná. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, realizado no registro de câncer de base populacional de Curitiba e em 11 fontes notificadoras, de janeiro a dezembro de 2017. A amostra final foi composta por 92 prontuários de pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico e notificação de registrados com câncer de topografia C38 (pleura, coração e mediastino) e C48 (peritônio e retroperitônio). Para análise da sensibilidade e especificidade utilizou-se o software Stata 14, com análise da consistência interna; para cada caso notificado pelo registro foi examinado o prontuário da fonte notificadora correspondente, considerando-o como padrão ouro. Resultados: A sensibilidade do registro em notificar mesotelioma (CID-10: C45) e câncer de pleura (CID-10: C38.4) foi de 100% (8/8) e 50% (1/2), respectivamente. A especificidade foi 90,2% (74/82), tendo oito casos de outros cânceres classificados como câncer de pleura. Conclusões: O registro apresentou alta sensibilidade para notificar mesotelioma maligno, não havendo subnotificação para esses casos, e uma sobre-estimativa para as notificações de câncer de pleura (nove ao invés de um) devido à notificação errônea e equívoca.


resumen Objetivo: determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de las notificaciones de mesotelioma maligno del Registro de Cáncer Base Poblacional de Curitiba/Paraná/Brasil. Método: estudio retrospectivo, transversal, realizado en el registro de cáncer de base poblacional de Curitiba y en 11 fuentes notificantes, de enero a diciembre de 2017. La muestra final fue compuesta por 92 registros médicos de pacientes adultos, con el diagnóstico y la notificación de registrados con cáncer de topografía C38 (pleura, corazón y mediastino) y C48 (peritoneo y retroperitoneo). Para el análisis de la sensibilidad y especificidad se utilizó el software Stata 14, con análisis de la consistencia interna. Para cada caso notificado por el registro, fue examinado el registro médico de la fuente que ha notificado, considerándolo como estándar de oro. Resultados: la sensibilidad del registro para notificar mesotelioma (CID-10: C45) y cáncer de pleura (CID-10: C38.4) fue de 100% (8/8) y 50% (1/2), respectivamente. La especificidad fueel90,2% (74/82), con ocho casos de otros cánceres clasificados como cáncer de pleura. Conclusiones: el registro presentó alta sensibilidad para notificar mesotelioma maligno, no existiendo subnotificación para estos casos, y un incremento para las notificaciones de cáncer de pleura (nueve al revés de uno) debido a la notificación incorrecta y equivocada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the sensitivity and specificity of the reporting of malignant mesothelioma in the Population-Based Cancer Registry in Curitiba, PA, Brazil. Method: Retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted in the Population-Based Cancer Registry in Curitiba and 11 reporting institutions, from January to December 2017. The final sample was composed of 92 medical records of adult patients, with diagnoses and reporting of cancer, with topographical codes C38 (pleura, heart, and mediastinum) and C48 (peritoneum and retroperitoneum). Stata 14 was used to analyze sensitivity and specificity, and internal consistency. Each medical record (considered the gold standard) provided by the reporting institutions was compared to those in the registry. Results: The registry sensitivity in reporting mesothelioma (ICD-10: C45) and pleural cancer (ICD-10: C38.4) was 100% (8/8) and 50% (1/2), respectively. Specificity was 90.2% (74/82), as eight cases were wrongly classified as pleural cancer. Conclusions: the registry presented high sensitivity in the reporting of malignant mesothelioma, with no underreporting, and overestimated pleural cancer reporting (nine instead of one) due to erroneous and misleading reporting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Records , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Neoplasms , Patients , Pleura , Prognosis , Asbestos , Information Systems , Public Health , Epidemiology , Diagnosis , Mesothelioma
8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210044, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288484

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar o grau de concordância e validade dos diagnósticos de neoplasias malignas relacionadas à exposição ao asbesto registrados no Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS), em comparação aos Registros Hospitalares de Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (RHC/SP). Métodos: Óbitos com registros de neoplasias malignas associadas ao asbesto foram identificados e extraídos do SIH/SUS entre 2007 e 2014. Óbitos nos casos de câncer registrados na base do RHC/SP foram extraídos para o mesmo período. Essas bases foram unidas pelos mesmos indivíduos empregando-se o software Link Plus. Um único diagnóstico codificado pela CID-O3 ou CID-10 selecionado de cada sistema foi analisado. A proporção de concordância e a sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos foram estimados. Resultados: Encontraram-se 19.458 pares com registros nas duas bases. A proporção de concordância foi elevada, variando de 92,4% para a localização primária desconhecida a 99,7% para o câncer de pleura. O índice Kappa variou de 0,05 (IC95% 0,04 - 0,07) para o câncer de pleura a 0,85 (IC95% 0,84 - 0,87) para o câncer de pulmão. A menor sensibilidade foi de 0,08 (IC95% 0,01 - 0,25), para o câncer de pleura, e a maior de 0,90 (IC95% 0,90 - 0,91), para o câncer de pulmão. Conclusão: Diagnósticos de neoplasias malignas associadas ao asbesto alcançaram maiores níveis de concordância e validade quando comuns. Os diagnósticos mais raros apresentaram baixa acurácia no SIH/SUS.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the degree of agreement and validity of diagnoses of asbestos-related malignant neoplasms registered in the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SIH/SUS), in comparison to the Hospital Cancer Registries of the State of São Paulo (HCR/SP). Methods: Deaths with records of malignant neoplasms associated with asbestos were identified and extracted from SIH/SUS between 2007 and 2014. Deaths in cases registered in the HCR/SP were extracted for the same period. The databases were linked using software Link Plus. A single ICD-10-coded diagnosis selected from each system was analyzed. The proportion of agreement, and the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were estimated. Results: 19,458 pairs were found with records in both bases. The proportion of agreement was high, ranging from 92.4% for the unknown primary site, to 99.7% for cancer of the pleura. The Kappa Index ranged from 0.05 (95%CI 0.04 - 0.07) for cancer of the pleura to 0.85 (95%CI 0.84 - 0.87) for lung cancer. Sensitivity varied from 0.08 (95%CI 0.01 - 0.25) for cancer of the pleura, to 0.90 (95%CI 0.90 - 0.91) for lung cancer. Conclusion: Diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies reached higher levels of agreement and validity when common. Rare diagnoses showed low accuracy in SIH/SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Hospital Information Systems , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Databases, Factual
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 50-50, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Asbestos fibers possess tumorigenicity and are thought to cause mesothelioma. We have previously reported that exposure to asbestos fibers causes a reduction in antitumor immunity. Asbestos exposure in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) showed suppressed induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), accompanied by a decrease in proliferation of CD8@*METHODS@#For MLR, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with irradiated allogenic PBMCs upon exposure to chrysotile B asbestos at 5 μg/ml for 7 days. After 2 days of culture, IL-15 was added at 1 ng/ml. After 7 days of MLR, PBMCs were collected and analyzed for phenotypic and functional markers of CD8@*RESULTS@#IL-15 addition partially reversed the decrease in CD3@*CONCLUSION@#These findings indicate that CTLs induced upon exposure to asbestos possess dysfunctional machinery that can be partly compensated by IL-15 supplementation, and that IL-15 is more effective in the recovery of proliferation and granzyme B levels from asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction compared with IL-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos/adverse effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Interleukin-15/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism
10.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 77-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988311

ABSTRACT

@#A sixty-eight years old man was referred to the hospital for evaluation of lung adenocarcinoma treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging showed lung nodule, pleural plaques, ground-glass opacity, and parenchymal bands related to asbestosis. Pleural plaques are the proxy of asbestos exposure, and asbestosis is lung parenchymal fibrosis caused by asbestos. The interview revealed that the patient had worked as an owner of a construction firm for more than 37 years. Construction workers are at high risk of getting asbestos-related diseases because some building materials have asbestos. This case study aimed to describe chest CT findings of asbestosis and pleural plaques that suggest the presence of asbestos exposure in a lung cancer case. This case showed the pivotal role of chest CT to define asbestos-related lung diseases and a structured interview to obtain past asbestos exposure.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Asbestos
11.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 204-210, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las placas pleurales por fibras de asbesto se caracterizan por lesiones compuestas por tejido fibroso que se ubican en la pleura parietal. Suelen aparecer hasta en un 3% a 58% de los trabajadores que estuvieron expuestos a fibras de asbesto, y en un 0,5% a 8% en población general. El OBJETIVO de este artículo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pacientes a los que se les detectó en la radiografía de tórax alteraciones pleurales posiblemente asociadas a la exposición a fibras de asbesto. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Caso 1. Paciente de sexo masculino de 49 años, trabajador de la construcción con antecedentes de exposición a fibras de asbesto. Se le realizó una radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT (Organización Internacional del Trabajo), la que evidenció alteraciones pleurales focales. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. Caso 2. Paciente de sexo femenino de 79 años, jefa de hogar, sin exposición laboral conocida a fibras de asbesto. En una radiografía de tórax anteroposterior, se observó la presencia de una placa pleural focal. Se solicitó una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, la que confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. CONCLUSIÓN: La radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT es el instrumento básico para la identificación de enfermedades relacionadas con la exposición a fibra de asbesto. El estudio debe ser completado con una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax cuya sensibilidad es mayor permitiendo detectar tempranamente las anomalías pleurales. Es fundamental la historia ocupacional detallada ya que constituye el método más fiable y práctico para medir la exposición a fibra de asbesto.


INTRODUCTION: Asbestos fiber pleural plaque is characterized by lesions composed of fibrous tissue that are located in the parietal pleura. They usually appear in up to 3 to 58% of workers who were exposed to asbestos fiber, and 0.5 to 8% in the general population. The OBJECTIVE of this article is to present two clinical cases of patients who were detected in the chest radiograph pleural alterations associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. CLINICAL CASES: First case: 49-year-old male patient, building worker with a history of exposure to asbestos fibers. Focal pleural alterations were detected by a chest x-ray performed according ILO (International Labour Organization) technique. The presence of pleural plaques was confirmed in a computed tomography of the chest. Second case: Holder, without occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. An anteroposterior chest radiography showed the presence of focal pleural plaque in a CT scan of the chest. CONCLUSION: Chest x-ray with ILO technique is the basic instrument for the identification of diseases related to asbestos fiber exposure. The study should be completed with a CT scan of the chest whose sensitivity is greater, allowing early detection of pleural abnormalities. Detailed occupational history is essential, as it is the most reliable and practical method to measure asbestos fiber exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pleural Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Pleura/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Inhalation Exposure , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
12.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e831, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126407

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El mesotelioma pleural maligno es un tumor maligno primario de la pleura, comúnmente asociado con la exposición al asbesto. Se considera una patología rara y muy agresiva. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sobre los criterios de diagnóstico y tratamiento actualizados en torno al mesotelioma pleural maligno. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en fuentes de información disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, de la red telemática Infomed, entre ellas, las bases de datos SciELO, Pubmed/Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, así como el Google Académico. Se seleccionaron un total de 39 referencias. Conclusiones: Existen pocas referencias en la literatura nacional relacionadas con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con mesotelioma pleural maligno. El diagnóstico combina el uso del método clínico, los estudio imagenológicos e histoquímicos. No existe un tratamiento estándar, siendo recomendable un enfoque individualizado que combine según cada caso, cirugía, quimio y radioterapia. Los desafíos futuros incluyen el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma is a primary malignant tumor of the pleura, commonly associated with exposure to asbestos. It is considered a rare and very aggressive pathology. Objective: Conduct a review of updated diagnostic and treatment criteria for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Material and Methods: A bibliographic review was made through the search of information in sources available from the Cuban National Health Care Network and Portal (INFOMED), among them, databases such as SciELO, Pubmed / Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, as well as Google Scholar. Finally, a total of 39 references were selected for our study. Conclusions: There are few references in the national literature related to the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. The diagnosis combines the use of the clinical method, the imaging and histochemical studies. There is no standard treatment, being recommended an individualized approach that combines according to each case, surgery, chemo and radiotherapy. Future challenges include the development of new therapeutic alternatives(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Mesothelioma/therapy , Databases, Bibliographic , Mineral Fibers
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 127 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O conhecimento científico sobre causas de morte em trabalhadores potencialmente expostos ao asbesto em países de baixa ou média renda, como o Brasil, é escasso, mas importante para reforçar informações que levem à implementação de políticas públicas que protejam a população da exposição a esse cancerígeno. São várias as doenças reconhecidas como causalmente associadas ao asbesto pela IARC, entre elas o câncer de pulmão. OBJETIVOS: Explorar a desigualdade socioeconômica nas tendências de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil. Estudar a mortalidade geral e específica por causa de morte, com ênfase em câncer de pulmão, em populações expostas ao asbesto no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Esta tese está dividida em três manuscritos. MANUSCRITO 1: Foram recuperados registros de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 2000 a 2015 em adultos com 30 anos ou mais. As análises utilizaram regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten e correlação de Pearson. A correlação entre as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e o IDH diminuiu quando comparada às taxas do primeiro e do último ano da série histórica em ambos os sexos. Entretanto, a correlação entre as tendências nas taxas de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e o IDH foi negativa em homens (r = -0,76) e em mulheres (r = -0,58), indicando maiores reduções (ou menores acréscimos) entre as Unidades Federativas com o IDH mais alto. Os resultados apontam para uma relevante desigualdade na tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil. MANUSCRITO 2: Foram recuperados registros de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 1980 a 2016 em adultos com 60 anos ou mais e estimadas a mudança percentual anual média (AAPC) e o efeito idade-período-coorte. Entre os homens, houve uma tendência crescente na mortalidade por câncer de pulmão em Osasco de 0,7% (IC: 0,1; 1,3), em contraste com uma redução anual média para Sorocaba de -1,5% (IC: -2,4; -0,6) e uma tendência média estável para o estado de São Paulo de -0,1 (IC: -0,3; 0,1). O modelo idade-período-coorte mostrou um aumento no risco de morte a partir de 1996 em Osasco e uma redução para Sorocaba e São Paulo no mesmo período. Um monitoramento especial é necessário em relação à incidência e mortalidade por câncer de pulmão em áreas com maior exposição ao asbesto. MANUSCRITO 3: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 988 ex-trabalhadores homens, que contribuíram com um total de 12.217 pessoas-ano de observação. A razão de mortalidade padronizada (RMP) por idade, empregando o método indireto, foi calculada para homens com 30 anos e mais. Foram observadas RMP aumentados para mortalidade geral (RMP 1,1, IC 95% 0,98-1.23), câncer de pleura (RMP 69,4, IC 95% 22,55 a 162,1), câncer de peritônio (RMP 5,0, IC 95% 0,13 a 27,78), câncer de laringe (RMP 1,4, IC 95% 0,30 a 4,20), câncer de pulmão (RMP 1,5, IC 95% 0,82 a 2,64) e asbestose (RMP 975,7, IC 95% 396,4 a 2031). Os resultados do presente estudo são consistentes com estudos de mortalidade em trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto realizados em diferentes países.


INTRODUCTION: Scientific knowledge about causes of death in workers potentially exposed to asbestos in low-or middle-income countries, such as Brazil, is scarce but important to strengthen information leading to the implementation of public policies that protect the population from the exposure to this carcinogen. Several diseases are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with asbestos, such as lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore socioeconomic inequality in lung cancer mortality trends in Brazil. To study general and specific mortality, especially caused by lung cancer in populations exposed to asbestos in Brazil. METHODS: This study is divided into three manuscripts. MANUSCRIPT 1: The death records of lung cancer cases from 2000 to 2015 in adults aged 30 years and older were retrieved. The Prais-Winsten estimation and Pearson's correlation were applied. The correlation between lung cancer mortality rates and the Human Development Index (HDI) decreased when the rates for the first and last years of the historical series were compared, for both sexes. However, the correlation between the trends in lung cancer mortality rates and the HDI was negative in men (r = - 0.76) and women (r = - 0.58), indicating greater reductions of lung cancer mortality (or smaller additions) among the Brazilian Federative Units with the highest HDI. The results suggest a relevant inequality in lung cancer mortality trends in Brazil. MANUSCRIPT 2: The death records of lung cancer cases from 1980 to 2016 in adults aged 60 years and older were retrieved. Joinpoint regression and Age-Period-Cohort models were fitted to the data. Among men, there was an increasing trend in lung cancer mortality in Osasco of 0.7% (CI: 0.1; 1.3) in contrast to a mean annual decrease for Sorocaba of -1.5% (CI: -2.4; -0.6) and a stable average trend for São Paulo of -0.1 (CI: -0.3; 0.1). Similar increasing trends were found for women. The Age-Period-Cohort model showed an increase in the risk of death from 1996 in Osasco and a reduction for Sorocaba and the state of São Paulo during the same period. The results show a need for special monitoring regarding lung cancer incidence and mortality in areas with higher exposure to asbestos. MANUSCRIPT 3: A cohort study was conducted with 988 former male workers, who contributed a total of 12,217 person-years of observation. The Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) by age was estimated for men aged 30 and over using the indirect method. Increased SMR was observed for overall mortality (SMR 1.1, 95%CI 0.98-1.23), pleural cancer (SMR 69.4, 95%CI 22.55 to 162.1), peritoneal cancer (SMR 5.0, 95%CI 0.13 to 27.78), laryngeal cancer (SMR 1.4, 95%CI 0.30 to 4.20), lung cancer (SMR 1.5, 95%CI 0.82 to 2.64), and asbestosis (SMR 975.7, 95%CI 396.4 to 2031). The results of this study corroborate the studies on mortality in workers exposed to asbestos performed in different countries.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Asbestosis , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Occupational Health , Lung Neoplasms , Cohort Studies
14.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020159, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131829

ABSTRACT

Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare peritoneal tumor diagnosed predominantly in pre-menopausal women. Associated risk factors include endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, and prior abdominal surgery in both genders. To date, the pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial with possible etiologies, including a neoplastic versus a reactive process. Given the risk factors, some authors believe that this disease is secondary to a reactive process. However, because some studies describe cases where there is no prior surgical history or inflammatory milieu present, and because of this entity's predilection for recurrence, some authors believe the origin to be neoplastic. Some genetic and familial associations have also been reported. Malignant transformation is extremely rare, with only two cases reported in the literature, despite the recurrence potential. Like the etiology, the name of this entity is also controversial. Some authors prefer the term "peritoneal inclusion cyst (PCM)" instead of "benign cystic mesothelioma" and argue that the term mesothelioma should only be used when there is evidence of atypia. Most cases of BMPM are discovered incidentally. Others reflect sequela of tumor mass effect. It appears intra-operatively as large, multi-focal, cystic lesions in the peritoneal and pelvic cavity. Diagnosis is achieved through surgical sampling with histopathological examination. Immunobiologically, BMPM exhibits multiple small cystic spaces with flattened lining containing calretinin positive cells without atypical features, mitotic figures, or tissue invasion. Treatment includes cytoreductive surgery. Here we present a case of BMPM in a 60-year-old male - a rare disease in an uncommon patient population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urogenital Neoplasms/pathology , Mesothelioma, Cystic/pathology , Lymphangioma, Cystic/pathology , Asbestos , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 132(4): 15-19, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087168

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma difuso es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente que proviene de las células mesoteliales; la pleura es su localización más habitual y se estima que un 10% de los casos se localizan a nivel peritoneal. El mesotelioma es habitualmente diagnosticado en la quinta década de la vida, con un claro predominio en el sexo masculino, debido esto último a su relación con la exposición laboral al asbesto. Se expone un caso con factores de riesgo y diagnóstico asociado. (AU)


Diffuse mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that comes from mesothelial cells; the pleura are the most common location and is estimated that 10% of the cases are located at the peritoneal level. Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed in the fifth decade of life, with a clear predominance in the male sex, due to its relation to occupational exposureto asbestos. A case is presented with risk factors and associated diagnosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Mesothelioma/etiology , Mesothelioma/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Diagnosis, Differential , Mesothelioma/therapy , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 253-254, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119719

ABSTRACT

El Asbesto ha sido conocido y utilizado desde la antigüedad por ser un excelente material aislante, ignífugo y por poseer resistencia a los ácidos. Los griegos lo utilizaban en las lámparas votivas para sus deidades y Alejandro el Grande, agasajaba a sus invitados con comidas servidas sobre un mantel confeccionado con dicho material. El toque de hechizo lo efectuaba al culminar el banquete, cuando lo arrojaba al fuego para que se consumiese lo orgánico, rescatando el mantel sin sufrir alteraciones, al ser incombustible. El Asbesto se clasifica en dos grandes grupos: las SERPENTINAS (entre las que más del 90% de la explotación industrial lo compone el crisotilo) y las ANFÍBOLAS (crocidolita o "amianto azul" y la amosita o "amianto marrón)


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestosis , Asbestos , Asbestos, Serpentine
18.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 284-290, sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1119778

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mesotelioma pleural es un tumor poco frecuente de alto grado de malignidad. Es considerada una enfermedad profesional cuyo desarrollo fue paralelo al uso industrial del asbesto. En Argentina, el asbesto fue prohibido en el año 2003. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer las características clínicas, de diagnóstico y tratamiento del mesotelioma pleural y determinar las características de exposición al asbesto en 40 casos de mesotelioma en distintas regiones de la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y multicéntrico. Participaron hospitales de Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Córdoba y Rosario desde enero del 2013 a enero del 2015. Se recogieron los datos clínicos en un Formulario Médico y los antecedentes de exposición ambiental, doméstica y laboral en un Formulario de Exposición. Se clasificó a cada participante como expuesto, no expuesto o desconocido. Se consideró expuesto cuando tenían identificado al menos uno de los tres tipos de exposición laboral, ambiental o doméstica. Resultados: Se analizaron 40 casos de mesotelioma pleural, 55% masculinos; encontrando referencia de al menos una exposición al asbesto en el 75% de los casos, el 7,5% negó todas las posibles exposiciones y en el 17,5% la exposición resultó desconocida. La probabilidad de exposición ambiental fue del 57,5%, doméstica del 60% y laboral del 37%. Se encontró mayor proporción de varones con exposición laboral en forma estadísticamente significativa. Conclusión: El aporte del presente trabajo radica en la información sobre los distintos tipos de exposición al asbesto en casos de mesotelioma pleural en la República Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Occupational Exposure , Mesothelioma , Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases
19.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 284-290, sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumor with a high degree of malignancy. It is considered an occupational disease that has developed in parallel with the industrial use of asbestos. In Argentina, the asbestos was prohibited in 2003. The objective of this study is to know the clinical and diagnostic characteristics and treatment of pleural mesothelioma and to determine the characteristics of asbestos exposure in 40 cases of mesothelioma in different regions of the Argentine Republic. Materials and Methods: It is a descriptive, multicenter study. Hospitals from Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Córdoba and Rosario participated in this study from January 2013 until January 2015. Clinical data were recorded in a Medical Form, and history of environmental, domestic and occupational exposure was recorded in an Exposure Form. Each participant was classified as: exposed, not exposed or unknown. The patient was considered as "exposed" if he/she identified at least one of the three types of exposure: occupational, environmental or domestic. Results: 40 cases of pleural mesothelioma were analyzed, 55% of which were male. We found reference of at least one exposure to asbestos in 75% of the cases; 7.5% denied every possible type of exposure and in 17.5% exposure was unknown. The probability of exposure was: 57.5% environmental, 60% domestic and 37% occupational. There was a greater statistically significant proportion of men with occupational exposure. Conclusion: The contribution of this work relies on the information about the different types of asbestos exposure in cases of pleural mesothelioma in the Argentine Republic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Occupational Exposure , Mesothelioma , Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 417-426, Jul.-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099317

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Environmental and occupational agents are causes of cancer and disease worldwide while their control and the reduction of the associated disease burden remains complex. Materials and methods: This paper summarizes the current status of the burden of environmental and occupational causes of disease in the Americas based on presentations from a panel on environment, occupation and other environmental risk factors for cancer in the Americas, delivered in Panama, at the international conference Promoting Health Equity and Transnational Collaborations for the Prevention and Control of Cancer in the Americas. Results: Three case studies are presented to illustrate the impact of specific environmental and occupational agents and the challenge of control. Conclusions: There are still fully avoidable exposures to carcinogens, as well documented in the case of asbestos in Brazil. Thus, there are abundant targets for intervention to reduce cancer in the Americas.


Resumen: Objetivo: Los agentes ambientales y ocupacionales son causas de cáncer y enfermedades en todo el mundo, mientras que su control y reducción de la carga de enfermedad asociada siguen siendo puntos complejos. Material y métodos: Este documento resume el estado actual de la carga de las causas ambientales y ocupacionales de las enfermedades en las Américas a partir de las presentaciones de un panel sobre medio ambiente, ocupación y otros factores de riesgo ambientales para el cáncer en las Américas, realizado en Panamá, en la conferencia internacional Promoviendo la Equidad en Salud y las Colaboraciones Transnacionales para la Prevención y el Control del Cáncer en las Américas. Resultados: Se presentan tres estudios de caso para ilustrar el impacto de agentes ambientales y ocupacionales específicos y el desafío del control. Conclusiones: Todavía hay exposiciones totalmente evitables a los carcinógenos, como está bien documentado en el caso del asbesto en Brasil. Hay abundantes puntos estratégicos de intervención para reducir el cáncer en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Panama , Asbestos/toxicity , Americas , Brazil , Carcinogens/toxicity , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Sex Distribution
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