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1.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(5): 368-376, 01-oct-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357929

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las enfermedades relacionadas con enteroparásitos son un grave problema de salud pública. Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de enteroparásitos en el Perú y su relación con el Índice de desarrollo humano (IDH). Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio coproparasitológico por el método directo en niños y adultos de las comunidades de Pamplona Alta en Lima, de la provincia de San Sebastián de Quera, Castillo Grande, Pillco Marca y Puelles en Huánuco, Llupa-Huaraz en Ancash y Machaguay en Arequipa, Perú, de 2012 a 2016. Resultados: se analizaron 864 muestras y se encontró una prevalencia total del 23.03% (199 casos). El protozoario no patógeno Entamoeba coli con 10.42% (90 casos) y el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides con 6.37% (55 casos) fueron los más prevalentes. La prevalencia de protozoos fue mayor que la de los helmintos. No se observó asociación entre el IDH frente a la prevalencia total ni frente a las cuatro especies de enteroparásitos más frecuentes. El análisis PERMANOVA a partir de las prevalencias de enteroparásitos en áreas urbanas y rurales de Perú mostró diferencias entre las comunidades. La prevalencia total de las comunidades urbanas fue similar que la de las rurales. Conclusiones: la enteroparasitosis en el Perú no se relaciona con el IDH. Sin embargo, los niveles de infestación por enteroparásitos variaron entre las diferentes comunidades y se relacionaron con las características bioecológicas de los parásitos.


Background: Diseases related to enteroparasites are a serious public health problem. Objective: To assess the prevalence of enteroparasites in Peru and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI). Material and methods: A coproparasitological study using the direct method from children and adults from the communities of Pamplona Alta in Lima, the province of San Sebastián de Quera, Castillo Grande, Pillco Marca and Puelles in Huánuco, Llupa-Huaraz in Ancash, and Machaguay in Arequipa, Peru was carried out from 2012 to 2016. Results: 864 samples were analyzed, and a total prevalence of 23.03% (199 cases) was found. The non-pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba coli, with 10.42% (90 cases), and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides, with 6.37% (55 cases), were the most prevalent. PERMANOVA analysis based on the prevalences of enteroparasites in urban and rural areas of Peru showed differences among communities. The overall prevalence of urban communities was similar to that of rural ones. Conclusions: Enteroparasitosis in Peru are not related to HDI. However, the levels of infestation by enteroparasites varied between the different communities, and they were related to the bioecological characteristics of parasites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Health , Ascaris lumbricoides , Entamoeba , Coliforms , Helminthiasis , Parasites , Peru , Rural Areas , Urban Area , Development Indicators
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 286-295, set 29, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354489

ABSTRACT

Introdução: os parasitos gastrintestinais são causas de morbidade em crianças, podendo determinar quadros de anemia e diarréria. Podem estar associados as condições socioeconômicas, de saneamento básico e práticas de higiene. Objetivo: o objetivo desta investigação foi identificar as parasitoses intestinais e os fatores de risco associados em crianças menores de 12 anos cadastradas em duas Unidades Básicas de Saúde do município de Caxias, estado do Maranhão. Metodologia: neste estudo transversal 422 exames coproparasitológicos pela técnica de Hoffman, Pons e Janner foram realizados. Para comparar as proporções utilizou-se o teste Qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Empregou-se análises univariadas e multivariadas por regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre a infecção por enteroparasitos e os fatores de risco. Resultados: a frequência de parasitos intestinais foi 49,05%, sendo predominante o Ascaris lumbricoides (68,18%) e a Entamoeba sp. (65,38%). Conforme a análise estatística, ingerir água sem tratamento domiciliar e não lavar as mãos antes das refeições podem ser considerados como fatores de risco para as enteropatias parasitárias. Conclusão: ressalta-se a necessidade de implementar políticas públicas que visem reduzir as altas taxas destes parasitos, e que contribuam para melhorar a qualidade de vida dessa população.


Introduction: intestinal parasites are cause of morbidity in children and can determine anemia and diarrhea. It can be associated to social economical conditions, basic sanitation and hygiene. Objective: the objective of this research was to identify tne intestinal parasitosis and the risk factors associated in children less than 12 years old registered in two Basic Health Units in Caxias municipality, state of Maranhão. Metodology: in this cross-sectional study 422 fecal exams were performed by the technique of Hoffman, Pons and Janner in 422 children. To compare the proportions, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were used by logistic regression to evaluate the association between enteroparasite infection and risk factors. Results: the frequency of intestinal parasites was 49.05%, being predominant Ascaris lumbricoides (68.8%) and Entamoeba sp. (65.38%). According to statistical analysis, drinking water without home treatment and not washing hands before meals, can be considered as risk factors for parasitic enteropathies. Conclusion: It's necessary to implement public policies aimed at reducing the high rates of intestinal parasites, which contributes to improve the quality of life of this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Parasitic Diseases , Child , Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ascaris lumbricoides , Diarrhea , Entamoeba , Anemia
3.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1160, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347543

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ascariasis es una enteroparasitosis con alta prevalencia en la población pediátrica tercermundista, la cual puede asociarse a otras enfermedades intestinales y tener graves complicaciones que requieren tratamiento quirúrgico. Objetivo: Informar el caso de un infante operado por coinfección de ascariasis intestinal y fiebre tifoidea complicadas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 9 años de edad asistido y operado en el hospital provincial N´gola Kimbanda de la provincia Namibe, Angola, por presentar evidencia clínica de peritonitis aguda generalizada por perforación intestinal de causa tifoidea y por cuyo orificio salían además áscaris lumbricoides vivos. Su evolución no fue satisfactoria y falleció 24 horas después de la operación. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico y tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno de la coinfección letal de ascariasis y fiebre tifoidea complicadas permitirá disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta prevalente asociación(AU)


Introduction: Ascariasis is an enteroparasitosis with high prevalence in the third-world pediatric population, which can be associated with other bowel diseases and have serious complications that require surgical treatment. Objective: Report the case of an infant operated by the co-infection of complicated intestinal ascariasis and typhoid fever. Case presentation: 9-year-old male patient attended and operated at N'gola Kimbanda Provincial Hospital in Namibe Province, Angola, after presenting clinical evidence of generalized acute peritonitis due to intestinal perforation of typhoid-causing and through which live ascaris lumbricoide also came out. His evolution was unsatisfactory and he died 24 hours after the operation. Conclusions: The timely diagnosis and surgical treatment of lethal co-infection of complicated ascariasis and typhoid fever will reduce morbidity and mortality from this prevalent association(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Peritonitis/etiology , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascaris lumbricoides/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Research Report , Coinfection/mortality
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e612, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347488

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las geohelmintiasis son las parasitosis intestinales causadas por helmintos que hacen su ciclo de vida en la tierra y representan un problema de salud público a nivel mundial, que afecta en especial aquellos estratos socioeconómicos más bajos. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de geohelmintos en comunidades indígenas del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Métodos: Se analizaron 250 muestras fecales, de individuos de ambos sexos con edades entre 1 a 80 años. Las muestras fueron procesadas con examen directo, concentrado (Ritchie) y recuento de huevos (Kato-Katz). Resultados: El 35,20 por ciento de los individuos presentaron huevos de geohelmintos en sus heces (88 casos). El grupo etario más afectado fue el de escolares (7-12 años: 38,64 por ciento ), seguido de adultos (20 o más años: 26,13 por ciento ). Ascaris lumbricoides con 25,20 por ciento se encontró en primer lugar, seguido de Trichuris trichiura con 14,80 por ciento , y los menos frecuentes Ancilostomideos con 4,40 por ciento . La mayoría de los individuos presentaron infecciones de intensidad leve (A. lumbricoides 74,60 por ciento , T. trichiura 81,08 por ciento y Ancilostomideos 90,91 por ciento ). Conclusiones: Se detecta una moderada prevalencia de geohelmintos, con un mayor porcentaje de las infecciones de intensidad leve. La presencia de los geohelmintos se relaciona con el escaso saneamiento ambiental que poseen estas comunidades indígenas(AU)


Introduction: Geohelminthiases are intestinal parasitic diseases caused by helminths which complete their life cycle in the soil. They are a global public health problem mainly affecting the lowest socioeconomic strata. Objective: Determine the prevalence of geohelminths in native communities from Zulia State, Venezuela. Methods: Analysis was performed of 250 stool samples from individuals of both sexes aged between 1 and 80 years. The samples were processed by direct examination, concentration (Ritchie) and egg count (Kato-Katz). Results: Geohelminth eggs were found in 35.20 percent of the stool samples studied (88 cases). The most affected age group was schoolchildren (7-12 years: 38.64 percent), followed by adults (20 years and over: 26.13 percent). The most common helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides with 25.20 percent, followed by Trichuris trichiura with 14.80 percent. The least common genus was Ancylostoma with 4.40 percent. Infection was mild in most subjects (A. lumbricoides 74.60 percent, T. trichiura 81.08 percent and Ancylostoma 90.91 percent). Conclusions: A moderate prevalence of geohelminth infection was observed, most of which was mild. The presence of geohelminths is related to poor environmental sanitation in these native communities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Parasitic Diseases , Ascaris lumbricoides , Feces , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Life Cycle Stages , Residence Characteristics , Indigenous Peoples , Age Groups
5.
Medisan ; 24(6) ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1143270

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 27 años de edad, con antecedentes de colecistectomía convencional desde hacía 10 meses por aparente colecistitis, quien acudió al Hospital Luis Vernaza de Guayaquil, Ecuador, por presentar ictericia y dolor abdominal. Teniendo en cuenta los hallazgos clínicos, de laboratorio e imagenológicos se le diagnosticó sepsis de foco abdominal, colangitis y coledocolitiasis. Durante la intervención quirúrgica se observó la presencia de 2 Ascaris lumbricoides y cálculo de colesterol en la vía biliar, por lo que se le realizó una derivación bilioentérica. Después de algunas complicaciones como insuficiencia respiratoria y descompensación hemodinámica, la paciente egresó de la institución a los 25 días de operada, con seguimiento por consulta externa durante 2 meses.


The case report of a 27 years patient is presented, with history of conventional cholecystectomy for 10 months due to apparent cholecystitis who went to Luis Vernaza Hospital in Guayaquil, Ecuador, presenting jaundice and abdominal pain. Taking into account the clinical, laboratory and imaging findings a sepsis of abdominal focus, cholangitis and choledocolithiasis was diagnosed. During the surgical intervention the presence of 2 Ascaris lumbricoides and cholesterol calculi in the bile duct was observed, reason why a bilioenteric bypass was carried out. After some complications such as breathing failure and hemodynamic upset, the patient was discharged from the institution 25 days after the surgery, with follow up in outpatient clinics during 2 months.


Subject(s)
Ascaridiasis/diagnosis , Bile Ducts/surgery , Choledochostomy , Ascaridiasis/diagnostic imaging , Ascaris lumbricoides , Adult
6.
Med. UIS ; 33(1): 67-72, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124987

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Ascariasis es la geohelminitiasis más común del mundo, catalogándose como una enfermedad tropical desatendida, que puede causar compromiso pulmonar, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliar y nutricional. Se presenta el caso inusual de una lactante procedente de una zona de extrema pobreza quien consultó por fiebre, vómito, ausencia de deposiciones, distensión y dolor abdominal. Fue diagnosticada con pseudoobstrucción intestinal, desnutrición severa, choque séptico de origen intraabdominal, retraso del neurodesarrollo y deprivación psicoafectiva, cuyas imágenes reportaron ascariasis hepatobiliar y granulomas hepáticos calcificados y abscedados, con infestación severa por Ascaris lumbricoides. Recibió manejo antibiótico y antiparasitario con recuperación exitosa. En nuestro medio, las infecciones por helmintos son causa frecuente de anemia, retraso cognitivo y del crecimiento en niños en edad escolar. Sin embargo, la infestación y complicaciones hepatobiliares como colangitis, colecistitis, pancreatitis, litiasis biliar y hepatitis abscedada son inusuales en menores de dos años. A través de este caso se pretende resaltar la presentación atípica de la enfermedad en lactantes e incitar al fortalecimiento de las intervenciones en salud pública. MÉD.UIS.2020;33(1):67-72.


Abstract Ascariasis is the most common geohelminitiasis in the world. It is categorized as an unattended tropical disease, which can cause pulmonary, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and nutritional compromise. We present the unusual case of an infant from an extreme poverty area presenting fever, vomiting, absence of bowel movements, bloating and abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with intestinal pseudoobstruction, severe malnutrition, abdominal septic shock, neurodevelopmental delay and emotional deprivation. The images reported hepatobiliary ascariasis and calcified and abscessed hepatic granulomas, with severe infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. She was treated with antibiotics and antiparasitic agents with successful recovery. In our environment, helminth infections are a frequent cause of anemia, stunting and neurodevelopmental delay in school-age children. However, infestation and hepatobiliary complications such as cholangitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, biliary lithiasis and hepatic abscess are unusual in children under two years old. Through this case, it is intended to highlight the atypical presentation of this disease at the age of this patient and encourage the strengthening of public health interventions. MÉD.UIS.2020;33(1):67-72.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Ascariasis , Biliary Tract Diseases , Ascaris lumbricoides , Poverty , Pulmonary Eosinophilia , Tropical Medicine , Trichuris , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Child Nutrition Disorders , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Malnutrition , Hepatomegaly , Anemia , Liver Abscess , Antiparasitic Agents
7.
Med. lab ; 24(2): 153-161, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1097276

ABSTRACT

Se presentan tres casos clínicos de niños atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San José de Popayán en Cauca, Colombia, quienes consultaron por una infección severa causada por Ascaris lumbricoides. La severidad de la infección tuvo como consecuencia en el primer caso una colangitis aguda, en el segundo caso una obstrucción intestinal con peritonitis generalizada, y en el tercer caso una perforación intestinal y choque séptico. El objetivo de mostrar estos casos es dar a conocer estas presentaciones clínicas poco frecuentes en el entorno médico. Además, se resalta la importancia del conocimiento sobre esta especie de parásito, que termina siendo un problema más de salud pública, no solo en nuestro país, sino en gran parte del mundo


We report three clinical cases of children treated at the San José University Hospital in Cauca, Colombia, who consulted with a severe infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. The severity of the infection resulted in acute cholangitis in the first case, in intestinal obstruction with generalized peritonitis in the second case, and in intestinal perforation and septic shock in the third case. The objective of this report is to inform the medical community about these unusual clinical presentations. In addition, the importance of this parasite is highlighted as a public health concern, not only in our country but also globally


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascariasis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(1): e299, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093543

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Intestinal parasitosis by helminths and protozoa is still today a global public health problem mainly affecting people living in conditions of social vulnerability, including rural communities. Objective: Describe human intestinal parasitosis and environmental contamination with helminths and protozoa in the Quilombola community of Quartel do Indaiá (of African descent) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of stool and soil samples by spontaneous sedimentation, and of plant samples by centrifugation sedimentation, to detect intestinal helminths and protozoa. Water samples were analyzed for total and fecal coliforms. Results: Helminths and protozoa were found in 45.5 percent of the people (n = 66). The species detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (18.2 percent), Entamoeba coli (18.2 percent), Endolimax nana (18.2 percent), ancylostoma (6.1 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (4.6 percent), Giardia duodenalis (3 percent) and Trichuris trichiura (1.5 percent). More than one species were present in 19.7 percent of the samples. In 18 of the 39 sites sampled, the soil was contaminated with E. coli, E. nana, A. lumbricoides, I. butschlii and/or Enterobius vermicularis. Vegetables (n = 135) were contaminated in 75 samples with 7 of the 8 species analyzed. The contaminants were E. coli cysts, A. lumbricoides eggs and ancylostoma. All water samples were contaminated with total and fecal coliforms. Conclusions: The Quilombola community of Quartel do Indaiá had high levels of human infection and high environmental contamination with intestinal parasites or protozoa, probably due to lack of appropriate sanitary conditions. It is necessary to improve the access to treated water and sanitation(AU)


Introducción: El parasitismo intestinal por helmintos y protozoarios todavía es un problema de salud pública mundial, que afecta sobre todo personas en condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, incluso las comunidades rurales. Objectivo: Describir la infección humana y la contaminación ambiental por parásitos/comensales intestinales en una comunidade 'quilombola' Quartel do Indaiá (descendentes de esclavos) del Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal con análisis de muestras fecales y de tierra por sedimentación espontánea, y de vegetales por sedimentación con centrifugación para detección de parásitos o comensales intestinales. Se analizaron muestras de agua para detección de coliformes totales y fecales. Resultados: Se observó la ocurrencia de parásitos o comensales en 45.5 por ciento de las personas (n = 66). Las especies detectadas fueron Ascaris lumbricoides (18,2 por ciento), Entamoeba coli (18,2 por ciento), Endolimax nana (18,2 por ciento), anquilostomas (6.1 por ciento), Iodamoeba butschlii (4,6 por ciento), Giardia duodenalis (3 por ciento), and Trichuris trichiura (1,5 por ciento). Para 19,7 por ciento de las muestras se detectaron más de una especie. El suelo estuvo contaminado en 18 de los 39 sitios muestreados, con presencia de E. coli, E. nana, A. lumbricoides, I. butschlii y/o Enterobius vermicularis. Los vegetales (n = 135) presentaron contaminación en 75 muestras de 7, entre 8 especies analizadas. Sus contaminantes fueron quistos de E. coli y huevos de A. lumbricoides y anquilostoma. Todas las muestras de agua estaban contaminadas por coliformes totales y fecales. Conclusiones: La comunidad 'quilombola' Quartel do Indaiá presentó alta infección humana y alta contaminación ambiental por parásitos o comensales intestinales, lo que se debe probablemente a la falta de condiciones sanitarias. Se necesita mejorar el acceso para agua tratada y estructuras de saneamiento(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Samples , Residence Characteristics , Ascaris lumbricoides , Sanitary Profiles , Cysts , Environmental Pollution , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Infectio ; 23(1): 33-38, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intestinal parasitosis (IP) is a public health problem in developing countries affecting one fourth of the global population. IP are common studied in children, ne glecting the adults that are also at high risk and source of transmission. A screening study was performed with a convenience sample in three Colombian regions: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó), and Urabá (Antioquia). Feces samples from 284 volunteers (older than 18 years old) were tested by microscopy to identify para site ova and cysts. The IP frequency was 14.5%, and 52.1% were males. 63.2% of the parasitized patients exhibited diarrhea, and/or abdominal pain with significant association. 39.5% had single parasitic infection and 60.5% had multiple parasites: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), hookworm species (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). A multivariate approach was used to determine predictor factors for IP: male gender, rainwater as drinking sour ce, and feces disposal different to toilet, latrine or septic tank were positively associated with infection. This study evidences that adult population, not only children from vulnerable areas of Colombia, must have to include as a risk for intestinal parasitism.


Resumen La parasitosis intestinal (PI) es un problema de salud pública en países en desarrollo que afecta un cuarto de la población mundial. Las PI son comúnmente estudia das en niños, olvidando que los adultos están también en riesgo y a su vez pueden ser fuentes de transmisión. Se realizó un estudio de tamizaje con una muestra escogida por conveniencia en tres regiones de Colombia: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó) y Urabá (Antioquia). Las muestras de materia fecal de 284 voluntarios mayores de 18 años, fueron estudiadas por microscopía para identificar parásitos, huevos y quistes. La frecuencia de las PI fue del 14.5%, 52.1% de los positivos fueron hombres. 63.2% de los individuos parasitados tenían asociación significativa con diarrea, y/o dolor abdominal. 39.5% tuvieron infección por un solo parásito y 60.5% fueron positivos para varios parásitos: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), y Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). Se realizó un aná lisis multivariado para determinar factores predictores para PI: el género masculino, el agua lluvia para consumo, y la disposición de excretas diferente a sanitario, letrina o pozo séptico, están asociados positivamente a la PI. Este estudio evidencia que la población adulta, no solo la infantil, residentes en áreas vulnerables de Colombia, deben incluirse como población de riesgo al parasitismo intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Mass Screening , Helminthiasis , Toilet Facilities , Ancylostomatoidea , Water , Abdominal Pain , Septic Tanks , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis hominis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Colombia , Diarrhea , Drinking , Coliforms
10.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 40(1): 89-98, jan./jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051429

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteroparasitosis and the factors involved in their transmission in children between the ages of 0 and 15 in the city of São Jerônimo da Serra, Paraná. The study was carried out from July 2014 to June 2017. 362 samples were analyzed using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators, and Kato-Katz modified. Associations between the socioeconomic variables, as it relates to the habits and environment of the children, and enteroparasitosis were verified by logistic regression, considering a level of significance of 5%. We encountered a high prevalence of enteroparasites (36.5%), a high frequency of polyparasitism (43.9%) and a higher frequency of protozoa (34.5%) in relation to helminths (3.9%). The pathogenic parasites found were Giardia lamblia (8.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana (2.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%), hookworms (0.8%) and Trichuris trichiura (0.3%). Endolimax nana was the most frequent (19.3%); even though it is a commensal amoeba, its detection is concerning since the transmission mechanism (fecal-oral) is equal to pathogenic microorganisms. We observed an association between the presence of enteroparasitosis and age group, household income, education level of parents/guardians, living in rural area, consumption of untreated water, inadequate garbage disposal, contact with sand or dirt and presence of a household pet. Hygienic habits, sanitary, socioeconomic and socio-demographic conditions are directly related to infection by intestinal parasites and must be improved to avoid dissemination in the population (AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses e os fatores envolvidos na transmissão de enteroparasitoses em crianças de 0 a 15 anos de idade do município de São Jerônimo da Serra, Paraná. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no período de julho de 2014 a junho 2017. Analisou-se 362 amostras pelos métodos de Hoffman, Pons e Janer e Faust e cols. As associações entre variáveis socioeconômicas, referentes aos hábitos das crianças e ao ambiente em que vivem e enteroparasitoses foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística, considerado nível de significância de 5%. Encontrou-se alta prevalência de parasitismo (36,5%), uma alta frequência de poliparasitismo (43,9%) e uma freqüência maior de protozoários (34,5%) em relação aos helmintos (3,9%). Os enteroparasitas patogênicos encontrados foram Giardia lamblia (8,0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3,6%), Hymenolepis nana (2,5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2,2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1,1%), ancilostomídeos (0,8%) e Trichuris trichiura (0,3%). Endolimax nana foi o mais frequentemente encontrado (19,3%). Mesmo sendo comensal, sua detecção é preocupante uma vez que o mecanismo de transmissão (fecal-oral) é igual dos microrganismos patogênicos. Observou-se associação entre a presença de enteroparasitoses e faixa etária, renda familiar, escolaridade dos responsáveis, morar em zona rural, consumo de água não tratada, destino inadequado do lixo, contato com areia ou terra e presença de um animal de estimação Hábitos de higiene, condições sanitárias, socioeconômicas e sociodemográficas estão diretamenterelacionados às infecções por parasitos intestinais e devem ser melhoradas para evitar disseminação na população(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child , Intestinal Diseases , Parasitic Diseases , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Giardia lamblia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Habits
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786643

ABSTRACT

The aim of this parasitological study is examining contemporary (the late 20th century) specimens of the arctic or subarctic areas in Western Siberia and comparing them with the information acquired from archaeological samples from the same area. In the contemporary specimens, we observed the parasite eggs of 3 different species: Opisthochis felineus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis. Meanwhile, in archaeoparasitological results of Vesakoyakha, Kikki-Akki, and Nyamboyto I burial grounds, the eggs of Diphyllobothrium and Taenia spp. were found while no nematode (soil-transmitted) eggs were observed in the same samples. In this study, we concluded helminth infection pattern among the arctic and subarctic peoples of Western Siberia throughout history as follows: the raw fish-eating tradition did not undergo radical change in the area at least since the 18th century; and A. lumbricoides or E. vermicularis did not infect the inhabitants of this area before 20th century. With respect to the Western Siberia, we caught glimpse of the parasite infection pattern prevalent therein via investigations on contemporary and archaeoparasitological specimens.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Burial , Diphyllobothrium , Eggs , Enterobius , Helminths , Ovum , Parasites , Siberia , Taenia
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in the population of San Juan Cosala, Jalisco, Mexico. METHODS: A total of 277 samples from 104 participants were analysed using direct smear, flotation, formaldehyde/ethyl acetate, and modified Kinyoun’s acid-fast stain methods. The Graham method was applied only for samples from children under 12 years of age for the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis. RESULTS: The prevalence of parasite infections in the study population was 77.9% including: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii/E. bangladeshi (37.5%), Giardia intestinalis (11.5%); commensals: Endolimax nana (44.2%), Entamoeba coli (27.9%), Chilomastix mesnili (6.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii, (2.9%); emerging intestinal protozoans: Blastocystis spp. (49%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.7%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (2.9%); and helminths: Enterobius vermicularis (18.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%). The results also showed that 58.64% of the studied population presented polyparasitism. A significant association was found between protozoan infections and housewives, and houses that were not built with concrete ceilings, brick walls and cement floors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Polyparasitism was observed in over half the study population. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis spp, whilst the prevalence of helminths was less than that of protozoans. The risk factors for infection to intestinal parasites were being a housewife and not having solid brick, cement and concrete materials for house construction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis , Child , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diagnosis , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Enterobius , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Humans , Methods , Mexico , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Retortamonadidae , Risk Factors
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190315, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057249

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Immunological control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is dependent on the cellular immune response, mediated predominantly by Th1 type CD4+ T cells. Polarization of the immune response to Th2 can inhibit the host immune protection against pathogens. Patients with tuberculosis coinfected with helminths demonstrate more severe pulmonary symptoms, a deficiency in the immune response against tuberculosis, and an impaired response to anti-tuberculosis therapy. METHODS: We evaluated the cellular immune response and the impact of the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides on the immune and clinical response in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Ninety-one individuals were included in the study: 38 tuberculosis patients, 11 tuberculosis patients coinfected with Ascaris lumbricoides and other helminths, 10 Ascaris lumbricoides patients, and 34 non-infected control individuals. Clinical evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis was studied on 0, 30, 60, and 90 days post-diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides. Furthermore, immune cells and plasma cytokine profiles were examined in mono/coinfection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides using flow cytometry. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in any of the evaluated parameters and the results indicated that Ascaris lumbricoides infection does not lead to significant clinical repercussions in the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The association with Ascaris lumbricoides did not influence the Th1, Th2, and Th17 type responses, or the proportions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. However, higher serum levels of IL-6 in tuberculosis patients may explain the pulmonary parenchymal damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ascariasis/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascariasis/complications , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Disease Progression , Coinfection , Flow Cytometry , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 19(2): 58-60, diciembre 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-996454

ABSTRACT

Áscaris lumbricoides, nemátodo frecuente en la población infantil, relacionado con situaciones socioeconómicas bajas y condiciones higiénicas desfavorables. El ciclo de vida del parasito inicia con la ingesta de huevos embrionados, tras esto desempeña un período hístico-tisular y transalveolocapilar, posteriormente alcanza el intestino delgado como parásito adulto. En ocasiones migra a diferentes sitios causando complicaciones, destacando la migración a vía biliar provocando colecistitis parasitaria. El siguiente caso trata de un adolescente de 12 años 9 meses que consulta por dolor abdominal localizado en epigastrio y cuadrante superior derecho. Es ingresada en el Hospital General Enrique Garcés de la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador donde se evidencia en ecografía la presencia de Áscaris lumbricoides en el interior de la vesícula biliar. Se realiza manejo clínico administrando antihelmíntico. Dos días posterior a su ingreso y culminado el tratamiento se solicita control ecográfico sin evidenciar la presencia del parásito


Ascaris lumbricoides is a frequently nematode in children associated with low socio-economic situations and unfavorable hygienic conditions. The life cycle of the parasite starts with the intake of embryonic eggs, then it plays an hyshc-hssue period and trans-capillary period. Subsequently reaches the bowel intestine as anadult parasite. Sometimes they migrate to different places causing complications, including migration to bile duct causing parasitic cholecystitis. The following case is a boy of 12 years 9 months old consulting for abdominal pain located in epigastrium and right upper quadrant. He was hospitalized in the General Hospital Enrique Garces in the city of Quito ­ Ecuador evidenciating the presence of on Ascaris lumbricoides in the interior of the gallbladder in the ultrasound. Antiprotoozarios were given. Two days after finishing the treatment, we requested a control ultrasound without observing the parasite


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Ascaridiasis , Abdominal Pain , Ascaris lumbricoides , Biliary Tract
15.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 12(1): 64-75, Jun.- 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980683

ABSTRACT

Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 30 años de edad, con dolor abdominal de 24 horas de evolución. A la exploración física, abdomen distendido, doloroso en epigastrio e hipocondrio derecho. Paraclínicos indicaron leucocitosis (12.400/cc), elevación de amilasa 3.2 N, lipasa 6.8 N, PCR de 192 mg/dl y procalcitonina de 0,136 ng/ml. El ultrasonido de abdomen sin signos dilatación de la vía biliar intra y extra hepática. La tomografía simple y contrastada de abdomen reportó un Baltazar C. El dolor epigástrico persistente motivó a la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta, en la misma que se evidenció un ejemplar de Ascaris enclava-do en la papila duodenal el mismo que fue retirado con una pinza asa para cuerpo extraño. Conclusiones: la parasitosis intestinal es causa importante de obstrucción de la vía biliar y abdomen agudo inflamatorio, que requiere de oportuna atención en el enfermo.


Clinical case: male patient of 30 years of age, with abdominal pain of 24 hours of evolution. Physical examination showed distended abdomen, painful epigastrium and right hypochon-drium. Paraclinics indicated leukocytosis (12,400 / cc), elevation of amylase 3.2 N, lipase 6.8 N, CRP of 192 mg / dl and procalcitonin of 0.136 ng / ml. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed absence of dilation signs of the biliary tract intra and extra hepatic ascariasis. The simple and contrasted abdomen tomography reported a Baltazar C. The persistent epigastric pain moti-vated the performance of an upper digestive endoscopy; it was observed a specimen of asca-ris nestled in the duodenal papilla which was removed with a handle clamp for a foreign body. Conclusions: intestinal parasitosis is an important cause of obstruction of the bile duct and acute inflammatory abdomen, which requires timely attention in the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatitis , Bile Duct Diseases , Ascaris lumbricoides , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Bile Ducts , Tomography
16.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 9(1): 2030-2044, jan.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904795

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução As enteroparasitoses vêm ocasionando sérios problemas de saúde pública no mundo, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento. Mesmo com a população em geral relatando que tem conhecimento sobre as parasitoses intestinais, estudos apontam que não sabem identificar as verminoses. Objetivo Elaborar, implementar e avaliar um programa educativo sobre parasitoses intestinais em uma escola pública de Ribeirão Preto - SP. Materiais e Métodos Estudo quase experimental, não randomizado realizado com 56 alunos do 1º a 4º ano do ensino fundamental. Para avaliar o conhecimento dos alunos antes e após intervenção educativa, foi aplicado um questionário semiestruturado (Pré e Pós - teste). Resultados Houve mudanças nas respostas dos alunos em relação hábitos de higiene, especialmente nas questões sobre como os vermes se alimentam (p=0,008); o que não fazer para não se contaminar com vermes (p=0,05); qual o formato dos vermes quando é ingerido (p=0,001); quais órgãos os vermes atravessam (p=0,001). Assim, ficou evidente que este tipo de atividade educativa foi eficiente para auxiliar na aprendizagem de alunos do ensino fundamental. Discussão Após a atividade educativa sem notou um crescimento nos acertos para a maioria das questões, contudo ainda houve dificuldades de compreensão sobre os sintomas, o ciclo e quais organismos são vermes. Conclusões Espera-se que este trabalho incentive profissionais da saúde e da educação a incluir práticas educativas sobre saúde no contexto escolar.


Abstract Introduction Enteroparasitosis has been causing serious problems of public health globally, especially in developing countries. Even with the general population reportedly having knowledge about intestinal parasites, studies indicate that they do not know how to identify the verminoses. Objective To elaborate, implement, and evaluate an educational program on intestinal parasites in a public school in Ribeirão Preto - SP. Materials and Methods Quase-experimental, non-randomized study conducted with 56 students from the first to the fourth grades of elementary education. In order to evaluate the students' knowledge before and after the educational intervention, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied (pre- and post-test). Results Changes were evidenced in the students' responses to hygiene habits, especially in questions about how worms feed (p = 0.008); or what not to do to avoid contamination with worms (p = 0.05); what is the form of the worms when ingested (p = 0.001); which organs the worms enter (p = 0.001). Thus, it was evident that this type of educational activity was efficient to help in the learning by elementary school students. Discussion After the educational activity, growth was noted in the correct answers for most of the questions, however, difficulties persisted in understanding about the symptoms, the cycle, and which organisms are worms. Conclusions It is hoped that this work will encourage health and education professionals to include health educational practices in the school context.


Resumen Introducción Las enteroparasitosis ocasionan serios problemas de salud pública en el mundo, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. Incluso con la población en general relatando que tienen conocimiento sobre las parasitosis intestinales, estudios apuntan que no saben identificar las helmintiasis. Objetivo Elaborar, implementar y evaluar un programa educativo sobre parasitosis intestinales en una escuela pública de Ribeirão Preto - SP. Materiales y Métodos Estudio cuasi-experimental, no aleatorizado realizado con 56 alumnos de 1º al 4º año de enseñanza primaria. Para evaluar el conocimiento de los alumnos antes y después de la intervención educativa, se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado (Pre y Post - prueba). Resultados Hubo cambios en las respuestas de los alumnos en relación a hábitos de higiene, especialmente en las preguntas sobre cómo los helmintos se alimentan (p = 0,008); que no hacer para no contaminarse con helmintos (p = 0.05); cual es la forma de los helmintos cuando son ingeridos (p = 0.001); cuales órganos los helmintos atraviesan (p = 0.001). Así, quedó evidente que este tipo de actividad educativa fue eficiente para auxiliar en el aprendizaje de alumnos de la enseñanza primaria. Discusión Después de la actividad educativa se notó un crecimiento en los aciertos para la mayoría de las preguntas, sin embargo todavía hubo dificultades de comprensión sobre los síntomas, el ciclo y cuáles organismos son helmintos. Conclusiones Se espera que este trabajo incentive a profesionales de la salud y la educación a incluir prácticas educativas sobre salud en el contexto escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Education , Health Promotion , School Health Services , Ascaris lumbricoides
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764886

ABSTRACT

The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE–660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46.6–48.3) and Trichuris trichiura (EPG, 32.8–62.1) eggs, the species commonly detected among Korean populations until just prior to the 1970s. These findings show that soil-transmitted parasitic infection among the Silla nobility might not have been uncommon. This is the first-ever report on the presence of ancient parasite eggs in the samples obtained from a Three Kingdom period tomb; and it also presents the earliest positive results for any of the ancient South Korean tombs paleoparasitologically examined to date.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Eggs , Humans , Ovum , Parasites , Sacrum , Soil , Trichuris
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766487

ABSTRACT

Is it necessary to intake anthelmintics every year in Korea? To answer to this question, the recent nation-wide egg positive rate of the intestinal nematodes in Korea was presented. The anthelminthics which are purchasable without physician's prescription were also introduced with their pharmacological reaction and indication. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides in 2012 was 0.025%. Those of Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis were 0.27% and 0.004%, respectively. In 2018, purchasable anthelmintics without physician's prescription in Korea were albendazole and flubendazole only. Those two anthelmintics were derivatives of benzimidazole that may cause some side effects such as hepatitis, increase of hepatic enzymes, granulocytopenia, or pancytopenia. These anthelmintics showed excellent effect to ascariasis; while, they are not sufficient to treat trichuriaiss. For treatment of enterobiasis, repeated taking 3 times with 3 weeks interval and mass treatment of the family of egg positive person are required. In conclusion, it is not necessary to take anthelmintics every year without specific diagnosis because of negligible egg positive rate of intestinal nematodes and complicated therapeutic module for enterobiasis. There was no specific symptom of ascariasis or trchuriasis if worm burden is not high. The common symptoms of enterobiasis were pain or itching at the perianal area, sleep difficulty, or diarrhea. If intestinal nematode infection is suspected, stool examination or perianal swab should be done before prescribing anthelmintics.


Subject(s)
Agranulocytosis , Albendazole , Anthelmintics , Ascariasis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Enterobiasis , Enterobius , Hepatitis , Humans , Korea , Nematode Infections , Ovum , Pancytopenia , Prescriptions , Pruritus , Trichuris
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742247

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) are now no longer public health problems in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), but their status are unavailable in the residents of North Korea (NK) despite the expectation of large scale traffic and future reunification of the Korean Peninsula. A total of 20 female refugees from NK who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology, Dankook University Hospital, were subjected in this study. Among them, 15 refugees were examined by the colonoscopy and 10 ones were examined with the stool examination (formalin-ether sedimentation). Both diagnostic methods were commonly adopted in 5 patients. Eggs of Trichuris trichiura were detected in 7 out of 10 refugees in the stool examination. In the colonoscopy, T. trichiura worms were found in 6 (40.0%) out of 15 refugees. Total 9 (45.0%) peoples were confirmed to be infected with human whipworms. Additionally, 1 case of clonorchiasis was diagnosed in the stool examination and a worm of Ascaris lumbricoides was discovered from a trichuriasis case. These findings suggested that STH is highly prevalent in NO, in which living conditions are not so good in the aspect of general hygiene and medical care.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Clonorchiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Colonoscopy , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Eggs , Female , Gastroenterology , Helminthiasis , Helminths , Humans , Hygiene , Ovum , Public Health , Refugees , Republic of Korea , Social Conditions , Trichuriasis , Trichuris
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742235

ABSTRACT

The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 258 Ascaris specimens from humans and pigs from 6 sympatric regions in Ascaris-endemic regions of China using existing simple sequence repeat data. The microsatellite markers showed a high level of allelic richness and genetic diversity in the samples. Each of the populations demonstrated excess homozygosity (Ho 0). According to a genetic differentiation index (Fst=0.0593), there was a high-level of gene flow in the Ascaris populations. A hierarchical analysis on molecular variance revealed remarkably high levels of variation within the populations. Moreover, a population structure analysis indicated that Ascaris populations fell into 3 main genetic clusters, interpreted as A. suum, A. lumbricoides, and a hybrid of the species. We speculated that humans can be infected with A. lumbricoides, A. suum, and the hybrid, but pigs were mainly infected with A. suum. This study provided new information on the genetic diversity and population structure of Ascaris from human and pigs in China, which can be used for designing Ascaris control strategies. It can also be beneficial to understand the introgression of host affiliation.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascaris suum , Ascaris , China , Gene Flow , Genetic Structures , Genetic Variation , Humans , Microsatellite Repeats , Swine
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